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Maqams to visit in Damascus

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 Hadith

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Category: Hadith

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 Shadhili Silsila (with Arabic)

 Shadhili Silsila (with Arabic)

Silsila of the Shadhili Path

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Name Date of passing
1. سيدنا ومولانا العارف بالله الشيخ
محمد أبو الهدى اليعقوبي الحسني
Sayyidi Sh. Muḥammad Al-Yaʿqūbī Al-Ḥasanī Al-Idrisī
may Allah preserve him for the benefit of the Ummah
 
حفظه الله تعالى
2. الشيخ إبراهيم اليعقوبي الحسني
Sh. Ibrāhīm Al-Yaʿqūbī
1406 Damascus
3. الشيخ إسماعيل اليعقوبي الحسني
Sh. Ismāʿīl Al-Yaʿqūbī
1380 Damascus
4. الشيخ محمد المبارك الحسني
Sh. Muḥammad Al-Mubārak
1330 Damascus
5. الشيخ محمد الطيب الحسني
Sh. Muḥammad Aṭ-Ṭayyib
1313 Damascus
6. الشيخ محمد بن مسعود المغربي الفاسي
Sh. Muḥammad ibn Masʿūd Al-Fāsī
1289 Makka
7. الشيخ محمد بن حمزة ظافر المدني
Sh. Muḥammad ibn Ḥamzah Ẓāfir Al-Madanī
1262 Misrata
8. الشيخ العربي بن أحمد الدِرقاوِي الحسني
Sh. Al-ʿArabī ibn Aḥmad Ad-Dirqāwī
1239/40 Rif
9. الشيخ علي الجمل العمراني الحسني
Sh. ʿAlī “Al-Jamal” al-´Amrani Al-Ḥasanī
1194 Fas
10. (الشيخ العربي بن أحمد بن عبد الله الفاسي (المشْهُور بالغوْث
Sh. Al-ʿArabī ibn Aḥmad ibn ʿAbd Allāh “al-Ghawth”
1166 Fas
11. الشيخ أحمد بن عبد الله الفاسي
Sh. Aḥmad ibn ʿAbd Allāh Al-Fāsī
1120 Fas.
12. الشيخ قاسم الخَصَاصي
Sh. Qāsim al-Khaṣāṣī
1083 Fas
13. الشيخ محمد بن عبد الله الفاسي
Sh. Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh Al-Fāsī
14. الشيخ عبد الرحمن العارفي
Sh.  ʿAbd Ar-Raḥmān Al-ʿĀrifī
1036 Fas
15. الشيخ يوسف الفاسي
Sh. Yūsuf Al-Fāsī
1013 Fas
16. الشيخ عبد الرحمن المجذوب
Sh. ʿAbd Ar-Raḥmān the Attracted (Al-Majdhūb)
976 Fas
17. الشيخ علي الصَنْهاجي
Sh. ʿAlī Aṣ-Ṣanhājī
947 Fas
18. الشيخ إبراهيم فهَّام
Sh. Ibrāhīm Fahhām
Zarhun
19. الشيخ أحمد زَرُّوق الفاسي
Imam Aḥmad Zarrūq Al-Fāsī
899 Misrata
20. الشيخ أحمد بن عُقبَة الحضرمي
Sh. Aḥmad ibn ʿUqbah Al-Ḥaḍramī
895 Cairo
21. الشيخ يحيى القادري
Sh. Yaḥyā Al-Qādirī
22. الشيخ علي بن محمد وفا
Sh. ʿAlī ibn Muḥammad Wafā
807 Cairo
23. الشيخ بحر الصفا محمد وفا
his father, Sh. Muḥammad Wafā
765 Cairo
24. الشيخ (داوُد بن الباخِلي (بن ماخِلا
Sh. Dāwud Ibn Mākhilā (or: Al-Bākhilī)
732 Alexandria
25. الشيخ أحمد ابن عَطاء اللهِ السَّكَنْدَري
Sh. ibnʿAṭā’ Allāh As-Sakandarī
709 Cairo
26. الشيخ أبو العباس المرسي
Sh. Abu ’l-ʿAbbās al-Mursī
686 Alexandria
27. الشيخ الشيخ أبو الحسن الشاذلي الحسني
Imam Abu ’l-Ḥasan Ash-Shādhilī Al-Ḥasanī
656 Humaythira, Egypt
28. الشيخ عبد السلام بن مشيش
Mawlaya ʿAbd As-Salām ibn Mashīsh
622 Tetuan
29. الشيخ عبد الرجمن المدني العَطَّار الملقب بالزَّيات
Sh. ʿAbd Ar-Raḥmān Al-Madanī the Perfumer (al-`Attar Az-Zayyāt)
Madina
30. الشيخ تُقَيّ الدين الفُقَيَّر
Sh. Tuqayyu ’d-Dīn Al-Fuqayyar
594 Iraq
31. الشيخ فخر الدين
Sh. Fakhru ’d-Dīn
32. الشيخ نور الدين أبو الحسن علي
Sh. Nūru ’d-Dīn Abu ’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī
33. الشيخ محمد تاج الدين
Sh. Muḥammad Tāju ’d-Dīn
34. الشيخ شمس الدين أبو محمد بأرض الترك
Sh. Shamsu ’d-Dīn Abū Muḥammad
35. الشيخ زَين الدين القَزْوِيني
Sh. Zaynu ’d-Dīn Al-Qazwīnī
36. الشيخ أبو إسحاق إبراهيم البصري
Sh. Abū Ishāq Ibrāhīm Al-Baṣrī
37. الشيخ أبو القاسم أحمد المَرْوَاني
Sh. Abu ’l-Qāsim Aḥmad Al-Marwānī
38. الشيخ أبو محمد سَعِيد
Sh. Abū Muḥammad Saʿīd
39. الشيخ سعد
Sh. Saʿd
40. الشيخ أبو محمد فتح السَعُود
Sh. Abū Muḥammad Fatḥ as-Saʿūd
41. الشيخ الغَزْواني
Sh. Al-Ghazwānī
42. الشيخ أبو محمد جابر بن عبد الله
Sh. Abū Muḥammad Jābir ibn ʿAbd Allāh
43. سيدنا الحسن بن علي رضي الله عنه
Sayyiduna Al-Ḥasan ibn ʿAlī ibn Abī Ṭālib (upon him be peace)
44. سيدنا علي بن أبي طالب كرم الله وجهه
his father, our Master ʿAlī ibn Abī Ṭālib (may Allah ennoble his face)
سيد الأوَّلين والآَخِرين سيدنا ومولانا محمد صلى الله تعالى عليه وعلى آله وسلم
our Master Muḥammad Al-Muṣṭafā (prayers and salutations be upon him)
سيد الملائكة جبريل عليه السلام
The Chief of Angels Sayyiduna Jibrīl (peace be upon him)
الله عز وجل رب العزة والملكوت لا إله إلا هو
The Lord of Power and Might

Allāh the most High,
other than whom there is no deity

 Sira - Madina

 Sira – Madina

Preview of Sira pages

+ Damascus

+ Damascus

Damascene Breeze

Damascene Breeze – Students memories

 

  • 4 Pages from Salihiyyah
    “Use time wisely and be always in the presence (of the Masters)
    and know that grace selects the one who is present”
    Qasida by Abu Madyan

    Damascus, July 2005 – At the foot of the Qasioun mountain, north of the ancient nucleus of Damascus, lies the green dome covering the grave of Muhyi al-Din ibn al `Arabi. Next to it is a mosque, surrounded by pulsating market streets. To the East is the historical Hanabila-mosque, built by those who were driven ...

  • Ramadan in Sham 1427

    Damascus 2006. Praise be to the One who guides us to His Way, and salutations on His Messenger, the Noble Family and Tribe, and those who follow their paths. – Thanks to whom thanks are due first and foremost, our host, the erudite scholar and exemplary guide, the lighthouse of Damascus and the whole world, our revered teacher and beloved sheikh al-Sayyid Muhammad Abul Huda Al-Yaqoubi and his family. May Allah Most High protect them, as they opened for us the doors of their home during the blessed month in which Allah opens the doors of Paradise. Those ...

  • Studying in Damascus

    Damascus 2003. – “Damascus is commonly acknowledged by the local and foreign inhabitants as a very safe place to live. Crime is minimal, and rarely exceeds petty theft. Rape, murder, grand theft, are all virtually unheard of. It might be difficult to believe, and it was for me too when I first arrived, but after nearly five years of living there, I have to admit that Damascus is one of the safest places I­ve even been to.”


Scholars of Damascus

History of Damascus and its Scholars

  • Bio: `Abd al-Malik b. MarwanBio: `Abd al-Malik b. Marwan
    `Abd al-Malik b. Marwan b. 25 H. in Madinah – d. 86/7 H. in Damascus أبو الوليد عبد الملك بن مروان radiya Allah anhu Tab links: English | عربي | Burial Place | Refs Umawi ruler, faqih with wide knowledge and great piety.   Abul Walid `Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan (the caliph) ibn Al-Hakam (the Sahabi) ibn Abil`As ibn Umayya al-Quraishi. The one of the seven fuqaha of Madina, and the fifth Umawi caliph. Ibn Khaldun stated that “`Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan is one of the greatest Arab ...
  • Bio: `Abd al-Rahman al-`Ayni
    `Abd al-Rahman al-`Ayni d. 893 in Damascus, Salihiyya radiya Allah anhu Buried in MîTûr Jami`al-Jadid in Salihiyyah Damas Cultural Society © 2007
  • Bio: `Abd Allah b. Ja`far al-SadiqBio: `Abd Allah b. Ja`far al-Sadiq
    `Abd Allah b. Ja`far al-Sadiq (“al-Aftah”) d. 149 H. in Damascus radiya Allah anhu Tab links: English | عربي | Burial Place | Refs From onemilegrads.blogspot.se Abdullah al-Aftah ibn Ja’far al-Sadiq was the eldest surviving son of Ja’far al-Sadiq, and the full-brother of Isma’il ibn Jafar. Abdullah’s title “al-Aftah” derives from the Arabic words “aftah al-ra’s” (broad-headed) or “aftah al-rijlayn” (broad-footed) used to describe his appearance. During the lifetime of his father, Abdullah al-Aftah had supported the revolt of his relative Muhammad ibn Abdallah An-Nafs ...
  • Bio: `Abd Allah b. Ja`far b. Abi Talib
    `Abd Allah b. Ja`far b. Abi Talib “al-Tayyar” “عبد الله بن جعفر بن أبي طالب “الطيار d. ~100 H. in Damascus radiya Allah anhu Tab links: English | عربي | Refs He is the son of Sayyiduna Ja`far b. Abi Talib, and the newphew of Sayyiduna `Ali ibn Abi Talib, as well as his son-in-law: he married Sayyida Zainab bint Ali b. Abi Talib. When sayyiduna`Ali established his caliphate in Kufa, he and his family went to join him there. Sayyida Zainab bore him four ...
  • Bio: Abu DardaBio: Abu Darda
    Abu Darda أبو الدرداء الأنصاري الخزرجي d. 32 H. (653 CE) in Damascus (sahabi) radiya Allah anhu Tab links: English | عربي | Hadith | Burial Place | Refs `Uwaymar (or `Amir) ibn Zayd, known by his kunya Abu Al-Darda’, a companion of Prophet Muhammad (ﷺ) from the ansar. A great scholar, imam, ascetic and hadith narrator.   He was originally trader in Madinah who converted from Judaism to Islam after hearing the teachings of the Prophet Muhammad (s). He became a great scholar and hadith narrator, known ...
  • Bio: Abu Dharr al-GhafariBio: Abu Dharr al-Ghafari
    Abu Dharr al Ghafari أبو ذر الغفاري d. 32 H. in Rabdha, near Madina radiya Allah anhu Tab links: English | Türkçe | عربي | Maqams | Refs He lived in Damascus during the caliphate of Sayyiduna ‘Uthman. He has a maqam in al-Shaghur Abu Dharr al-Ghafari Scanned from “Companions of The Prophet”, Vol. 1, By: Abdul Wahid Hamid. View on sunnah.org | damas Jundub ibn Junadah, nicknamed Abu Dharr, was a member of the Ghifari tribe that lived in the Waddan valley outside Makka. He was known ...
  • Bio: Abu Muslim al-Khawlani
    Abu Muslim al-Khawlani “The inburnable” d. 62 H. in Daria, Damascus أبو مسلم الخولاني radiya Allah anhu Tab links: English | عربي | Burial Place | Refs Prominent religious figure in Damascus, Syria. He was one of the ‘Eight Ascetics,’ who included Amir ibn Abd al-Qays, Abu Muslim al-Khawlani, Uways al-Qarani, Al-Rabi ibn Khuthaym, al-Aswad ibn Yazid, Masruq ibn al-Ajda’, Sufyan al-Thawrt ibn Said and Hasan al-Basri. It is recorded by Sheikh ‘Aa’id Abdullah al-Qarni that Al Aswad al `Ansi, a man in Yemen who claimed ...
  • Bio: Abu Shamah al-MaqdisiBio: Abu Shamah al-Maqdisi
    Abu Shamah Shihab al-Din al-Maqdisi b. 599 – d. 665 in Damascus (1202-1267 CE) الإمام عبد الرحمان بن إسماعيل بن إبراهيم عثمان المقدسي ثم الدمشقي، المعروف بأبي شامة radiya Allah anhu Tab links: Brill entry | عربي | Burial Place ﷽ Grammarian and muhaddith He was the third head of Damascus Dar al-hadith after Imam al-Nawawi   Abū Shāma Shihāb al-Dīn al-Maqdisī Abū Shāma Shihāb al-Dīn ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Ismāʿīl b. Ibrāhīm b. ʿUthmān b. Abī Bakr b. Ibrāhīm b. Muḥammad al-Maqdisī (599–665/1203–68) was a scholar of seventh/thirteenth-century ...
  • Bio: Abu Sulayman al-DaraniBio: Abu Sulayman al-Darani
    Abu Sulayman al-Darani أبو سليمان عبد الرحمن بن عطية الداراني (d. 215 H. in Dara near Damascus) radiya Allah anhu Tab links: Bio in English | عربي | Svenska | Burial Place | Refs Biography in Al-Risala al-Qushayriyya – t.b.d. Biografi Abu Sulayman al-Darani ur al-Qusayri’s Risala, övers. Göran Ogén t.b.d. t.b.d.   Biografi ur al-Qusayri’s Risala Biografi Abu Sulayman al-Darani ur Al-Risala al-Qushayriyya Övers. Göran Ogén 12. Abū Sulaymān cAbd al-Rahmān bin cAtīya al-Dārānī(1) 1. kom från Dārān(2), en av byarna kring Damaskus, och dog år ...
  • Bio: Sh. Ahmad b. Badr al-Din al-Hanafi
    Shaykh Ahmad b. Badr al-Din al-Hanafi d. 934 أحمد بن بدر الدين الحنفي radiya Allah anhu Buried in the Hamriyyah graveyard – بمحلة الشويكة – Reference: Damas Cultural Society © 2007
  • Bio: ‘Amr ibn al-‘AsBio: 'Amr ibn al-'As
    ‘Amr ibn al-‘As عمرو بن العاص d. ? H. in Egypt radiya Allah anhu Tab links: English | Türkçe | عربي | Maqams | Refs Sahabi Abu Dharr al-Ghafari Scanned from “Companions of The Prophet”, Vol. 1, By: Abdul Wahid Hamid. View on sunnah.org | damas Jundub ibn Junadah, nicknamed Abu Dharr, was a member of the Ghifari tribe that lived in the Waddan valley outside Makka. He was known for his courage, his calmness and his far-sightedness … … During the caliphate of Uthman, he stayed in ...
  • Bio: `Awf ibn Malik al-Ashja´i
    Sayyiduna `Awf ibn Malik al-Ashjari عوف بن مالك بن أبي عوف الأشجعي d. 73 H. in Damascus radiya Allah anhu Tab links: English | عربي | Burial Place | Ref’s Sahabi, witnessed the opening of Makka, settled in Sham and was buried in Damascus. He narrated hadith. t.b.d.   From al-eman.com عوف بن مالك الأشجعي عوف بن مالك بن أبي عوف الأشجعي، يكنى أبا عبد الرحمن، ويقال‏:‏ أبو حماد، وقيل‏:‏ أبو عمرو‏.‏ وأول مشاهده خيبر، وكانت معه راية أشجع يوم الفتح، وسكن الشام‏.‏ روى عنه من الصحابة‏:‏ أبو أيوب الأنصاري، وأبو ...
  • Bio: Bilal ibn Ribâh al-HabashîBio: Bilal ibn Ribâh al-Habashî
    Bilal ibn Ribâh al-Habashî al-Qurashî al-Taymî بلال بن رباح الحبشي القرشي التيمي d. 20 or 18 or 19 H. in Damascus radiya Allah anhu Tab links: English | عربي | Burial Place | Location | Refs Sahabi, buried in Maqbara Bab Saghir in Damascus   Freed slave of sayyiduna Abu Bakr, mu’adhdhin of the Prophet (s). He came to Sham as a mujahid during the caliphate of Sayyidina `Umar and stayed there until he died. After the passing of the Prophet (s), he never gave the ...
  • Bio: Ibn `Asakir al-Dimashqi al-Shafi`i al-Ash`ariBio: Ibn `Asakir al-Dimashqi al-Shafi`i al-Ash`ari
    Ibn `Asakir al-Dimashqi al-Shafi`i al-Ash`ari b. 499 – d. 571 in Damascus radiya Allah anhu Tab links: English | عربي | Burial Place | Refs The famous historian and greatest hadith scholar of his time. He travelled and heard hadith from over 1000 narrators. Authored several encyclopedic works, among them Tarikh Dimashq.   By Dr. G.F. Haddad `Ali ibn al-Hasan ibn Hibat Allah ibn `Abd Allah, Thiqat al-Din, Abu al-Qasim, known as Ibn `Asakir al-Dimashqi al-Shafi`i al-Ash`ari (499-571), the imam of hadith masters in his time and ...
  • Bio: Nur al-Din b. Zanki
    Nur al-Din b. Zanki b. 511 – d. 579 in Daamascus radiya Allah anhu – السلطان أبو القاسم نور الدين محمود ين أبي سعيد(أبو سعد) زنكي بن سيف الدين – Just ruler of Damscus, first in history ot build a Dar al-hadith, gave many books as waqf, built schools and mosques and institueted many awqaf, loved and honored the pple of din; strong in warfare, a good archer, he would only consume out of wealth he gained by buisineness or spoils of ...
  • Bio: Sh. `Abd al-Qadir al-Jaza’iriBio: Sh. `Abd al-Qadir al-Jaza'iri
    Al-Amir Sheikh `Abd al-Qadir al-Jaza’iri al-Hasani al-Idrisi b. 1222 H. in Algeria – d. 1300 H. in Damascus radiya Allah anhu Tab links: English | Poetry | عربي | Photos | Burial Place | Refs ﷽ He was `abd al-Qadir ibn Muhyi al-Din ibn al-Mustafa ibn Muhammad, from a family of nobles, originally from al-Maghrib al-Aqsa (Marokko), then they migrated to Algeria. He was born on Friday the 23rd of Rajab year 122 H. in the village of al-Qaytana (القيهطنجة) in the region near Ma`askar (معسمكر) ...
  • Bio: Sh. Muhammad Abul Yusr `Abidin al-HusayniBio: Sh. Muhammad Abul Yusr `Abidin al-Husayni
    Al-Sayyid al-Sheikh Muhammad Abul Yusr `Abidin al-Husayni الشريف الشيخ محمد أبو اليسر بن محمد عابدين الحسيني b. 1307 – d. 1401 H. in Damascus (1889–1981 CE) radiya Allah anhu Tab links: Bio English | Lineage | Relation to Yaqubi family | From Imgrum | عربي ﷽ Mufti of Syria, and one was one of the greatest scholars of the 14th century H. He combined mundane and sublime knowlege, practicing the profession of medicine while teaching Islamic sciences in his home, in mosques, and in ...
  • Bio: Sh. Ahmad al-Tabrizi al-Hanafi
    Ahmad al-Tabrizi al-Hanafi d. 735 in Damascus, Kafar Susa أحمد بن عبد الكريم بن عبد الصمد التبريزي الحنفي radiya Allah anhu Great Hanafi scholar, who used to witness (i.e. veryfy legal writings) in front of al-Madrasa al-Masmariyya in Qaymariya. Died in Kafar Susa and was buried there. Damas Cultural Society © 2007
  • Bio: Sh. Ahmad HabbalBio: Sh. Ahmad Habbal
    Shaykh Ahmad al-Rifa´i al-Habbal al-Dimashqi الشيخ أحمد الرفاعي الحبال d. 1430 H. (2009 CE) in Damascus Tab links: English | عربي | Relation to Yaqoubi Family | Photos Sayyid Shaykh Ahmad al-Habbal al-Rifai was one of the Abdal and a protector Saint of Damascus. He was a student of Shaykh Badr al-Din al-Hasani, and a servant and companion of Shaykh Sharif al-Yaqoubi. – He was a businessman, he made and sold Ropes. A few days before he passed away he donated half a Million ...
  • Bio: Sh. `Ala al-Din bin Muhammad`AbidinBio: Sh. `Ala al-Din bin Muhammad`Abidin
    Sheikh `Ala al-Din bin Muhammad `Abidin al-Hanafi al-Husayni الشيخ علاء الدين بن محمد بن عابدين الحنفي الحسيني الدمشقي b. 1244 – d. 1306 H. in Damascus radiya Allah anhu Tab links: Abidin family tree and lineage | English | عربي | Burial Place | Refs ﷽   `Umar (d. 1237) | | Muhammad Amin (d. 1252 H.) sahib al-Hashia | `Ala al-Din (d. 1306 H.) | `Abd al-Ghani | Ahmad (d. 1307 H.) | Muhammad Abu Khayr (d. 1345 H.) | Muhammad Abul Yusr (d. 1401 H.) Lineage of `Umar ‘Abidin: He was `Umar b. `Abd al-`Aziz b. Ahmad b. `Abd al-Rahim b. Muhammad Salih al-Din (known as Ibn `Abidin because of his rightousness) b. Najm ...
  • Bio: Sh. Badr al-Din al-HasaniBio: Sh. Badr al-Din al-Hasani
    Shaykh Badr al-Din al-Hasani محدث الشام الأكبرالشيخ محمد بدر الدين بن يوسف الحسني المغربي الاصل الدمشقي b. 1267 – d. 1354 H in Damascus (1850-1935 CE) qaddasa Allah sirrahu Tab links: Bio English | عربي |
  • Bio: Sh. Ibrahim al-YaqoubiBio: Sh. Ibrahim al-Yaqoubi
    Sayyidi Shaykh Ibrahim al-Yaqoubi al-Hasani al-Idrisi الشيخ السيد إبراهيم اليعقوبي الحسني d. 1406 H. / 1985 CE in Damascus qaddasa Allah sirrahu Tab links: Bio | What Ulama said about him | Works | Miracles | عربي | Photos | Burial Place | Ref’s Shaykh Ibrahim al-Ya’qoubi was one of the greatest scholars Syria saw in the past 50 years. He succeded Sheikh Muhammad al-Makki al-Kettani as the Maliki Mufti of Syria. He was also the Imam and teacher of the Omayyad Mosque. He is the ...
  • Bio: Sh. Ismail al-YaqoubiBio: Sh. Ismail al-Yaqoubi
    Sayyidi Shaykh Ismail al-Yaqoubi al-Hasani al-Idrisi الشيخ السيد إسماعيل اليعقوبي الحسني d. 1380 H. / 1960 CE in Damascus qaddasa Allah sirrahu Tab links: Burial Place | Love’s Pilgrim (Qasida) He was the grandfather of Sheikh Muhammad al-Yaqoubi, a great Wali known for his miracles. His khalwa was under in the Sinaniyya mosque in Damascus. He is buried in the cemetery of Bab Saghir in Damascs, near the tomb of Sayyiduna Shaykh Ibrahim al-Yaqoubi – may Allah be pleased with them both. Sayyiduna Shaykh Muhammad ...
  • Bio: Sh Muhammad al-HashimiBio: Sh Muhammad al-Hashimi
    Shaykh Muhammad al-Hashimi al Hasani al-Shadhili b. 1298 – d. 1381 H. (1880–1961 CE) in Damascus (CE) Tab links: Bio in English | عربي | Photos | Burial Place Sh. Muhammad al-Hashimi View article on Damas Cultural Society © 2007 | View article on damas   View article from shazli.com From albwhsn.net ترجمة سيدي الشيخ محمد الهاشمي التلمساني رحمه الله تعالى ولادته رحمه الله تعالى: ولد سماحة الأستاذ المرشد الكبير سيدي محمد بن الهاشمي قدس الله روحه من أبوين صالحين، كلاهما من آل بيت النبوة، يرجع نسبهما إِلى الحسن بن ...
  • Bio: Sh. Muhammad al-Mubarak al-HasaniBio: Sh. Muhammad al-Mubarak al-Hasani
    Sayyidi Shaykh Muhammad al-Mubarak al-Hasani al-Idrisi الشيخ السيد محمد المبارك الحسني d. 1330 H. in Damascus qaddasa Allah sirrahu Tab links: Biography | Burial Place | References He was Muhammad ibn Muhammad al-Mubarak ibn Muhammad al-Dillisi al-Qayrawani, whose lineage goes back to Mawlana Idris (radia Allah-u `anhu). He took the Shadhili tariqa from his brother, Shaykh Muhammad al-Tayyib, and was his khalifa He was born in 1263 H. in Beirut, during his family’s migration from Algeria to Sham – this was the first migration, ...
  • Bio: Sh. Muhammad al-Tayyib al-HasaniBio: Sh. Muhammad al-Tayyib al-Hasani
    Sayyidi Shaykh Muhammad al-Tayyib al-Hasani al-Idrisi الشيخ السيد محمد الطيب الحسني b. 1255 H. in Algeria – d. 1313 H. in Damascus qaddasa Allah sirrahu Tab links: His life | Burial Place | References He was Muhammad al-Tayyib al-Dillisi al-Maliki ibn Muhammad al-Mubarak ibn Muhammad al-Dillisi al-Qayrawani, whose lineage goes back to Mawlana Idris, the founder of the city of Fas and great grandson of sayyiduna al-Hasan Sibt Rasul Allah (sall Allah-u `aleyhi wa sallam). He took the Shahdili Tariqa from Sayyidi Shaykh Muhammad ...
  • Bio: Sh. Muhammad Amin `Abidin (Ibn `Abidin)Bio: Sh. Muhammad Amin `Abidin (Ibn `Abidin)
    Al-Sayyid al-Sheikh Muhammad Amin`Abidin al-Hanafi al-Husayni سيدي الشيخ محمد أمين بن عمر بن عبد العزيز عابدين الحنفي الحسيني الدمشقي b. – d. 1252 H. in Damascus radiya Allah anhu Tab links: Abidin family tree and lineage | Burial Place | Refs ﷽ Author the Hashya, known as Ibn ´Abidin `Umar (d. 1237) | | Muhammad Amin (d. 1252 H.) sahib al-Hashia | `Ala al-Din (d. 1306 H.) | `Abd al-Ghani | Ahmad (d. 1307 H.) | Muhammad Abu Khayr (d. 1345 H.) | Muhammad Abul Yusr (d. 1401 H.) Lineage of `Umar ‘Abidin: He was `Umar b. `Abd al-`Aziz b. Ahmad b. `Abd al-Rahim b. Muhammad Salih al-Din (known as Ibn `Abidin because ...
  • Bio: Sh. Muhammad ibn YallisBio: Sh. Muhammad ibn Yallis
    Shaykh Muhammad ibn Yallis al-Tlimsani al-Shadhili b. 1264 – d. 1346/7 H. in Damascus (1847–1927) Tab links: English | عربي | Photos | Burial Place | Diwan Sh. Muhammad Ibn Yallis b. Shawish al-Tlimsani al-Maliki al-Shadhili. He was the Khalifa of Sh. Ahmad al-´Alawi. He appointed as his khalifa his brother Sheikh Ahmad, and after him his student Sheikh Muhammad al-Hashimi. They migrated to Damascus in 1329 H. Shaykh Muhammad ibn Yallis al-Tlimsani by bmk – from Damas Cultural Society © 2007 He is Muhammad Ibn Yallis ...
  • Bio: Sh. Rislan al-Dimashqi
    Sayyidi Sheikh Rislan al-Dimashqi d. ~540 H. in Damascus radiya Allah anhu Tab links: English | Español | عربي | Burial Place | More ﷽ One ohe greatest walis of Damascus. His chain goes back to al-Sari al-Saqati. View original article on damas-original.nur.nu Excerpt from Risalat f’it Tawhid Concerning the Affirmation of Divine Oneness by Shaykh Wali Raslan ad-Dimashqi translation by Muhtar Holland © Baz Publications View | Download Excerpto de Risala fi’t-Tawhid de Sheikh Rislan al-Dimashqi: View | Download Article in At-Tabaqat al-Kubra of Imam al-Sha’rani (PDF) – View ...
  • Bio: Sh. Sharif al-YaqoubiBio: Sh. Sharif al-Yaqoubi
    Sayyid Shaykh Sharif al-Yaqoubi al-Hasani al-Idrisi الشيخ السيد شريف اليعقوبي الحسني b. 1282 – d. 1362 H. (1865–1943 CE) in Damascus qaddasa Allah sirrahu Tab links: Biography | عربي | Photos | Burial Place | Ref’s Sayyid Muhammad al-Sharif b. Muhammad as-Siddiq al-Yaqoubi, brother of Sh. Ismail al-Yaqoubi and granduncle of Sh. Muhammad Abul Huda al-Yaqoubi, was a great scholar, wali and leader of Sham in the 14th CH. He was appointed by Shaykh Muhammad al-Mubarak to take his place in the Shadhili Zawiya ...
  • Bio: Sh. Shukri al-LuhafiBio: Sh. Shukri al-Luhafi
    Shaykh Shukri Luhafi al-Shadhili b. 1338 – d. H. (2015 CE) in Damascus Tab links: English | عربي | Relation to Yaqoubi Family | Photos His Shaykh in the Shadhili tariqa was Shaykh Muhammad al-Hashimi He used to say: “Shaykh Abul Huda (al-Yaqoubi) must be the leader of us all.” – may Allah be pleased with them all. The erudite scholar, the Gnostic and Zāhid the noble Shaykh Shukri Luhafī al-Hanafī ash-Shadhili from Damascus. t.b.d. From ulamaofdamascus.wordpress.com الشيخ شكري بن أحمد اللحفي هو شكري بن أحمد لحفي: فقيه، ...
  • Bio: The Yaqoubi MastersBio: The Yaqoubi Masters
    The Yaqoubi Masters Tab links: English | عربي | Ocean of Awlia | Pictures | Family tree | Lineage | Ref’s Sheikh Sharif Al-Yaqoubi d. 1362 H./1943 CE Sheikh Ibrahim Al-Yaqoubi d.1406 H./1985 CE Sheikh Muhammad Al-Yaqoubi b.1382 H./1961 CE Sheikh Isma`il Al-Yaqoubi d.1380 H./1960 CE Sheikh Muhammad al-´Arabi Al-Yaqoubi d. H. / 1965 CE Click on the photo to go the article Yaqoubi family diagram | Burial places in Damascus An Ocean of Awlia The Legacy of the Al-Yaqoubi Family in Damascus By His Eminence Shaykh Muhammad Al-Yaqoubi View PDF | Download Yaqoubi Awlia Click to open file in new window | as ...
  • Damascus History
    History of Damascus and its Scholars
  • Damascus: Dar al-HadithDamascus: Dar al-Hadith
    Tab links: English | Photos | Location ﷽ Dar al-Hadith al-Ashrafiyyah And in Dar al-Hadith there is a subtle meaning On carpets where I incline and take refuge: Perhaps I might touch with my very face A spot touched by al-Nawawi’s foot.” Quoted by Taqi al-din al-Subki in Tabaqat al-Shafi`iyyah al-Kubra, see The first Dar al-Hadith was founded in Damascus by the Zengid ruler Nur al-Din (al-Malik al-`Adil Nur al-Din Mahmud ibn Zanki (r. 662-671 H). The Dar al-Sunna school (subsequenty renamed Dar al-Hadith) was built with ...
  • Education in the Era of Imam al-NawawiEducation in the Era of Imam al-Nawawi
    THE STATE OF EDUCATION IN DAMASCUS DURING THE ERA OF AL-NAWAWi’S From a PdD thesis by Abdoullah al-Zouebi (Glasgow Univ. 1999) The Educational field enjoyed revival and progress during the lifetime of al-Nawawi, despite the political changes and the major events in the region. The 13th Century, in which al-Nawawi lived was an era that witnessed an Increase in the number of scholars and publications in the various fields of knowledge. Damascus had a multitude of various schools and the four ...
  • Hadith about Sham | أحاديث حول الشام
    Hadith about Sham | أحاديث حول الشام Tab links: English | عربي أحاديث حول الشام   Hadith about the merits of Sham   From ulamaofdamascus.wordpress.com بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم أحاديث حول الشام ____________________________________ عن زيد بن ثابت الأنصاري رضي الله عنه قال: سمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يقول: يا طوبى للشام! يا طوبى للشام ! يا طوبى للشام!قالوا: يا رسول الله وبم ذلك ؟ قال: ( تلك ملائكة الله باسطوا أجنحتها على الشام ) صحيح / فضائل الشام ودمشق ____________________________________ عن عبد الله بن حوالة: قال رسول الله صلى ...
  • Damascus, Salihiyya: Sh. Muhyiddin Ibn al-´Arabi
    Tab links: Englsih | Photos ﷽ Maqam of Al-Sheikh al-Akbar Muhyiddin Ibn al-`Arabi Al-Sheikh al-Akbar Muhyiddin Ibn al-`Arabi lived the last years of his life in Damascus and passed away there in 638 H. / 1240 CE. He is buried at the foot of the Qasioun mountain overshadowing Damascus from the north-west. In his honor, the Ottoman sultan Selim II built a Mosque by the side of his tomb in 1516 CE. By his side are buried: two of his sons, and his ...
  • Bio: Sh. Muhammad al-YaqoubiBio: Sh. Muhammad al-Yaqoubi
    His Eminence Shaykh Muhammad al-Yaqoubi al-Hasani al-Idrisi العلامة الشيخ السيد محمد أبو الهدى اليعقوبي الحسني الإدريسي Hafizhahu Allah – May Allah preserve him Tab links: Bio in English | عربي | Svenska | Français | Pictures | References | Poems | Books ﷽   Biographies in English One of The Wolrd’s Most Influencial Muslims Sacred Knowledge Remebrance Publications 2004 Shorter Shaykh Muhammad al-Yaqoubi – one of he wolrd’s most influencial Muslims From
  • The `Abidin FamilyThe `Abidin Family
    The `Abidin Family Tab links: English | Lineage | Relation to Yaqubi family | عربي | Burial Places The ´Abidin family is a family of scholars and nobles, whose lineage goes back to Sayyiduna al-Husayn, the grandson of the Prophet ﷺ. They came to settle in Damascus in the 4th century H. The most famous member of the family is probably Sheikh Muhammad Amin b. Umar `Abidin (d. 1252 H.), the author of the famous Hashia.   Family tree View `Umar (d. 1237) | | Muhammad Amin (d. 1252 H.) sahib al-Hashia | `Ala al-Din (d. ...

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200 Names of the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ

200 Names of the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ

The 201 names mentioned by Imam al-Jazuli in Dalail al-Khayrat
with English translation adapted to the Sharh of Imam ‘Abd al-Majid al-Sharnubi (rahimahu Allah)
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4 Pages from Salihiyyah

4 Pages from Salihiyyah

4 Pages from Salihiyyah – Damascus, July 2005

 

“Use time wisely and be always in the presence (of the masters)
and know that grace selects the one who is present”
Qasida by Abu Madyan

At the foot of the Qasiun mountain, north of the ancient nucleus of Damascus, lies the green dome covering the grave of Muhyi al-Din ibn al `Arabi. Next to it is a mosque, surrounded by pulsating market streets. To the East is the historical Hanabila-mosque, built by those who were driven from al-Quds by the crusaders. Great mawlids where held there in the past, and many female hadith narrators sat to teach in it. Further down lies the modern Shari’a institute of Abu Nur. From there the Suzuki cabs climb up the mountain above Rukn al-Din, where Turks sought and found an environment more supportive of the Deen than Atatürk’s. Going westwards, one gets to the al-`Afif – the old quarters of “the virtuous.” On the hill sides above it is the region of “the immigrants” – al-Muhajirin. The name refers to Russians and Kurds who settled in Damascus at the time of the Salah al-Din (himself a kurd), around the time of the last crusade. At that time the entire region at the foot of the Qasioun mountain was called al-Salihiyyah – “abode of the rightous”.

Muhiy al-Din ibn al-`Arabi lived before all that. It is said that his teacher and master once sent him to fill a water jar to its brim and then carry it throught the crowded market, taking care not to spill a single drop. On his return, the he asked him: What did you see in the market? And he answered: My master, I was unable to notice anything in the market, because my mind was absorbed in the effort not to spill any water.

The story came to my mind while walking these market streets for the first time some four years ago, and I made it my intention not to look right nor left, just follow the straight path ahead.

That was not diffciult at that time, since I didn’t know my way around. There were not so many choices to be made, and hence not many things that could destract me.

Now everything is different. I move freely all over Sham, winding my way though the narrow streets of the old city or roaming the suburbs that emerge at an explosive rate south of the Damascus, frequenting the the new-rich people of Abu Rumanah and Maliki or poorer people of upper Muhajirin, young identity-seeking modern intellectuals or the dispossessed nobility of traditional scholarship. Everywhere and nowhere is my place. And at every moment I have to remind myself that my time here is limited, that I need to focus on what is essential, and not allow myself to be distracted, else I will return with a half-full or empty water jar.

Between the resting place of Muhiy al-Din ibn al-`Arabi and al-`Afif is the house of the Syrian dentist Dr Ahmad and his lovely wife Liliana, who set out to try their luck in Europe. In the mean time they are rentiing their home to three foreign students, one of which is me. I am sitting in the balcony upstaris, where we have our rooms for study and rest. By my side are the flower pots where lady Liliana has written instructions for watering, and in front of me is a pomegranate tree tree overshadowing the the enclsosed courtyard. The lush greenery against the bright white walls under the light blue sky unfold a remarkable serenity, so unexpected that it appears almost unreal, when entering the door from the business and noise of the market. Stepping into the quiet courtyard, all of a sudden one finds oneself as if in a different world. Out there one needs fix the eye firmly on the stone pavement, otherwise one’s intentions will dissolve and dissipate in all directions – here inside thoughts tend to automatically focus around an invisible pole rising from the centre of the yard to the summit of the sky.

What I have gained over the past years is not mere increase in knowledge or fluency in language – it is the ability to grasp concepts, build arguments and assimilate thinking structures. Sciences are built upon logic – definiton – theorem – proof. Terms are defined, statements made and proofs presented. However, before all that there has to be an understanding of underlying concepts, else we don’t know what we are talking about – this is called tasawwur – conceptualization. It appears that my feet have touched that ground on which to stand. Or in other words: I am now ready to begin my studies.

Early morning hours over a cup of coffey – that is the best time, and the most pleasant place to be is up here on the balcony. At noontime one seeks refuge from the sun in the livning room downstairs, until the late afternoon throws its shadows over the courtyard and a soft evening breeze invites to return to the balcony. The wind always rises at the time of sunset, and leaves behind a thin layer of sand, as if it wanted to remind us that we are infact the middle of the desert.

If it takes four years to begin, how long will it take to complete? I don’t know, and it may be meaningless to ask. The courtyard and the tree, the white walls and the daily routines – all that gives an illusion of settledness, whereas the truth is that the lush freshness of this oasis is more of a temporary halt. I never know in advance where and when I will find it, nor how long I can sit and drink from its water – I just live these moments as they are given, grasping the day, as advised in a famous poem of one of the teachers of Muhyi al-Din ibn al-`Arabi:

“Use time wisely and be always present
– and know that grace selects the one who is there”

bmk


© Kultursällskapet Damas 2006
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Awzan

Awzan


أوزان الشعر
Awzan – Arabic Poetry Meters

الكامل
متفاعلن متفاعلن متفاعلن
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المنسرح
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الرمل
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المديد
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الخفيف
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Courtesy of
Audio examples
http://awzan.com

Bio: 'Abdullah ibn al-Mubarak

Bio: ‘Abdullah ibn al-Mubarak

‘Abdullah ibn al-Mubarak

أبو عبد الرحمن عبد الله بن المبارك
b. 118 H. in Merv – d. 181 H. in Hit (736 -797 CE)
radiya Allah anhu

(more…)

Bio: Abu al-Bayan

Bio: Abu al-Bayan

Abu al-Bayan

أبو البيان نبأ بن محمد بن محفوظ القرشي الدمشقي
d. 551 H. in Damascus
radiya Allah anhu

Nabâ ibn Muhammad ibn Mahfûzh al-Qurashi al-Dimashqi
Scholar of language and fiqh, murshid. He used to study shafi`i fiqh together with Sheikh Rislan in a mosque in the grand suq near Bab Sharqi.

Buried in Bab al-Saghir.

References: Ziarat al-Sham

© Damas Cultural Society 2007 — Latest update:
Original site: damas-original.nur.nu

Bio: Abu al-Ma`ali al-Nisaburi

Bio: Abu al-Ma`ali al-Nisaburi

Abu al-Ma`ali al-Nisaburi

أبو المعالي النيسابوري
d. 578
radiya Allah anhu

أبو المعالي نسعود بن محمد بن مسعود النيسابوري
orator, preacher, shafi`i scholar, lived in damascus, buried in the sufi graveyard

References: [Ziarat al-Sham p.334-5] – Damas Cultural Society © 2007

Bio: Abu Ayyub al Ansari

Bio: Abu Ayyub al Ansari

Abu Ayyub al Ansari

أبو أيوب الأنصاري
d. 54 H. in Istanbul, Turkey (674 CE) sahaba
radiya Allah anhu

(more…)

Bio: Abu Bakr al-`Arudiki

Bio: Abu Bakr al-`Arudiki

Abu Bakr al-`Arudiki

born 584 – d. .. H. in Damascus
radiya Allah anhu

Of Ahl al-mahabba wa al-tawhid.
Buried at the foot of Qasiun on the western side [Ziarat al-Sham]

Damas Cultural Society © 2007

Bio: Abu Darda

Bio: Abu Darda

Abu Darda

أبو الدرداء الأنصاري الخزرجي
d. 32 H. (653 CE) in Damascus (sahabi)
radiya Allah anhu

(more…)

Bio: Abu Muslim al-Khawlani

Bio: Abu Muslim al-Khawlani

Abu Muslim al-Khawlani

“The inburnable”
d. 62 H. in Daria, Damascus
أبو مسلم الخولاني
radiya Allah anhu

(more…)

Bio: Abu Nu'aym Al-Asbahani

Bio: Abu Nu’aym Al-Asbahani

Abu Nu`aym Al-Asbahani

أبو نعيم الأصبهاني
b. 336 – d. 430
radiya Allah anhu

(more…)

Bio: Abu Shamah al-Maqdisi

Bio: Abu Shamah al-Maqdisi

Abu Shamah Shihab al-Din al-Maqdisi

b. 599 – d. 665 in Damascus (1202-1267 CE)
الإمام عبد الرحمان بن إسماعيل بن إبراهيم عثمان المقدسي ثم الدمشقي، المعروف بأبي شامة
radiya Allah anhu

(more…)

Bio: Abu Shayba al Khudri

Bio: Abu Shayba al Khudri

Abu Shayba al Khudri

أبو شيبة الخدري
d. 49 H. in Istanbul, Turkey (670 CE) sahabi
radiya Allah anhu

(more…)

Bio: Abu Sulayman al-Darani

Bio: Abu Sulayman al-Darani

Abu Sulayman al-Darani

أبو سليمان عبد الرحمن بن عطية الداراني
(d. 215 H. in Dara near Damascus)
radiya Allah anhu

Biography in Al-Risala al-Qushayriyya – t.b.d.
Biografi Abu Sulayman al-Darani ur al-Qusayri’s Risala, övers. Göran Ogén

Bio in English

t.b.d.

عربي

t.b.d.
 

Svenska

Biografi ur al-Qusayri’s Risala


Biografi Abu Sulayman al-Darani ur Al-Risala al-Qushayriyya
Övers. Göran Ogén

12. Abū Sulaymān cAbd al-Rahmān bin cAtīya al-Dārānī(1)
1. [Han] kom från Dārān(2), en av byarna kring Damaskus, och dog år 215 (år 830 A.D.). Jag hörde Muhammad al-Husayn säga, att cAbd Allāh bin Muhammad al-Rāzī sagt, att han hört Ishaq bin Ibrāhīm bin Abū Hassān säga, att han hört Ahmad bin Abū ‘l-Hawārī säga, att han hade hört Abū Sulaymān säga ‘Den som gör gott om dagen belönas om natten, och den som gör gott om natten belönas om dagen. Om någon uppriktigt försöker lämna ett begär, så avleder Gud det från hans hjärta. Gud den högste är alltför ädel för att plåga ett hjärta med ett begär, som man vill lämna för Hans skull!’.

2.Enlig samma berättarkedja [isnād] sade han också: »När Denna världen dväljes i ett hjärta förflyttar sig Den kommande världen bort från det.»

3. Jag hörde sufimästaren Abū cAbd al-Rahmān al-Sulamī {Gud förbarme sig över honom!} säga, att han hört al-Husayn bin Yahyā säga, att han hört Djacfar bin Muhammad bin Nusayr säga, att han hört al-Djunayd säga, att Abū Sulaymān ad-Dārānī hade sagt: »Ibland hamnar något folkligt talesätt i mitt hjärta [och ligger där] några dagar, men [sen] tar jag det till mig endast utifrån två välgrundade vittnen: Koranen och Profetens goda exempel [sunna].»

4. Abū Sulaymān sade: »Den yppersta handling en människa kan utföra är att motsätta sig själens trängtan [hawan].»

5. Han sade: »Varje ting har ett kännetecken, och tecknet på att man inte längre är väl mottagen (hos Gud) är att man slutat gråta.»

6. Han sade: »Det finns ingenting som inte anfrätes, och det som hjärtats ljus anfrätes av är en full mage.»

7. Han sade: »Allt som distraherar dig från Gud, såsom familj, pengar eller barn, är olycksbringande för dig.»

8. Abū Sulaymān sade: »En kall natt befann jag mig i bönenischen (i moskén) och kylan besvärade mig, så jag gömde ena handen från kylan medan den andra var utsträckt [i bön]. Sen somnade jag till och en röst ropade då till mig ‘Abū Sulaymān! Vi har i din hand lagt det den sträckt ut sig mot. Hade den andra också varit framme, hade vi även lagt i den!’. Då svor jag vid min själ att jag aldrig [mer] skulle be utan att båda mina händer skulle vara utsträckta, vare sig det rådde hetta eller kyla.»

9. Abū Sulaymān sade: »Jag somnade bort från min litania-bön [wird] en gång och se: då står jag där hos en av Paradisets skönheter [hawrā´] som säger till mig ‘Du sover, och jag är redo för dig sedan femhundra år i kvinnogemaken!’.»

10. cAbd Allāh bin Yūsuf al-Isbahānī sade, att Abū cAmr al-Djūlāstī sagt, att Muhammad bin Ismācīl sagt, att Ahmad bin Abū ‘l-Hawārī hade sagt: »Jag gick in till Abū Sulaymān en dag. Han satt och grät, så jag frågade honom ‘Vad är det som får dig att gråta?’, och han sade ‘Ahmad, varför skulle jag då inte gråta? När natten bryter in, när ögonen har slutits till sömn och varje älskare är ensam med sin älskade, när de som älskar Gud slagit slagit sig ned på sina bönemattor(3) och deras tårar strömmar ned på deras kinder och droppar ned i deras bönenischer [mahārīb] och Den ärorike [al-djalīl] {upphöjd och hög är Han!}, som övervakar [dem ]från ovan, [då] ropar ut “O du Gabriel! Framför mina ögon finns de som finner behag i Mitt ord [kalām-ī] och själsro i ihågkallandet av Mig [dhikr-ī]. Dem övervakar Jag i deras ensamheter, hör deras suckar och ser deras gråt. Varför ropar du inte, Gabriel, till dem ‘Varför denna gråt?’. Har ni sett en älskande plåga sin älskade? Hur skulle det passa sig att Jag straffar folk när natten faller på och de smickrar Mig? Jag svär vid Mig själv: Ja, när de kommer till Mig på Uppståndelsens Dag skall Jag avtäcka Mitt ädla ansikte för dem, så att de kan se på Mig och Jag på dem!”‘.»


1) Död 215/830. Namnet på den by Abū Sulaymān kom ifrån har, förutom formen Dārān, även formerna Dārā och Dārayya, av vilka nisba-formen blir dārā´ī. Dessa varianter med motsvarande återges i Ansārīs kommentar (Al-Risāla al-qushayrīya, del I, p. 113).
Erik Hermelins översättning av kapitlet om Abū Sulaymān al-Dārānī i cAttārs Tadhkiratu’l-awliyā´ finns att läsa i hans TAZKIRATÚL’L-AWLIYÁ – VÄNNERNAS MINNE, del II, pp. 25-40: Abū Sulaimān Dārā´ī. I cAttārs persiska text står det Dārayya med nisba-formen dārā´ī, och Erik Hermerlin skriver därför helt korrekt al-Dārā´ī i enlighet med sin persiska textförlaga (Tadkirat al-awliyā´, ed. R. Nicholson (1905-07), del I, s. 229. Richard Gramlich ger Abū Sulaymān nisba-formen “ad-Dārānī” trots att han föredrar Dārayya som ortnamn efter att ha listat varianterna ovan (Das Sendschreiben al-Qušayrīs…, s. 54, not nr. 79).

2) Dārān: formerna Dārā och Dārayya förekommer också (se not 1).

3) när de som älskar Gud slagit sig ned på sina bönemattor: ordagrant “när kärlekens folk sträckt ut sina fötter” [wa’ftarasha ahl al-mahabba aqdāmahum].


Biography in Al-Risala al-Qushayriyya – t.b.d
He was from Daran…

Burial Place

Maqam of Sulayman al-Darani in Dara near Damascus


1


2


3


4

Refs

© Damas Cultural Society 2007 — Latest update: 2010-07-10
Photos: From [bmk/ziyarat] Original site: damas-original.nur.nu

Bio: Abul Dahdâh al-Salihi

Bio: Abul Dahdâh al-Salihi

Abul al-Dahdâh al-Salihi

أبو الدحداح، أحمد بن محمد بن إسماعيل التيمي الدمشقي الصالحي
d. 328 in Damascus
radiya Allah anhu

(more…)

Bio: Al-Farazdaq

Bio: Al-Farazdaq

Hammam ibn Ghalib Al-Farazdaq

الفرزدق : أبو فراس همام بن غالب بن صعصعة الدارمي التميمي
b. 38 – d. 114 H. in Basra (641 – 732 CE)
rahimahu Allah

Arabic poet. A creator of the panegyrical qasida in medieval Arabic poetry.
His work is a direct continuation of the ancient Arabic poetic tradition but reflects the beliefs of Islam and often echoes the style of the Koran. His famous verse polemic (naqa’id, or intiqad) with Jarir and other poets produced verse philippics (hajw) unsurpassed in medieval Arabic literature.

 

Biography English

عربي

From wiki
الفرزدق (38 هـ / 641م – 114 هـ / 732م) شاعر من شعراء العصر الأموي واسمه همام بن غالب بن صعصعة الدارمي التميمي وكنيته ابو فراس وسمي الفرزدق لضخامة وتجهم وجهه ومعناها الرغيف، ولد الفرزدق في كاظمة لبني تميم وعاش في البصرة ، اشتهر بشعر المدح والفخرُ وَ شعرُ الهجاء.
Bio: Al-Hakim al-Tirmidhi

Bio: Al-Hakim al-Tirmidhi

Al-Hakim al-Tirmidhi

أبو عبد الله محمد بن علي بن الحسين الترمذي
d. 320 H.
may Allah be pleased with him

A great sufi

English

عربي

صحب أبو عبد الله بن الجلاء وأحمد بن خضرويه

Books

His most famous book is اثبات العلل about the hikma of the Shari’a
كتب المصنف بالموقع
اثبات العلل

Booklist on archive.org
مكتبة الحكيم الترمذي
1- إثبات العلل
2- أدب النفس
3- الامثال من الكتاب والسنة
4- الحج وأسراره
5- المنهيات
6- تحصيل نظائر القران
7- ختم الأولياء
8- رياضة النفس
9- سيرة الاولياء – جواب المسائل التي سأله أهل سرخس عنها – جواب كتاب من الري
10- غور الأمور
11- كتاب الإحتياطات
12- المسائل المكنونة
13- بيان الفرق بين الصدر والقلب والفؤاد واللب
14- نوادر الأصول في معرفة أحاديث الرسول:
https://archive.org/details/nwaderasoal

Burial Place

More

Bio: Al-Harith al-Muhasibi

Bio: Al-Harith al-Muhasibi

Al-Harith al-Muhasibi

أبو عبد الله الحارث بن أسد البغدادي المحاسبي
b. 165 H. in Basrah – d. 243 H. in Baghdad
may Allah be pleased with him

(more…)

Bio: Al-Khatib al-Baghdadi

Bio: Al-Khatib al-Baghdadi

Al-Khatib al-Baghdadi

b. 392 – d. 463 in Baghdad
الخطيب البغدادي‎‎
radiya Allah anhu

.


 

English

By Dr. G.F. Haddad

“Truly, hadith pleases the virile among men, while the effeminate among them hate it.”
Al-Zuhri.

Al-Khatib al-Baghdadi, Abu Bakr Ahmad ibn ‘Ali ibn Thabit ibn Ahmad ibn Mahdi al-Shafi‘i (392-463), with Abu al-Ma‘ali Ibn al-Juwayni and Abu al-Qasim al-Qushayri the third most important figure in the fourth generation-layer of Abu al-Hasan al-Ash‘ari’s school, praised by al-Dhahabi as “the most peerless imam, erudite scholar and mufti, meticulous hadith master, scholar of his time in hadith, prolific author, and seal of the hadith masters.” Al-Qinnawji said: “He was a jurist whose preference went to hadith and history.” His father – a memorizer of Qur’an and the main preacher (khatîb) in Darzijan Southwest of Baghdad – sat him at the age of eleven in the class of Ibn Razquyah al-Bazzar (d. 412), after which he travelled first to Baghdad then Naysabur around 415, back to Baghdad, then Asbahan for two years, Ray, Hamadhan, Dinawar, back to Baghdad, then al-Sham and Mecca for pilgrimage, then Baghdad or his nearby native Darzijan until 451, then Damascus until 459, then Tyre (Sûr) until 462, then Baghdad again where he died.

Al-Khatib wrote abundantly on the science of hadith and became the undisputed hadith authority in his time according to his student, the Hanbali hadith master Ibn ‘Aqil. He heard countless hadith masters, among them Abu Bakr al-Barqani (who also narrated from him), Abu Nu‘aym al-Asbahani, al-‘Abdawi, and the pious centenarian virgin scholar Karima bint Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-Marwaziyya (d. 463) – one of al-Kushmihani’s students – from whom al-Khatib took al-Bukhari’s Sahih in five days during his pilgrimage trip at age fifty-two. He took Shafi‘i fiqh from Abu al-Hasan ibn al-Mahamili and the qadi Abu al-Tayyib al-Tabari, whom he frequented for several years. Among his famous students: al-Nasr al-Maqdisi, Ibn Makula, al-Humaydi, Abu Mansur al-Shaybani – who transmitted his Tarikh – and the Hanbali Abu Ya‘la.

Ibn Makula and al-Mu’taman al-Saji said that the people of Baghdad never saw anyone such as al-Khatib after al-Daraqutni. Abu ‘Abd Allah al-Suri ranked al-Khatib far above Abu Nasr al-Sijzi. Abu ‘Ali al-Baradani said: “It is probable al-Khatib never met his equal.” Abu Ishaq al-Isfarayini said: “Al-Khatib is the Daraqutni of our time.” Ibn Makula said:

He was one of the foremost scholars whom we witnessed in his science, precision, memorization, and accuracy in the hadith of the Messenger of Allah e . He was an expert in its minute defects, its chains of transmission, its narrators and transmitters, the sound and the rare, the unique and the denounced, the defective and the discarded. The people of Baghdad never had someone comparable to Abu al-Hasan ‘Ali ibn ‘Umar al-Daraqutni after the latter, except al-Khatib.

Sa‘id al-Mu’addib asked al-Khatib: “Are you the hadith master Abu Bakr?” He replied: “I am Ahmad ibn ‘Ali; hadith mastership ended with al-Daraqutni.”

About hadith mastership al-Khatib wrote:

He does not excel in hadith science nor is able to peruse its complexities and shed light on its hidden benefits except he who has gathered its variants, collated its loose ends, brought it all together, and worked assiduously to compile it under its topical subheadings, organizing its different types. This activity strengthens competence, cements memorization, purifies the heart, hones the personality, expands the tongue, greatly improves language, unveils ambiguities and clarifies them. It also earns memorability and immortality, as the poet said:

Some die then knowledge keeps alive their memory,
While ignorance joins the dead with the dead.

‘Abd al-‘Aziz ibn Ahmad al-Kattani said: “Al-Khatib followed the [doctrinal] school of Abu al-Hasan al-Ash‘ari – Allah have mercy on him.” Al-Dhahabi reports this and comments: “This is true. For al-Khatib explicitly stated, concerning the reports on the Divine Attributes, that they are passed on exactly as they were received, without interpretation.” Ibn al-Subki comments: “This is al-Ash‘ari’s position, yes. But al-Dhahabi is the victim of his lack of knowledge of Shaykh Abu al-Hasan’s position just as others were also victims: for al-Ash‘ari also has another position allowing for figurative interpretation (al-ta’wîl).” Al-Dhahabi does go on to relate al-Khatib’s precise disowning of both nullification (ta‘tîl) and anthropomorphism (tajsîm) of the divine Attributes:

Abu Bakr al-Khatib said: “As for what pertains to the divine Attributes, whatever is narrated in the books of sound reports concerning them, the position of the Salaf consists in their affirmation and letting them pass according to their external wordings while negating from them modality (kayfiyya) and likeness to things created (tashbîh). The principle to be followed in this matter is that the discourse on the Attributes is a branch of the discourse on the Essence. The path to follow in the former is the same extreme caution as in the latter. When it is understood that the affirmation of the Lord of the Worlds [in His Essence] is only an affirmation of existence and not of modality, it will be similarly understood that the affirmation of His Attributes is only an affirmation of their existence, not an affirmation of definition (tahdîd) nor an ascription of modality. So when we say: Allah I has a Hand, hearing, and sight, they are none other than Attributes Allah I has affirmed for Himself. We should not say that the meaning of ‘hand’ is power (al-qudra) nor that the meaning of ‘hearing’ and ‘sight’ is knowledge (‘ilm), nor should we say that they are organs (lâ naqûlu innahâ jawârih)! Nor should we liken them to hands, hearings, and sights that are organs and implements of acts. We should say: All that is obligatory is [1] to affirm them because they are stated according to divine prescription (tawqîf), and [2] to negate from them any likeness to created things according to His saying ( There is nothing whatsoever like unto Him) (42:11) ( and there is none like Him) (112:4).”

Our teacher Dr. Nur al-Din ‘Itr comments al-Khatib’s position thus:

This is a vulnerable spot where feet tread a slippery path. Many are those who fell into likening Allah to His creatures because of it, or into something like it – our refuge is in Allah! – while believing that this was the position of the pious Salaf y but Allah has exonerated the latter from holding it. … Imam al-Khatib passed the obstacle at which point pens lapsed and illusions flared, for he refuted the Mu‘tazila and their likes who contradict the divine Attributes, and he understood the position of the Salaf as it truly is by affirming those Attributes with a kind of affirmation that commits to Allah I the knowledge of their reality, not an affirmation of dimensionality and modality (athbata tilka al-sifât ithbâtan yufawwidu ‘ilma haqîqatihâ ilâ Allâhi ta‘âlâ lâ ithbâta tahdîd wa takyîf). He thereby asserted the school of the Salaf as it really was, not as some erratic people in our time understand it to be. The latter are in fact arrogant wranglers who cannot tell the difference between the Salaf’s committal of the actual knowledge of these matters to Allah I , their holding His Transcendence above whatever anthropomorphism the terms may suggest, and the anthropomorphism of the ignorant Karramiyya!

Abu al-Faraj al-Isfarayini said: “Al-Khatib was with us in Hajj, and he used to conclude an integral recitation of Qur’an outloud every day. People would gather around him as he was mounted, saying: ‘Narrate hadith to us,’ and he would narrate to them.” ‘Abd al-Muhsin al-Shihi said: “I was al-Khatib’s travelling companion from Damascus to Baghdad, and he used to recite the entire Qur’an once every day and night.”

Ibn al-Abanusi reported that al-Khatib used to read while walking. This is a common habit among hadith masters. Al-Khatib himself narrated that ‘Ubayd ibn Ya‘ish said: “For thirty years I never ate at night with my own hand. My sister would spoonfeed me while I wrote hadith.”

Al-Khatib wrote in his Tarikh Baghdad in the entry devoted to Isma‘il ibn Ahmad al-Naysaburi al-Darir: “He went to pilgrimage and narrated hadith, and what a wonderful shaykh he was! When he went to Hajj he took with him a load of books, intending to reside in Mecca or Madina for a while. Among them was al-Bukhari’s Sahih which he had heard from al-Kushmihani. I read it before him entirely in three sittings. The third session lasted from the beginning of the day until night, and it ended with the rising of dawn.” Al-Dhahabi comments: “This was – by Allah! – the kind of reading faster than which no-one ever heard.”

Abu al-Qasim ibn al-Muslima, al-Qa’im bi Amrillah’s vizier – nicknamed Ra’is al-ru’asa’ – and a hadith scholar, patronized al-Khatib with a small fortune which enabled the latter to devote himself to teaching and writing. He passed an edict that no teacher nor preacher in Baghdad narrate a hadith without authenticating it with al-Khatib first. He once asked the latter to verify a document which some Jews produced claiming that it was the Prophet’s e exemption of the tax on non-Muslims (jizya) for the Jews of Khaybar written, they said, in the hand of ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib t . Al-Khatib looked at the document then declared it a forgery on the grounds that it was witnessed by Mu‘awiya – who entered Islam in the year of the conquest of Mecca, whereas Khaybar was conquered in the year 7 – and Sa‘d ibn Mu‘adh who died during the battle of Banu Qurayza two years before Khaybar.

Al-Khatib came to settle in Damascus, fleeing Baghdad in Safar 451 in fear for his life during the Fatimi-leaning Turk Arslan al-Basasiri’s (d. Dhu al-Hijja 451) attempted coup against al-Qa’im bi Amrillah (422-467) and the Abbasid caliphate, although Damascus itself was under Fatimi rule. He then fled Damascus again in 459 to go to Tyre until 462, whence he returned to Baghdad, visiting Syrian Tripoli, Aleppo, and all the main cities on his way. Ibn Nasir narrated: “When al-Khatib read hadith in the mosque of Damascus, his voice could be heard from one end of the mosque to the other and he spoke in pure Arabic.” He is also noted for his accurate and elegant handwriting.

Al-Mu’taman narrated that al-Khatib said: “Whoever authors books puts his mind on a plate for display to people.” He fled from Damascus to Tyre because of enmity from the Rafidi governor of Damascus and accusations that he was a Nasibi or enemy of Ahl al-Bayt on grounds of narrating Ahmad ibn Hanbal’s book on the merits of the Companions and Ibn Rizquyah’s book on the merits of al-‘Abbas. “At that time the call to prayer in Damascus included the phrase hayya ‘alâ khayri al-‘amal.”

Abu Mansur ‘Ali ibn ‘Ali al-Amin narrated that when al-Khatib returned from al-Sham he was wealthy in garments and gold but without heir. So he wrote to al-Qa’im bi Amrillah: “My property will go back to the public treasury (bayt al-mâl), so give me permission to distribute it among those I choose.” He then distributed it – two hundred dinars – to the scholars of hadith.

Ibn Tahir said: “I asked [the Sufi hadith master] Hibat Allah ibn ‘Abd al-Warith al-Shirazi: ‘Was al-Khatib like his books in memorization?’ He said: ‘No, if we asked him of something he might take days to answer us and if we pressed him he would get angry. He was abrupt and his memorization was not on a par with his books.’” This assessment is belied by the scholars’ comparison of al-Khatib to al-Daraqutni and by the example of his extemporaneous response cited below. Furthermore, al-Dhahabi relates from al-Sam‘ani that Hibat Allah (d. 486) entered Baghdad in 457 when al-Khatib was away, and the latter did not return until 462, one year before his death.

Al-Khatib frequented Abu Ishaq al-Isfarayini’s classes for three years at a time when Abu Ishaq was the unchallenged headmaster of the Shafi‘i school in his time. One day he mentioned the narrator Bahr ibn Kaniz al-Saqqa’ then turned to al-Khatib and asked: “What do you say concerning him [i.e. his reliability]?” Al-Khatib replied: “If you give me permission then I shall mention his state.” Al-Isfarayini then sat back like a student before his master, while al-Khatib gave a lengthy and detailed account of the narrator’s grading on the spot. Abu Ishaq was one of those who carried al-Khatib’s bier to his grave.

Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-Malik al-Hamadhani said in his Tarikh: “The science died at the time of al-Khatib’s death.”

Ibn ‘Asakir narrated: “When al-Khatib first drank Zamzam water he asked Allah I for three petitions [according to the Prophetic narration “Zamzam water makes good whatever [need in the world and the hereafter] it is drunk for”]: to be able to narrate the history of Baghdad in that city, to dictate hadith in the mosque of al-Mansur [in Baghdad], and to be buried near Bishr al-Hafi. He obtained all three.”

Abu al-Barakat Isma‘il ibn Abi Sa‘d al-Sufi said:

Shaykh Abu Bakr Ahmad ibn ‘Ali al-Turaythithi, known as Ibn Zahra’ al-Sufi, was in our ribât and had prepared for himself a grave next to Bishr al-Hafi’s grave. He used to go there once a week to sleep in it, reciting the entire Qur’an at that time. When Abu Bakr al-Khatib died after stipulating that he be buried next to Bishr al-Hafi, the scholars of hadith came to Ibn Zahra’ asking permission to bury him in Ibn Zahra’s grave and cede his place to him. He refused, saying: “How can I allow a spot I have prepared for myself to be taken away from me?” They came to my father [Abu Sa‘d al-Sufi] who invited Ibn Zahra’ and told him: “I do not say to you to give them your grave, but I ask you: if Bishr al-Hafi were alive and you were at his side, then al-Khatib came and sat farther away, would it be fit for you to sit higher than him?” He replied: “No, I would make him sit in my place.” He said: “It is the same in this situation.” Ibn Zahra’s heart was happy with this and he gave his permission.

Al-Khatib was an ascetic, industrious scholar given to worship, a trustworthy hadith master withdrawn from the courts of princes, generous, grave and earnest in his manners, and both tireless and meticulous in his work. He wrote 10,000 pages totalling 104 books, many of them remaining to our time authoritative manuals in hadith science noted for their insight and wide compass. Ibn Hajar said in his introduction to Sharh Nukhba al-Fikar: “There is hardly a single discipline among the sciences of hadith in which al-Khatib did not author a monograph.” Then he cited the hadith master Ibn Nuqta’s praise: “Whoever gives credit where credit is due knows that hadith scholars, after al-Khatib, all depend on his books.” Among them:

Al-Amali (“The Dictations”) of which three volumes exist in the Zahiriyya collection.
Al-Asma’ al-Mubhama (“Anonymous Mentions”), identifying those mentioned anonymously in hadiths or hadith chains.
Al-Bukhala’ (“The Misers”) in three volumes.
Al-Faqih wa al-Mutafaqqih (“The Jurist and the Student of the Law”).
Al-Fasl li al-Wasl al-Mudraj fi al-Naql (“The Decisive Statement On Attributions Inserted Into Transmission”).
Al-Fawa’id al-Muntakhaba (“The Select Benefits”).
Iqtida’ al-‘Ilm al-‘Amal (“Knowledge Necessitates Deeds”), a collection of narrations on this topic, which he prefaced with the words:

O student of knowledge, I exhort you to purify your intention in pursuing knowledge and to strive to make your soul act according to knowledge’s dictates. For the science is a tree of which deeds are the fruit, and he is not counted learned, who does not put his learning into practice…. And did those of the Salaf of the past reach whatever high levels they reached, other than by purified beliefs, righteous deeds, and renouncing most of the refinements of the world? And did the wise people of the past attain greater felicity except through hard work and diligence, contentment with little, and spending of their superfluity to meet the need of the needy and destitute? Surely, he who gathers books of knowledge is no different than he who gathers gold and silver. Surely, the devourer of books is no different from the greedy miser. Surely, the bibliophile enamoured with books is no different from the hoarder of gold and silver. Therefore, just as wealth does not benefit except through its spending, likewise do the sciences not benefit except those who put them into practice and observes their requirements.

Al-Jahr bi Bismillah al-Rahman al-Rahim (“Pronouncing the basmala Outloud”), listing – as al-Daraqutni did in his Sunan – the proof-texts of the Shafi‘i school on this practice. Ibn al-Jawzi in al-Sahm al-Musib stated that all of the hadiths adduced by al-Khatib in al-Jahr – as is the case with al-Daraqutni’s proofs for the basmala in his Sunan – are either weak or very weak. Al-Dhahabi also wrote a critique of al-Khatib’s book, as did the Hanbali Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn ‘Abd al-Hadi.
Al-Jami‘ li Akhlaq al-Rawi wa Adab al-Sami‘ (“The Compendium on the Ethics of the Hadith Narrator and the Manners of the Auditor”) in two volumes, the continuation of Sharaf Ashab al-Hadith. It contains the following chapters:

1: Intention in the Pursuit of Hadith
2: The Characteristics That Must Distinguish the Narrator and Auditor of Hadith (3 sections)
3: “High” (= short) Chains of Transmissions (4 sections)
4: Choosing One’s Shuyûkh Once Their Attributes Are Known (9 sections)
5: The Etiquette of Study (4 sections)
6: The Etiquette of Asking Permission to Enter the House of the Hadith Master (7 sections)
7: The Etiquette of Entering the House of the Hadith Master (9 sections)
8: The Veneration and Honoring of the Hadith Master (6 sections)In the section entitled “Kissing the Hand of the Hadith Scholar, His Head, and His Right [Shoulder]” al-Khatib narrates the following three hadiths among others:

a) From ‘Abd Allah ibn ‘Umar: “I was in one of the Messenger of Allah military detachments, and we came up to him until we kissed his hand.”

b) From Usama ibn Sharik: “We rose up approaching the Prophet, and kissed his hand.”

c) From ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn ‘Abd Allah ibn Ka‘b al-Ansari or ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn Razin: “We came and greeted Salama ibn Akwa‘. He brought out his hands and said: ‘I pledged loyalty with these two hands to the Messenger of Allah (s) .’ He brought out a hand as big as a camel’s paw. We rose up approaching him, and kissed it.”

9: The Etiquette of Hadith Audition
10: The Etiquette of Interrogating the Hadith Master (5 sections)
11: How to Memorize What Comes From the Hadith Master (2 sections)
12: The Encouragement to Lend the Books of Audition and the Blame of Those Who Go the Way
of Avarice and Refusal (2 sections)
13: The Recording of Hadiths in Books and the Etiquette Pertaining Thereunto
14: Beautifying One’s Calligraphy (8 sections)
15: The Obligation to Check Against the [Hadith Master’s] Book For Verification and the Elimination of Doubt and Misgivings
16: Reading To the Hadith Master and Its Etiquette (7 sections)
17: Mention of the Morals and Ethics of the Narrator and What Manners He Must Use With His Disciples and Companions (4 sections)
18: It is Offensive to Narrate to Those That Do Not Seek It And It is A Waste to Give It to Other Than Those Who Are Qualified (8 sections)
19: The Hadith Master’s Giving of High Respect to the Students of Knowledge and His Keeping the Best Opinion of Them and A Mild Disposition (8 sections)
20: The Hadith Master Must Exempt Himself From Accepting Remuneration For Narrating (3 sections)
21: His Caring For His Appearance and Looking to His Adornment Before Narrating Hadith (28 sections:)

1. Siwâk
2. Paring Nails
3. Clipping the Moustache
4. Grooming the Hair
5. Wearing Clean Clothes
6. Avoiding Foods That Cause Bad Breath
7. Dyeing One’s White Hair [with Henna], Contrary to Jews and
Christians
8. It is Fine to Use Saffron or Memecylon (wars) To That Effect
9. The Dislike of Dying One’s Hair Black
10. The Preferred Garments For the Hadith Master
11. His Shirt
12. The outer headcover (qalansuwa) and turban (‘imâma)
13. The unstitched head-shawl (taylasân)
14. Wearing a Ring
15. Combing His Beard
16. Incensing and Perfuming Himself
17. Looking At Himself In the Mirror
18. Wearing Sandals
19. His Composure in Walking
20. His Initiating Salâm With Whomever He Meets Among the Muslims
21. Entering His Gathering of People
22. The Desirability of His Sitting Square-Legged and In A Humble Manner
23. Using Gentle Speech and Keeping Composure In Discourse
24. Avoiding Jesting With the People In the Gathering
25. The Desirability of Being Gentle In His Rebukes Without
Acrimony Nor Breach
26. The States In Which Narrating Is Offensive
27. Those Who Disliked Narrating Other Than In A State of Purity
28. Those In A State of Impurity Who, Wishing to Narrate, Perform Dry Ablution (tayammum)

34: The Hadith Master’s Care To Share His Company Equally Among His Companions (5 sections)
35: His Care to Be Absolutely Truthful in His Speech Regardless of His Concerns and Situation (9 sections, of which the third, seventh, and eighth examine the question of narrating hadith according to meaning rather than precise wording
36: The Ruling Concerning Whoever Narrated a Hadith From Memory Then Was Contradicted In It (4 sections)
37: Dictating Hadith And Dictation Sessions (7 sections)
38: Employing A Repeater (mustamlî) (33 sections)
39: Competition Over The Hadith Among Its Students And Mutual Secretiveness So As To Withhold Its Benefit
40: The Obligation of Mutual Faithful Counsel and Benefit With Regard to Narrations
41: Picking and Choosing Hadith By Those Who Are Unable To Write All Its ChainsComprehensively (6 sections)
42: Concerning the Writing of Hadith In Detail and In Its Totality And the Need For This Endeavor In the Compilation of Books Related To Its Various Sciences (15 sections)
43: Travelling In Pursuit of A Hadith To Far-Off Countries So As To Meet the Hadith Masters There And Obtain Short Chains of Transmission (13 sections)
44: The Memorization of Hadith and the Penetration of Insight Concerning It (12 sections:)

1. Emphasis on the Memorization of Hadith
2. Those Who Described Themselves as Memorizers
3. Hadith Learning is Not By Mere Instruction For It Is None Other Than a Type of Knowledge Allah I Creates in the Heart
4. The Means That Facilitate Hadith Memorization
5. A Supplication For the Memorization of Qur’an, Hadith, and the Various Disciplines
6. Types of Preferred Foods and Those Recommended Against For the Improvement of Memory
7. The Requisite Schedule of Night Study of Hadith For the Student
8. Repeating What is Memorized To Master It By Heart:

Al-Zubayr ibn Bakkar said: “My father came in and saw me reading silently in a notebook, reading it back to myself. He said to me: ‘Your only aid in your type of narration is whatever your sight conveys to your heart. If you want narration then look at it and read it out loud also. For then, your aid comes from both what your sight conveys to your heart and what your hearing conveys to your heart.’” Dr. M. ‘Ajaj al-Khatib commented on this narration: “These are fine and true words, for this is what the authorities in education and psychology say: the more senses participate in the absorption of a subject or its learning, the faster and easier its memorization.”

‘Ilqima said: “Repeat the hadith at length and it will never be erased from memory.”

One time a pail of water was placed before Ibn Shihab al-Zuhri. When he placed his hand in it, he happened to remember a hadith. He did not remove his hand from the water until fajr rose and until he had completely mastered the hadith.

Sufyan al-Thawri said: “Make the hadith your own discourse to yourself and the very thought of your hearts, and you will then memorize it.”

Ja‘far al-Maraghi said: “I went into a cemetery in Tustar, and I heard someone shouting: ‘And al-A‘mash, from Abu Salih, from Abu Hurayra; and al-A‘mash, from Abu Salih, from Abu Hurayra,’ for a long time. I began to look for the source of this voice until I saw Ibn Zuhayr, studying al-A‘mash’s narrations alone, from memory.”

9. Rehearsing Hadith With All Types of People
10. Rehearsing Hadith With Disciples And Friends
11. Rehearsing Hadith With Spouses And Companions
12. Rehearsing Hadith With Older People

Abu Sa‘id al-Khudri said: “Review (tadhâkarû) hadith with each other, for one hadith brings out another.”

‘Ilqima said: “Rehearse the hadith to one another, for its life is its remembrance.”

Ibrahim al-Nakha‘i said: “Whoever is pleased with memorizing hadith let him narrate it to others, even to those who have no inkling for it. When he does this, the hadith will be like a book in his breast.”

Al-Zuhri used to read back the hadiths he had memorized to his slave-girl and the beduins in his land.

Ibn ‘Abbas would say to Sa‘id ibn Jubayr: “O Sa‘id! Narrate.” Sa‘id replied: “I, narrate in your presence?” Ibn ‘Abbas replied: “If you make a mistake I will let you know.”

‘Ali ibn al-Madini said: “Six men would almost take leave of their minds upon hadith repetition: Yahya [ibn Ma‘in], ‘Abd al-Rahman [ibn Mahdi], Waki‘ [ibn al-Jarrah], [Sufyan] Ibn ‘Uyayna, Abu Dawud, and ‘Abd al-Razzaq – due to their ardent love of it. One night, Waki‘ and ‘Abd al-Rahman rehearsed hadith together in ths Holy Sanctuary and did not stop until the caller to prayer raised the adhân of fajr.”

‘Ali ibn al-Hasan ibn Shaqiq said: “I was with ‘Abd Allah ibn al-Mubarak in the mosque on a cold winter night and we rose to leave. When we reached the door he reminded me of a hadith and I reminded him of another. We did not stop reminding each other until the caller to prayer came and raised the morning adhân.”

45: The Exposition and Definition of the Immense Merit of Compiling And Authoring Books (15 sections)

Abu Zur‘a was asked about the [final] number of those [Companions] who narrated hadith from the Prophet (s). He replied: “Who can compute it? Those who witnessed with the Prophet (s)the Farewell Pilgrimage were 40,000 and those who witnessed the campaign of Tabuk with him were 70,000.” In another narration someone asked him: “O Abu Zur‘a! Is it not said that the hadith of the Prophet (s)is 4,000 narrations [in all]?” He replied: “And who said that – may Allah untooth him! – ? This is what heretics say (hâdhâ qawlu al-zanâdiqa). Who can circumscribe the totality of the hadith of the Messenger of Allah e ? When he died there were 114,000 sahâba who narrated and had heard from him.

46: Ceasing Narration In Old Age Lest Memory Is Affected And the Mind Becomes Confused:

Abu Muhammad al-Hasan ibn ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn Khallad said: “If the hadith scholar lives a long life, I find it preferable that he stop transmitting narrations at the age of eighty, for it is the period of senility. Making glorification, asking forgiveness, and reciting Qur’an is all more appropriate for eighty-year-olds. But if his mind is crystal-clear and he has perspicuity, knowing the narrations in his possession and in full mastery of them, and he purports to narrate for the obtainment of reward, then I hope all the best for him.”

Al-Khayl (“Equestrianism”). Al-Khatib relates from his father that their origin was of a Beduin Arab tribe specializing in raising horses in al-Jasasa, bordering the Euphrates.
Al-Kifaya fi ‘Ilm al-Riwaya (“The Sufficiency in the Science of Hadith Narration”) in about 170 chapters in which al-Khatib “exhaustively listed the codes of hadith narration, expounding its principles and universal rules as well as the schools of the experts wherever their opinions differed; it remains, in our time, the greatest book on the subject.”
Manaqib Ahmad ibn Hanbal (“The Immense Merits of Imam Ahmad”).
Manaqib al-Shafi‘i (“The Immense Merits of Imam al-Shafi‘i”).
Al-Mudih li al-Jam‘ wa al-Tafriq (“The Clarifier of Collation and Dispersion”), listing the different names under which the same person may be identified in transmission chains.
Musnad Abi Bakr al-Siddiq ‘ala Shart al-Sahihayn (“Narrations Related by Abu Bakr According to the Criterion of al-Bukhari and Muslim”).
Al-Muttafaq wa al-Muftaraq (“Similar-Looking Narrators’ Names”).
Nasiha Ahl al-Hadith (“The Faithful Counsel of the Masters of Hadith”)
Poetry, in which he declaimed:

If your quest is for true direction
In the twin matter of your world and the hereafter,
Then dissent with your own soul in its lusts;
Truly lust is the meeting of all corruption.

Al-Qunut wa al-Athar al-Marwiyya Fih (“The qunût and Its Proof-Texts”) according to the Shafi‘i school.
Al-Rihla fi Talab al-Hadith (“Travel in Pursuit of A Hadith”), published by Dr. Nur al-Din ‘Itr who termed it “a vast demonstration and signal proof establishing the rank reached by our great scholars in their high energies, lofty pursuits, noble goals and means… by which we hope to sound the wake-up call for our cultivated youth and students of knowledge, that they may tread the path of their first masters, the immortal ulema of their Community.”
Riwaya al-Sahaba ‘an al-Tabi‘i (“Narration of the Companions From a Tabi‘i”), listing examples of this occasional case.
Al-Sabiq wa al-Lahiq (“The Precursor and the Subsequent in Chronology”) in ten volumes.
Salat al-Tasbih wa al-Ikhtilaf Fiha (“The Prayer of Glorification and the Difference of Opinion Concerning Its Status”), an authoritative presentation of its proof-texts that goes together with Ibn Nasir al-Din al-Dimashqi’s al-Tarjih li Hadith Salat al-Tasbih, al-Mundhiri’s documentation in the first volume of al-Targhib wa al-Tarhib, and Ibn al-Salah’s discussion in his Fatawa.

Sharaf Ashab al-Hadith (“The Eminence of the Masters of Hadith”) in which he narrated Abu Dawud’s saying: “Were it not for this band of people we would not be studying Islam.” The narrations al-Khatib gathered in this precious book list the attributes used by the Imams of hadith for the scholars of the Prophetic narrations:

“Those Who Command Good and Forbid Evil” [Ibrahim ibn Musa] “The Substitute-Saints” [Sufyan al-Thawri, Yazid ibn Harun, Ahmad ibn Hanbal] “The Pillars of the Shari‘a” [al-Khatib] “The Nearest of People to the Prophet (s)” [because of the hadith: “Truly the nearest of people to me on the Day of Resurrection are those who invoked the most blessings upon me”].
“The Owners of Transmission Chains [to the Prophet (s)]” [Yazid ibn Zuray‘] “The Owners of Frayed Garments and Inkwells” [Caliph al-Ma’mun] “The Best of All Scholars” [al-Khatib] “The Best of All People” [al-Awza‘i] “The Best of Those Who Spoke About Knowledge” [Ahmad] “The Trustees of Allah Over His Religion” [Abu Hatim al-Razi] “The Messenger’s Trustees” [al-Khatib] “The People of Belief” [because of the hadith: “Do you know who of those who possess belief is the best in belief?” They said the angels. He replied: “This is true, and it is right that they should be so, but nothing stands in their way because of the position in which Allah I has placed them. I mean others.” They said: “The Prophets whom Allah honored with Prophetship and Messengership.” He replied in the same way. They said the martyrs. He replied: “This is true, and it is right that they should be so, but nothing stands in their way because of the honor Allah bestowed upon them with martyrdom. I mean others.” They asked: “Who then, O Messenger of Allah?” He said: “Generations yet in the loins of men who shall come after me; they shall believe in me without seeing me and confirm me without seeing me. They shall see the suspended leaves [of the Law] and put them into practice.”
“The People of Truth” [al-Khatib] “The People of Righteousness” [‘Umar ibn ‘Abd al-‘Aziz] “The Vessels of Knowledge” [al-Khatib] “The People Most Meritorious of Salvation in the Hereafter” [because of the hadith: “Truly the safest among you against the disasters of the Day of Resurrection on that day are those of you who invoked the most blessings on me in the world”].
“The Friends of Allah” [al-Khalil ibn Ahmad] “The Massive Throng” [al-Khatib] “The Guardians of the Earth” [Sufyan al-Thawri] “The Guardians of the Religion” [al-A‘mash] “The Implanters of the Religion” [Ibn al-Mubarak] “The Party of Allah” [al-Khatib] “The Preservers of the Pillars of the Law” [al-Khatib] “The Preservers of the Prophet’s Sunna” [al-Khuraybi] “The Custodians of the Faith” [Kahmas] “The Protectors of the Faith” [al-Khatib] “The Repellers of False Imputations to the Prophet” [Ibn Ma‘in] “The Carriers of Knoweldge” [al-Khuraybi] “The Storehouses of the Religion” [al-Khatib] “The Successors of the Messenger (s)” [al-Khatib] “The Elect Among Tribes” [Hafs ibn Ghyath] “The Elect Among People” [Abu Bakr ibn ‘Ayyash] “The Elect Among Worshippers” [Abu Muzahim al-Khaqani] “The Virile Among Men” [al-Zuhri] “The Trustees Who Preserve the Reports of the Messengers” [Abu Hatim al-Razi] “The Strangers” [‘Abdan] “The Knights of this Religion” [Yazid ibn Zuray‘] “The Caretakers of the Matter of Shari‘a” [al-Khatib] “The Strivers In the Preservation of the Faith” [al-Khatib] “Mankind” (al-nâs) [Ahmad ibn Hanbal] “Those Who Belong to No Tribe” [‘Abdan] “The Intermediaries Between the Prophet (s) and His Community” [al-Khatib] “Muhammad’s Inheritors” [Ibn Mas‘ud] “The Inheritors of the Prophets” [al-Fudayl ibn ‘Iyad] “The Beneficiaries of the Messenger of Allah” [Abu Sa‘id al-Khudri, according to the hadith of the Prophet: “There shall come after me a people who shall ask you about me. When they come to you, treat them kindly and narrate to them “].

Al-Tabyin li Asma’ al-Mudallisin (“The Exposition of the Names of Those Who Concealed Their Sources”).
Taqyid al-‘Ilm (“The Fettering of Knowledge”), an important book gathering all the proofs that large-scale writing of hadith began in the time of the Prophet (s), together with particular caveats against it.
Al-Tatfil wa Hikayat al-Tufayliyyin (“Sponging and Spongers”).
Tali Talkhis al-Mutashabih, an addendum to Talkhis al-Mutashabih.
Talkhis al-Mutashabih fi al-Rasm (“Summary of the Similarities in Spelling”), on hadith narrators commonly confused with one another due to the similar spelling of their names.
Tarikh Baghdad (“History of Baghdad”), his most important work. Ostensibly a history of Baghdad, it is more specifically a reference work in narrator-authentication (‘ilm al-rijâl) and a valuable compendium of 4,385 hadiths narrated with their full chains, over half of them (2,253) not found in the two books of Sahih and the four Sunan. In this respect al-Khatib’s rank as an independent narrator is comparable to that of al-Bayhaqi (d. 458), Ibn ‘Abd al-Barr (d. 463), and Ibn ‘Asakir (d. 571).

Concerning al-Khatib’s authentication method in Tarikh Baghdad, al-Sam‘ani narrated that he said: “Whenever in the Tarikh I mention a man concerning whom opinions vary in commendation and discreditation, then the preferred position concerning him is placed at the conclusion of his biographical notice.”

Makki ibn ‘Abd al-Salam al-Maqdisi said: “I was sleeping in the house of Shaykh Abu al-Hasan al-Za‘farani when I saw in a dream, shortly before dawn, as if we had gathered in al-Khatib’s house to read the Tarikh as usual. To his right was the jurist, Shaykh Nasr al-Maqdisi, and to the latter’s right was a man I did not know. So I asked who he was and was told: ‘This is the Messenger of Allah e who came to hear the Tarikh.’ I thought to myself: ‘This is a huge honor for Shaykh Abu Bakr, that the Prophet (s)himself should attend his gathering.’ I also thought: ‘This is also a refutation of those who blemished the Tarikh saying that it contains undue criticism of certain people.’”

It remains true that the Tarikh contains undue criticism of Imam Abu Hanifa t in the form of an assemblage of glaringly weak and forged reports from known liars, although it also contains authentic reports to the Imam’s praise. Among the scholars who refuted the negative reports were the king al-Malik al-Mu‘azzam ‘Isa al-Ayyubi, the Hanafis Sibt Ibn al-Jawzi in the two-volume al-Intisar li Imam A’imma al-Amsar and al-Kawthari in Ta’nib al-Khatib ‘ala Ma Saqahu fi Tarjimati Abi Hanifata Min al-Akadhib and its follow-up al-Tarhib bi Naqd al-Ta’nib; the Maliki Ibn ‘Abd al-Barr with al-Intiqa’; the Shafi‘is al-Suyuti and al-Haytami respectively with Tabyid al-Sahifa and al-Khayrat al-Hisan, and the Hanbali Ibn al-Jawzi with al-Sahm al-Musib fi al-Radd ‘ala al-Khatib. Al-Dhahabi said: “Would that al-Khatib had not set upon the great figures nor narrated anything against them.” However, a case has been made to exonerate al-Khatib from having included these reports in his Tarikh, and some scholars, such as Dr. ‘Itr and Dr. Mahmud al-Tahhan, consider them later interpolations.

Ibn al-Jawzi’s assessment of al-Khatib is ambiguous. On the one hand he praises his works with the words: “Whoever looks into his books knows his great standing.” At the same time he takes him to task for what he terms his fanatic denigration of Hanbalis, citing, for example, al-Khatib’s description of Imam Ahmad as “the leader of hadith scholars” (sayyid al-muhaddithîn) as opposed to al-Shafi‘i’s as “the diadem of jurists,” his weakening of Ibn Batta, and his citing al-Karabisi’s barb about Imam Ahmad over the issue of the uncreatedness of the Qur’an. Added to this charge is Ibn al-Jawzi’s singular claim that al-Khatib began his career as a Hanbali, then switched to the Shafi‘i school, when both early and contemporary historians concur that he began his career as a Shafi‘i and was never a Hanbali. He also states that al-Khatib took the material of most of his books “except that of the Tarikh” from those of the hadith master al-Suri, a claim flatly rejected by al-Dhahabi. Perhaps Ibn al-Jawzi’s most ironic criticism is his complaint that al-Khatib included forgeries and very weak hadiths in his books, as their number is negligible in proportion to those found in Ibn al-Jawzi’s works.

Abu al-Fadl ibn Khayrun said: “A righteous person told me that when al-Khatib died he saw him in his sleep and asked him: ‘How are you?’ Al-Khatib replied: ‘I am in [breath of life, and plenty, and a Garden of delight] (56:89)’.” ‘Ali ibn al-Husayn ibn Jadda said: “I saw in my sleep, after al-Khatib’s death, a person standing next to me whom I tried to ask about al-Khatib. Before I could say anything he said to me: ‘Go to the middle of Paradise where the pious meet one another.’” Muhammad ibn Marzuq al-Za‘farani narrated from the pious jurist Hasan ibn Ahmad al-Basri: “I saw al-Khatib in my sleep wearing beautiful white clothes and a white turban, looking joyful and smiling. I do not remember whether I asked him first: ‘What did Allah do with you?’ or whether he spoke to me first but he said: Allah has forgiven me – or: granted me mercy. And whoever comes to Him – in my heart I thought: meaning, with tawhîd – He grants him mercy or forgives him. Therefore, be happy!’ This took place a few days after his death.”

عربي

t.b.d.
 

Refs

Main sources: Ibn ‘Asakir, Tabyin Kadhib al-Muftari (Saqqa ed. p. 263-266); al-Dhahabi, Siyar A‘lam al-Nubala’ (Dar al-Fikr ed. 13:590-603 #4210) and Tadhkira al-Huffaz (3:1135-1145); Ibn al-Subki, Tabaqat al-Shafi‘iyya al-Kubra (Hajr ed. 4:29-39 #259); ‘Itr, introduction to al-Khatib’s al-Rihla (p. 37-59); and Ibn al-Jawzi, al-Muntazam (8:265-270).

NOTES:
1Al-Qinnawji, Abjad al-`Ulum (3:96).

2Ibn al-Jawzi, al-Muntazam (9:213); Ibn al-Najjar, Dhayl Tarikh Baghdad (1:173).

3As asserted by his son Ibn Abi Ya`la in Tabaqat al-Hanabila (2:204).

4Cf. Ibn al-Mubarak’s saying: “If you want to make sure your narrations are authentic, confront them with one another.” Narrated by al-Khatib in al-Jami` (p. 452 #1973), cf. al-Hakim in Ma`rifa `Ulum al-Hadith (p. 112f.).

5Al-Khatib, al-Jami` li Akhlaq al-Rawi (2:422 #1914).

6The entire bracketed passage is omitted by al-Dhahabi in his citation of al-Khatib’s text in his youthful work al-`Uluw [cf. Mukhtasar al-`Uluw (p. 272 #332)] but it is mentioned in the mature Siyar and the Tadhkira.

7Narrated by al-Dhahabi with his chain from Muhammad ibn Marzuq al-Za`farani in Siyar A`lam al-Nubala’ (13:598) and Tadhkira al-Huffaz (3:1142-1143) from al-Khatib’s epistle al-Sifat.

8`Itr, introduction to al-Khatib’s Rihla (p. 48).

9Ibn Marduyah states that even during the time that Abu Nu`aym walked home from his mosque gatherings, a student would be reading a volume of hadith to him on the way. The philologist imam Tha`lab (200-291) died one day after he was hit by a running horse while walking and reading at the same time as narrated by al-`Askari in al-Hathth `ala Talab al-`Ilm (p. 77). Al-Qifti narrated in Inbah al-Ruwat `ala Anbah al-Nuhat (3:79) in the biographical notice on the Egyptian philologist Muhammad al-Sa`idi ibn Barakat (d. 520) that the latter saw, when a boy, Abu Yusuf Ya`qub ibn Khurrazad al-Najirami, “a swarthy shaykh with a long beard and round turban, holding a book in his hand which he was reading while walking.” Ibn Rajan narrated in Dhayl Tabaqat al-Hanabila (2:249-252) that Majd al-Din ibn Taymiyya (the grandfather) had a book read to him even when he entered the latrine! Shaykh `Abd al-Fattah Abu Ghudda related all these anecdotes in his priceless book Qimat al-Zaman `ind al-`Ulama’ (p. 40-41, 48, 51, 52, 68-69).

10In al-Khatib, al-Jami` li Akhlaq al-Rawi (2:178). Cf. al-Dhahabi, Siyar (Arna’ut ed. 11:458). The same is related about the Maliki jurist and hadith scholar Ibn Suhnun by Qadi `Iyad in Tartib al-Madarik (4:217), and something similar about al-Mundhiri by al-Nawawi in Bustan al-`Arifin (1985 ed. p. 191).

11This report is also found in the chapter on spiritual energy (himma) in al-Qasimi’s Qawa`id al-Tahdith.

12Al-Isnawi, Tabaqat al-Shafi`iyya (1:99 #174).

13Al-Dhahabi, Siyar (14:120).

14Narrated from Jabir by Ahmad in his Musnad, Ibn Majah in his Sunan, Ibn Abi Shayba, al-Khatib in Tarikh Baghdad (3:179, 10:166) and al-Bayhaqi with a good chain as stated by al-`Ajluni (hasan lighayrih) in Kashf al-Khafa; from Ibn `Abbas by al-Hakim (1:473=1990 ed. 1:646) and al-Daraqutni in his Sunan (2:289 #238); from `Abd Allah ibn `Amr by al-Bayhaqi in al-Sunan al-Kubra (5:148); and from Mu`awiya by al-Fakihi in Akhbar Makka. Al-Busiri in Zawa’id ibn Majah and al-Nawawi declared its chain weak but a number of other hadith masters said it is a fair (hasan) narration due to the number of its chains and definitely sahîh as a mursal narration, among them Ibn al-Qayyim and Ibn Hajar as reported by al-Suyuti in al-Durar al-Muntathira (p. 243-244 #383) and al-Munawi in Fayd al-Qadir (5:404), while al-Mundhiri, al-Dimyati (in al-Suyuti’s Tadrib al-Rawi [Faryabi ed. 1:158=`Abd al-Latif ed. 1:145=1:80] and Ziyada al-Jami` al-Saghir), and al-Suyuti (in al-Sindi’s edition of Ibn Majah, cf. al-Durar) declared the hadith sahîh. Al-Sindi added: “The people of knowledge have experienced its veracity.” See also al-Shawkani, Nayl al-Awtar, book of Manasik, chapter on Zamzam water. Ibn Hajar in Talkhis al-Habir (2:268) cites al-Dinawari’s narration: “We were with Sufyan ibn `Uyayna when a man came and asked him: `O Abu Muhammad! Is the hadith you told us about Zamzam water true?’ He replied yes. The man said: `I just drank it for the purpose that you narrate to me a hundred hadiths.’ Ibn `Uyayna said to him: `Sit’ and he narrated to him a hundred hadiths.

15Siyar (13:599-600). Dr. `Itr comments in his introduction to al-Khatib’s Rihla (p. 42): “Perhaps as a divine reward for al-Turaythithi, Allah lengthened his life and he lived thirty years after this episode – Allah Almighty have mercy on him!”

16As per Dr. Yusuf al-`Ishsh’s recension in his al-Khatib al-Baghdadi Mu’arrikh Baghdad wa Muhaddithuha (p. 120-137).

17Al-Khatib, Iqtida’ al-`Ilm al-`Amal (p. 15-16).

18The Jami` has received two recent editions: by Shaykh Muhammad `Ajaj al-Khatib (Beirut: Mu’assasa al-Risala, 1991) and by Mahmud al-Tahhan (Ryad: Maktaba al-Ma`arif, 1983).

19As a rule, the shorter the chain, the better, since the probability of error is reduced.

20Narrated by al-Tirmidhi (hasan), Ibn Majah, Abu Dawud – al-`Iraqi said: “with a fair (hasan) chain” in al-Zabidi’s Ithaf (6:280) -, Ahmad, Ibn Sa`d (4:145), and al-Nahhas in al-Nasikh wa al-Mansukh (p. 185 without mention of the kissing of the hand), all with a weak chain because of Yazid ibn Abi Ziyad according to al-Arna’ut in the Musnad (9:281-282 #5384), also by al-Bukhari in al-Adab al-Mufrad (p. 388), al-Bayhaqi in al-Sunan al-Kubra (7:101 #13352), and Ibn Abi Shayba (6:541). Ibn Hajar in Fath al-Bari (1989 ed. 11:67) cited it in his list of the narrations providing evidence for kissing the hand and he did not weaken it.

21Narrated by Ibn al-Muqri’ in al-Rukhsa (p. 58 #2) with a chain Ibn Hajar graded as “strong” (sanaduhu qawî) in Fath al-Bari (1989 ed. 11:67) and he listed it among the “good” (jayyid) narrations of Ibn al-Muqri’ on the topic. Abu Dawud, al-Tirmidhi (hasan sahîh), Ibn Majah, Ahmad and al-Hakim (4:399, sahîh) all narrated it without mention of the kiss unlike al-Bayhaqi who cited it in Branch 15 of his Shu`ab al-Iman (2:200 #1528) entitled: “The Fifteenth Branch of Faith, Namely A Chapter On Rendering Honor To The Prophet, Declaring His High Rank, And Revering Him.”

22Narrated by al-Bukhari in al-Adab al-Mufrad (#973), al-Mizzi in Tahdhib al-Kamal (17:92), al-Tabarani in al-Awsat (#661), and Ahmad with a chain of sound narrators according to al-Haythami (8:42) and Ibn Hajar in Fath al-Bari (1989 ed. 11:57). On the assumption that `Abd al-Rahman is Ibn Razin rather than ibn `Abd Allah ibn Ka`b the chain would be “probably fair” according al-Arna’ut in the Musnad (27:83 #16551). Shaykh `Abd al-Fattah Abu Ghudda emphasized the lawfulness of kissing the hand of people of merit and eminence in Islam and its wide use among the Salaf, cf. his book al-`Ulama’ al-`Uzzab (p. 47) and his notes on Ibn `Abd al-Barr’s al-Intiqa’ (p. 83 n. 1) as well as the monograph by his teacher Shaykh `Abd Allah al-Ghumari, I`lam al-Nabil bi Jawaz al-Taqbil. See also the hadith master Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Ibrahim ibn al-Muqri’s monograph al-Rukhsa fi Taqbil al-Yad; the hadith master Ibn al-A`rabi’s monograph al-Qubal wa al-Mu`anaqa wa al-Musafaha; and Ibn Hajar’s vast documentation in Fath al-Bari (1959 ed. 11:56-57, Isti’dhân, chapter titled Bâb al-Akhdh bi al-Yad).

23See Imam Malik’s remarks on the turban in the biographical notice on him posted at the website http://sunnah.org/history/Default.htm.

24Hadith Dictation Sessions could count over 100,000 attendants all listening to a single hadith master by way of repeaters: al-Khatib, al-Jami` (2:58-62 #1171-1178).

25In al-Khatib, al-Jami` li Akhlaq al-Rawi (2:402 #1874 and n.). In Western antiquity and late antiquity silent reading was unheard of, as shown by Augustine of Hippo’s (late 4th century CE) astonishment (in the Confessions) at glimpsing Ambrose the Bishop of Milan “moving his lips in silent reading” of his book. Dr. al-Khatib’s remarks on mnemonics are reminiscent of the Roman orator Cicero’s method of not only reading his speeches out loud to himself in order to memorize them, but also pacing from one room of his house to another to create a mental reminder of each different section of his text.

26In al-Khatib, al-Jami` (2:402-416 #1875-1877, #1880-1889, #1899, #1904).

27This is Abu Zur`a al-Razi of Ray, `Ubayd Allah ibn `Abd al-Karim ibn Yazid (d. 264 or 268), “the master of hadith masters” (al-Dhahabi), concerning whom Ahmad ibn Hanbal said that he had memorized 700,000 hadiths. Siyar (10:470-483 #2266).

28Al-Khatib, al-Jami` (2:474 #1999).

29In Tarikh Baghdad (11:359).

30Dr. Nur al-Din `Itr, Manhaj al-Naqd (p. 63-64). The Kifaya was published by Dr. Ahmad `Umar Hashim (Beirut: Dar al-Kitab al-`Arabi, 1986) and by Abu `Abd Allah al-Sawraqi and Ibrahim Hamdi al-Madani (Madina: al-Maktaba al-`Ilmiyya, n.d.).

31Also published by Nasr Abu `Ataya in al-Nasa’i, Majmu`a Rasa’il (p. 137-238).

32`Itr, preface to al-Khatib, al-Rihla (p. 9). In his twenty-four page introduction titled “The Infinite Scholarly Challenge of Prophethood” (I`jaz al-Nubuwwa al-`Ilmi), `Itr gives a valuable overview of hadith science in Islam and puts to rest the claims of Goldziher et al. whereby hadith travel began in Umayyad times and was motivated by politics.

332nd ed. Ed. Mahmud Sa`id Mamduh (Beirut: Dar al-Basha’ir al-Islamiyya, 1988).

34Ibn al-Salah, Fatawa wa Masa’il (1:235). See also Ibn Hajar’s Ajwiba (1:538-549) and al-Shawkani, al-Fawa’id al-Majmu`a (p. 57).

35Al-Khatib, Sharaf Ashab al-Hadith (p. 52 #106).

36Narrated from Ibn Mas`ud by al-Tirmidhi (hasan gharîb), Abu Ya`la in his Musnad (8:428, 9:15), al-Bukhari in al-Tarikh al-Kabir (5:177), Ibn Abi Shayba (11:505), al-Baghawi in Sharh al-Sunna (#686), al-Bayhaqi in Shu`ab al-Iman (2:212), al-Haythami in Mawarid al-Zam’an (p. 594), al-Khatib in al-Fasl li al-Wasl (2:770-773) and Sharaf (p. 34-35 #63) and Ibn Hibban all with weak chains according to al-Arna’ut (3:192 #911) because of Musa ibn Ya`qub al-Zam`i and `Abd Allah ibn Kaysan (cf. al-Mizzi, Tahdhib al-Kamal [15:482], Ibn `Adi, al-Kamil [6:2342], al-Daraqutni, al-`Ilal [5:112], Ibn Hajar, Tahdhib al-Tahdhib [5:326]). However, it has a witnessing narration whereby the Prophet – Allah bless and greet him – said: “Invoke abundant blessings upon me on the day of Jum`a for my Community’s salât is shown to me [especially] on every Jum`a, therefore, whoever among them invokes blessings upon me the most, is nearest to me in station.” Narrated from Abu Umama by al-Bayhaqi in his Sunan (3:249 #5785) and Hayat al-Anbiya’ (p. 11) with a fair chain according to al-Mundhiri in al-Targhib (1994 ed. 2:390 #2519=1997 ed. 2:328=3:303) “except that it is said Makhul did not hear from Abu Umama directly,” while Ibn Hajar said in Fath al-Bari (1959 ed. 11:167): “There is no harm in its chain.” Ibn al-Sakan included Ibn Mas`ud’s hadith among the sound narrations in his Sihah according to Ibn al-Mulaqqin in Tuhfa al-Muhtaj (1:527).

37Narrated from `Umar by al-Bazzar in his Musnad (1:413) with a fair chain as stated by al-Haythami (10:65), al-Khatib, Sharaf (p. 33-34 #62), al-Hakim (4:85-86) with a weak chain because of Muhammad ibn Abi Humayd as indicated by al-Dhahabi, Abu Ya`la in his Musnad (1:147) with a weak chain according to Shaykh Husayn Asad, and from Ibn `Abbas by al-Tabarani in al-Kabir (12:87) and al-Tahawi in Sharh Mushkil al-Athar (6:269-270 #2472) with the statement “Those are my brothers” instead of the last sentence, with a chain of sound narrators except for `Ata’ ibn al-Sa’ib whose narrations are confused.

38Narrated from Anas by al-Khatib in Sharaf (p. 56-57 #113).

39Al-Hudhli narrated that al-Zuhri asked him: “O Hudhli! Does hadith please you?” Al-Hudhli said yes. Al-Zuhri continued: “Truly, it pleases the virile among men, while the effeminate among them hate it.” Al-Khatib, Sharaf (p. 70 #150).

40This is a notable example of the use of al-nâs to mean the major ulema of the Sunna, as in `Abd al-Rahman ibn Mahdi’s statement: “The People (al-nâs) in their time were four: Hammad ibn Zayd in al-Basra, al-Thawri in al-Kufa, Malik in al-Hijaz, and al-Awza`i in al-Shâm.”

41In al-Tirmidhi.

42In Ibn Majah.

43In al-Darimi’s Sunan, Abu Hatim al-Razi, al-Jarh wa al-Ta`dil (2:12), and others: Abu Sa`id al-Khudri – Allah be well-pleased with him – used to say, whenever he saw the young Tâbi`î students of hadith: “Welcome to the beneficiaries (wasiyya) of the Messenger of Allah – Allah bless and greet him,” while al-Ramahurmuzi’s narration in al-Muhaddith al-Fasil (p. 175) adds: “who ordered us to make you memorize the hadith and make room for you in gatherings.”

44Narrated from Abu Sa`id al-Khudri by al-Hakim (1:88=1990 ed. 1:164) who declared it sound, and al-Dhahabi concurred. The hadith master Mughaltay also declared it sound according to al-Munawi in Fayd al-Qadir (2:400), while it remains a fair (hasan) narration according to al-Zuhayri and al-Suyuti. Also narrated from Abu Sa`id by Ibn `Abd al-Barr in his Jami` (1:578 #991), al-Khatib in his (1991 ed. 1:305-306 #360=1983 ed. 1:202), Ibn Wahb in his Musnad (8:167), and `Abd al-Ghani al-Maqdisi in al-`Ilm (1:50), all with weak chains because of Layth ibn Abi Sulaym; and by al-Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah, `Abd al-Razzaq (11:252), Tammam al-Razi in his Fawa’id (1:64, 1:69), al-Baghawi in Sharh al-Sunna (1:286), and al-Ramahurmuzi in al-Muhaddith al-Fasil (p. 176), all with very weak chains because of Abu Harun al-`Abdi (`Amara ibn Juwayn) who is discarded as a narrator (cf. Ibn `Adi, al-Kamil [5:77] and Ibn Hajar’s Taqrib).

45Published in 1949 with an excellent introduction by Yusuf al-`Ishsh (Repr. Dar Ihya’ al-Sunna al-Nabawiyya, 1974).

46Dr. Yusuf al-`Ishsh gave an extensive description of this work in his al-Khatib al-Baghdadi Mu’arrikh Baghdad wa Muhaddithuha. See also Dr. Akram Dya’ al-`Umari, Mawarid al-Khatib al-Baghdadi fi Tarikh Baghdad. Dr. Khaldun al-Ahdab provided a thorough authentication of those hadiths in his Zawa’id Tarikh Baghdad.

47Al-Sahm is also known as al-Tahqiq fi Ahadith al-Ta`liq.

48Al-Dhahabi himself deliberately refrained from narrating a single report detrimental to one of the great Imams of fiqh in his Mughni fi al-Du`afa’, Diwan al-Du`afa’ wa al-Matrukin, and Mizan al-I`tidal, as he explained in the introduction to the latter: “I did not mention in my book any of the Imams that are followed in the branches of the Law due to their immense standing in Islam and their greatness in the minds of people: such as Abu Hanifa, al-Shafi`i, and al-Bukhari.” Al-Dhahabi, Mizan al-I`tidal (1:3). Abu Ghudda and others have shown that the disparaging notices on Abu Hanifa found in today’s editions of al-Dhahabi’s works are interpolations. See the exhaustive documentation of this issue in Shaykh Hisham Kabbani’s Encyclopedia (7:149-187).

49Respectively in the introduction to al-Khatib’s al-Rihla (p. 52) and al-Khatib al-Baghdadi (p. 263-301). See also Shaykh Wahbi Sulayman Ghawiji al-Albani’s book Abu Hanifa (p. 205-277).

50Ibn al-Jawzi, al-Muntazam (8:266, 9:214).

51This is a common distinction, as established by the remarks of the scholars cited in our notice on al-Tabari at the website http://sunnah.org/history/Default.htm.

52When al-Karabisi heard that Imam Ahmad had declared his statement an innovation whereby the pronunciation of the Qur’an was created, he said: “Pronunciation means other than the thing pronounced” (talaffuzuka ya`nî ghayra al-malfûz). Then he said of Ahmad: “What shall we do with this boy? If we say `created’ he says bid`a, and if we say `not created’ he says bid`a.” Narrated by al-Khatib in Tarikh Baghdad (8:65).

53Ibn al-Jawzi, al-Muntazam (8:267).

54Cf. al-Ahdab, Zawa’id (1:104).

55Ibn al-Jawzi, al-Muntazam (8:143, 8:266).

56Ibn al-Jawzi, al-Muntazam (8:268). Cf. al-Ahdal, Zawa’id Tarikh Baghdad (1: 86).

© Damas Cultural Society 2007 — Latest update:
Original site: damas-original.nur.nu

Bio: Al-Qurtubi

Bio: Al-Qurtubi

Abu Al-Walid Al-Baji Al-Qurtubi al-Maliki

أبو الوليد الأندلسي القرطبي
b. 403 – d. 474 H.
radiya Allah anhu

.


 

English

By Dr. G.F. Haddad

Sulayman ibn Khalaf ibn Sa`d or Sa`id or Sa`dun ibn Ayyub, al-Qadi Abu al-Walid al-Tujaybi al-Andalusi al-Qurtubi al-Baji al-Tamimi al-Dhahabi al-Maliki (403-474), “One of the imams of the Muslims,” the jurist and mutakallim, hadith master, man of letters, poet, “the skilled debater, author in many sciences, meticulous scholar, upon whose great rank in knowledge, and merit in religion there is agreement.” Born in Baja near Seville or – more probably according to al-Dhahabi – its namesake Baja near Qayrawan, he took hadith from Abu al-Isba` ibn Shakir, Muhammad ibn Isma`il [?], Abu Muhammad Makki ibn Abi Talib, al-Qadi Yunus ibn `Abd Allah ibn Mughith, Ibn al-Mutawwa`i, Ibn Muhriz, Ibn al-Warraq, Ibn `Amrus, al-Khatib al-Baghdadi, Ibn `Abd al-Barr, al-Damighani, and others. Both al-Khatib and Ibn `Abd al-Barr, although his seniors, narrated from him. Among his students are his son Ahmad, Abu `Abd Allah al-Humaydi, `Ali ibn `Abd Allah al-Saqali, Ahmad ibn Ghazlun, Abu Bakr al-Turtushi, the two hadith masters Abu `Ali al-Jiyani al-Sadafi and Abu al-Qasim al-Ma`afiri, Ibn Abi Ja`far, al-Qadi Abu `Abd Allah Muhammad ibn `Abd al-Rahman ibn Bashir, and countless others.

Al-Baji worked at various times as a watchman and a goldsmith to support himself. He performed pilgrimage four times and lived austerely in the pursuit of knowledge: in Mecca for three years with Abu Dharr al-Harawi, then Baghdad for three, where he accompanied Abu al-Tayyib al-Tabari and Abu Ishaq al-Shirazi, then Mosul where he studied under Abu Ja`far al-Samnani and Ibn al-Baqillani. His wealth increased greatly after he returned to Andalusia and became its chief scholar and teacher. The Qadi Abu `Ali ibn Sakra said: “I never saw his like; nor anything like his appearance, his majesty, and the dignity of his gatherings. He is one of the imams of the Muslims.”

After al-Baji came to Andalusia he went to Majorca where he defeated Ibn Hazm in debate according to Ibn Bassam. Ibn Hazm reportedly said: “If the Malikis had only `Abd al-Wahhab [ibn `Ali ibn Nasr al-Baghdadi] and al-Baji, it would suffice them.”

Among al-Baji’s books: Al-Tasdid ila Ma`rifa al-Tawhid, Sunan al-Minhaj, Tartib al-Hajj, Ihkam al-Fusul fi Ahkam al-Usul, al-Ta`dil wa al-Tajrih li man Kharraja `anhu al-Bukhari fi al-Sahih, Sharh al-Muwatta’ in two versions: al-Istifa’ and its abridgment al-Muntaqa – named by the author of Shajara al-Nur “the best book ever written in Malik’s school” – al-Imla’ – a shorter version of the latter – Mukhtasar al-Mukhtasar fi Masa’il al-Mudawwana, and Sunan al-Salihin. In al-Muntaqa he states, in explanation of the hadith of Allah’s descent to the nearest heaven in the last third of the night:[1]

The Prophet’s — Allah bless and greet him — saying that our Exalted Lord descends every night to the nearest heaven is to inform us that supplication at that particular time is answered, petitioners are given what they request, and those who ask for forgiveness are forgiven. It warns us as to the great merit of that time and strongly encourages us to make abundant supplication, petition, and contrition at that time. It was narrated from the Prophet — Allah bless and greet him — in similar terms that Allah Almighty and Exalted said: “If My servant comes near Me one hand-span I come near him one cubit. If he comes near Me one cubit I come near him an arm’s length. If he comes to Me walking, I come to him running.”[2] He did not mean by this hadith a coming-near in terms of distance, for such is impossible and inexistent. All he meant was the servant’s coming-near in terms of good works, and Allah’s coming-near in terms of answer and acceptance. In the same sense one says “So-and-so is near So-and-so,” and they say of the leader “He is near his people” if he helps them a lot and welcomes them. This is well-known in the language of the Arabs.[3]

In his book Tahqiq al-Madhhab, he replies to those who attacked him for representing that the Prophet — Allah bless and greet him — could write on the literal basis of the hadith of al-Bara’: “Allah’s Messenger — Allah bless and greet him — took the treaty – he did not excel at writing – and wrote…”[4]

عربي

t.b.d.
 

Refs

Sources:
Makhluf, Shajara al-Nur p. 120-121 #341; Ibn Farhun, al-Dibaj p. 198-200 #240; al-Dhahabi, Siyar A`lam al-Nubala’ 14:59-65 #4347 and Tadhkira al-Huffaz 3:1178-1183 #1027.

Notes:
[1] Narrated from Abu Hurayra by Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Dawud, al-Tirmidhi, Ahmad, Malik, and al-Darimi. It is narrated from twenty-three Companions, as stated by al-Kattani in Nazm al-Mutanathir.

[2] Narrated from Abu Hurayra by Bukhari and Muslim: “I am as My servant thinks of Me, and I am with him when he remembers Me. If he mentions Me in Himself I mention him in Myself. If he mentions Me in a gathering, I mention him in a better gathering. If he comes near Me one hand-span (shibran) I come near him one cubit (dhira`an). If he comes near Me one cubit I come near him an arm’s length (ba`an). If he comes to Me walking, I come to him running.” [3] Al-Baji, al-Muntaqa (1:357). [4] See the documentation and discussion of this hadith in the post titled “Unlettered.”

© as-Sunna Foundation of America

© Damas Cultural Society 2007 — Latest update:
Original site: damas-original.nur.nu

Bio: Al-Qutb Abu Madyan Shu`ayb - القطب أبو مدين شعيب

Bio: Al-Qutb Abu Madyan Shu`ayb – القطب أبو مدين شعيب

Abu Madyan Shu`ayb ibn al-Husayn al-Ansari al-Tilimsani

b. 509 H. in Cordoba, Andalus - d. 594 H. in Tlimsan, Algeria - radiya Allah anhu
القطب أبو مدين شعيب بن الحسن الأندلسي التلمساني - رضي الله عنه

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Bio: Aws b. Aws al-Thaqafi

Bio: Aws b. Aws al-Thaqafi

Aws b. Aws al-Thaqafi

أوس بن أوس الثقفي
d. towards the end of the caliphate of `Uthman (r)
radiya Allah anhu

(more…)

Bio: Bilal ibn Ribâh al-Habashî

Bio: Bilal ibn Ribâh al-Habashî

Bilal ibn Ribâh al-Habashî al-Qurashî al-Taymî

بلال بن رباح الحبشي القرشي التيمي
d. 20 or 18 or 19 H. in Damascus
radiya Allah anhu

Sahabi, buried in Maqbara Bab Saghir in Damascus
 

English

Freed slave of sayyiduna Abu Bakr, mu’adhdhin of the Prophet (s). He came to Sham as a mujahid during the caliphate of Sayyidina `Umar and stayed there until he died.

After the passing of the Prophet (s), he never gave the adhan again – except once: in the Umawi mosque.

He narrated 44 hadith from the Prophet (s).

عربي

t.b.d.
 

Burial Place

Burial Place

Sayyiduna Bilal is buried in the Bab Saghrir cemetry of Damascus – may Allah perfume his grave.




click to enlarge pictures

Location

Click to load map

Refs

Damas Cultural Society © 2007


Tomb of Dirar b. Azwar in Damascus

Bio: Darar b. al-Azwar al-Asadi

Sayyidna Darar b. al-Azwar al-Asadi

ضرار بن الأزور الأسدي
d. 14 or 18 H. (636/640 CE)
radiya Allah anhu

A great hero before and after Islam. He was present when the Muslims opened Damascus under Khalid ibn al-Walid (in 14 H) and died there. (Zsh)

Lineage

His full name: is
Dhiraar bin Al-Azwar bin Malik ibn Aws bin Jadhimah bin Rabia bin Malik bin Sha’labah bin Asad bin Khuzaymah bin Mudrikah bin Ilyas bin Mudar Bin Nizar bin Adnan al-Asadi
ضرار بن الأزور وهو مالك بن أوس بن جذيمة بن ربيعة بن مالك بن ثعلبة بن أسد بن دودان بن أسد بن خزيمة بن مدركة بن إلياس بن مضر بن نزار بن معد بن عدنان، الأسدي

Born sometime in the seventh century, Dhiraar was born to one of the Bani Assad chieftains, Malik bin Aws. His lineage can be traced to Malik, son of Aws, son of Jadhimah, son of Rabia, son of Malik, son of Sha’labah, son of Asad, son of Khuzaymah, son of Mudrikah, son of Ilyas, son of Muda, son of Nizar, son of Adnan al-Asadi. His family were among the first converts to Islam. After the Battle of the Trench, he was sent with Tulayha bin Khuwailid to their kinsmen, the Bani Assad, to urge them to embrace Islam.[4] He was known to his tribe as al-Azwar.

Burial Place

His death is disputed.
Martyred in the battle of Ajnadayn 14 H., or in the plague in 18. H.
Buried oug´tside Bab Sharqi, Damascus (disputed)
Tomb of Dirar b. Azwar in Damascus

He also has a Mosque/maqam in Jordan.

Refs

Keywords: Battle at Ajnadayn, The Naked Warrior

References: ZaSh, wiki
Photo f hismaqam in Damascus: yanabi.com
Damas Cultural Society © 2007

—-
More:
[gfh] Dirar b. al-Azwar al-Kindi, Khawla’s brother
buried in Bab Sharqi, Mahallat al-Jazma’

Bio: Dihya al-Kalbi

Bio: Dihya al-Kalbi

Dihya al-Kalbi

(sahabi d. 45 H. in Damascus)
radiya Allah anhu

He was one of the Companions of the Prophet (s), whose form Jibril (s) would adopt when he appeared as a person, and who carried the Prophet’s letter to the Roman emperor.
 

Burial Place

Buried in the graveyard of Mezzah

References

Ziarat al-Sham

© Damas Cultural Society 2007 — Latest update: 2009-03-22
Original site: damas-original.nur.nu

Bio: Habib ibn al-`Ajami

Bio: Habib ibn al-`Ajami

Sayyidi Habib ibn Mohammad al-‘Ajami

d. in Baghdad

Habib ibn Mohammad al-‘Ajami al-Basri, a Persian settled at Basra, was a noted hadith narrator who transmitted from al-Hasan al-Basri, Ibn Sirrin, and other authorities. His conversion from a life of ease and self-indulgence was brought about by al-Hasan’s eloquence; he was a frequent attendant at his lectures, and became one of his closest associates.

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Bio: Hajjah Farizah Al-Rabbat

Bio: Hajjah Farizah Al-Rabbat

In memory of Umm Ibrahim Hajja Fariza Al-Rabbat

Rahimaha Allah

The 10th of April marks the anniversary of the passing of our dear Sayyidatuna Umm Ibrahim Hajjah Fariza bint Ma’mum `Azat al-Rabat, the first wife of Sayyiduna Shaykh Muhammad al-Yaqoubi and the mother of three of his children, Sayyida Aisha, Sayyid Ibrahim and Sayyid Ismail al-Yaqoubi (may Allah protect and bless them all.)

Hajjah Farzah passed away on 10th April, 2006 | 12th of Rabi’ al-Anwar 1427, and is buried in Bab Saghir in Damascus, with Sayyida Amina Amrau, the dear mother of Sayyiduna Al-Shaykh – may Allah have mercy on both of them.

She is fondly remembered for her piety, generosity and kind heart. Every Eid, she made little parcels of gifts and sweets that she would distribute in poor neighbourhoods.

“Her true passion was serving students of the deen & caring for them. She was a mother to us all, Rahimaha Allah.”

Burial place

Hajjah Farizah Umm Ibrahim is buried in the Bab Saghir cemetery in Damascus, a few meters north of Fatima Sughra’s pavillon, in the tomb of Sayyida Amina bint Muhammad Salim Mansur Amrau al-Jaza’iri (d. 1417H / 1996), the dear mother of Sayyiduna Shaykh Muhammad al-Yaqoubi – may Allah have mercy on both of them.

Obituary by Sh. Muhammad Al-Yaqoubi

Obituary for
AL-HAJJAH FARIZAH RABBAT
UMM IBRAHIM AL-YAQOUBI AL-HASANI

BY SHAYKH MUHAMMAD AL-YAQOUBI AL-HASANI

GRIEF AND SORROW
UPON THE LOSS OF MY HEART

My Dear Brothers and Sisters, Relatives, Friends, Students and Supporters throughout the world:

As-Salamu `Alaykum Wa Rahmatullah Wa Barakatuh

“Indeed, we belong to Allah, and to Him we must surely return!”

With grief and sorrow, I share with you the tragic loss of my beloved wife, my companion, and the love of my heart Al-Hajjah Farizah Aal Rabbat, Known as Umm Ibrahim, Rahimaha Allah, who is also the mother of my three children (Aisha, Ibrahim and Ismael).

Allah chose her out of this world to enter al-Jannah on the very birthday of His Beloved Prophet Rasulullah (Sallalahu ‘alayhi wasallam) through the door of martyrs. I do not object to His Will: we belong to Him and our return is to Him; whatever He takes is indubitably His, and whatever He gives is undoubtedly His.

She left this world on Monday 12th of Rabi’ Al-Awwal, 1427 (corresponding to April 10th 2006), around 5:00 pm in a car accident while she was driving from our home outside Damascus heading to the city to visit her family and attend a Mawlid party. At the same time, I was leading a Mawlid feast in the city. She died at 37 years of age, and was approximately five months pregnant with a baby boy who was not saved in the accident. Just a few hours before the accident we had agreed to name him Shareef.

With her in the car, she had our three children, Aisha, Ibrahim and Ismael who are 8, 6, and 5 years old respectively; and her maid Nour. By the Bounty of the Most Generous they survived the accident but were all injured at various levels. They are still in hospital being treated. Please continue to make Du`aa for them.

On Sunday night, (the night of 12th of Rabi’ Al-Awwal), we had a blessed Mawlid Gathering in our home. Monday, the day she died, we had brunch together with the kids and I told her I wanted to take her and the kids in August to al-Madina al-Munawwara, where she can deliver her baby. She was extremely happy and took my word that I will name the boy Shareef.

I left home at 1:30 pm on Monday for a Dars and a Mawlid in the city of Damascus. At 5:15 pm I received the news of the accident and immediately headed to the hospital, only to find out that she had given her last breaths. Later on, the rescuers told us that when they reached her she was alive moving her lips (presumably with shahada, and dhikr) but could not make it to the hospital.

As an English teacher, Umm Ibrahim worked in a neighboring school teaching the first three grades, a job she had for the past three years and she always considered it an important mission; it fulfilled her ambitions. She liked to improve herself through reading and training, through which she acquired many skills in recent years, including NLP and Homeopathy. She loved social activities and had a strong personality. She was an excellent housewife and a great cook.

But most of all, what distinguished Umm Ibrahim, and the reason for which I had chosen her as a wife, was her righteousness, persistence in ‘Ibadah, and her sincerity to the Deen. For instance, in the last few months of her life, she used to pray 100 rak’as of Salah everyday. She recited Surat al-Baqara everyday, oftentimes with Surat al-An’am. Qiyamullayl decorated her nights, and was something she would hardly miss.

She always had new ideas to promote Da`wah and attract people to the true way of Islam. She devoted her life to her family and to students of sacred knowledge. After prayer and recitation of al-Qur’an, nothing was dearer to her than serving the students, cooking for them, and taking care of their needs.

The night before she died, she prepared food for my guests as we were having a feast in our home on the occasion of 12th of Rabi’ Al-Awwal, the anniversary of the Birth of the Beloved of Allah. Six days earlier, on Tuesday 6th Rabi’ Al-Awwal, she cooked for 150 guests, insisting she did not want to order the food. She used to prepare the most delicious food at our weekly Dhikr session for 50 people. One week before she died, she said, when I was trying to convince her to order food, “I find cooking for the students light and easy, and I don’t want to be deprived from its rewards, I know what they like, and the food brought from the market is fatty for them”. Such was her amazing dedication.

Moreover, she liked jabrul Khawatir, so at Eid times, she used to prepare bags full of sweets and gifts to hand over to kids in poor neighborhoods. She used to make Eid parties for the foreign students and organize special programs for their children.

Some 3000 people attended her funeral, which took place on Tuesday after Zuhr prayer at Jami‘ al-Badr in Damascus. Three years ago, upon a visit to Bab al-Saghir cemetery, where my ancestors are buried, she said to me, “When I die, bury me in the graves of your family, I want to be with Ahlul Bait”

By the Grace of Allah, she was buried bearing a grandson of the Beloved Messenger of Allah, in the grave of my mother, Al-Sayyida Ameenah Mansoor al-Jaza’irly al-Hasani, who passed away also in the month of April in 1996, just a few months before myself and Umm Ibrahim got married. Umm Ibrahim had met my mother one week before my mother died. Her grave is only a few meters away from the daughter of Imam al-Husain, Sayyidah Fatima al-Sughra.

I am happy with her now, and I was happy with her before she died, as she was happy with me. In the past few weeks before she died, she told her mother and a few friends over the phone, even the morning of her death, how much she was happy in her marriage; According to a Prophetic statement when a woman dies while her husband is happy with her she will enter al-Jannah. I have seen several signs that she will be in al-Jannah. Obviously, the servants of the Ahlul Bayt will be in al-Jannah, let alone the wives or mothers of Ahlul Bayt.

Many outstanding personalities and scholars spoke during the three-day sessions of condolences held on her behalf. They included: Sayyif al-Fatih al-Kittani, Shaykh Dr. Sa’id Ramadan al-Bouti; Shaykh Krayyim Rajih, Shaykh Dr. Abdullatif Farfoor, Shaykh Abdullah Rabih, Shaykh Abdul Aziz al-Khateeb, Shaykh Abul Hasan al-Kurdi, Shaykh Ahmad Ramadan, Shaykh Na’im al-‘Araqsoosi, Shaykh Sariyah al-Rifa’i, and many others.

Last but not least, I would like to offer my deepest thanks and gratitude to all the scholars, the friends, the students, male and female, in Syria and throughout the world, who supported me and my children and Umm Ibrahim’s family in this difficult time in any form. Nothing is enough to thank the many thousands of brothers and sisters in Damascus and around the globe who stood with us during this trial.

I beg you to continue your Du`aa for the full recovery of the children. Make Du`aa especially that Allah help the three children cope with the loss of their mother, and that the shock, when they learn the news, may easily be absorbed. Make Du’aa for her parents, as the tragic loss is indeed difficult for them. And please do continue to make special Du`aa for Umm Ibrahim that Allah grant her Mercy and Forgiveness and reward her with Jannatul Firdaws.

I end with the following dreams. A Syrian sister saw Umm Ibrahim coming into a room, filled with light. Umm Ibrahim said to her, “Don’t worry about me; I am in the best state”. A brother by the name Zahir saw her calling Imam Abul Hasan al-Shadhiliy, which shows the blessings in the attachment to our great shadhili silsila, as she was part of it, took tariqa over a year ago. Another sister saw on the same morning she died, that a righteous woman passed away in Damascus, during the day, she learned of the death of Umm Ibrahim.

Yes, indeed Umm Ibrahim did not survive the accident but in fact she did survive in my heart and I am sure she will survive in the hearts of those who love her.

May Allah grant her the highest ranks in al-Jannah and the company of my Grandfather, our Master, the best of creation, the Beloved Messenger of Allah, Salla Allahu ‘alayhi wasallam.

May Allah give her her book in her right hand and let her enter Jannah without reckoning.

May He make her grave a garden from the Gardens of Paradise.

May Allah reward all brothers and sisters, and shaykhs and ‘Ulama, and everyone who made Du’a for her and for me and for the children in the best way.

May Allah protect them and their families, their parents and their children and allow us all to meet in Jannatul Firdaws in the company of the Elect and the Beloved of Allah, Rasulullah Salla Allahu ‘alayhi wasallam.

Allahumma Ameen.

The Unworthy servant of the people pf Allah,
Muhammad.

Tribute by Sayyida Asra Bukhari

Student memories

Eid with the people of silence

Sayiduna Shaikh Muhammad’s late wife, Sayida Umm Ibrahim, once asked me if I would go with her on an errand. It was around Eid time and ofcourse i was delighted, but quite curious as she did not mention much about it.

She gathered the children and I into the van. We drove out about 5 minutes to a neighborhood that was still being built. The homes had their foundations and columns but the bricks of the walls still had not been layed.

We stopped almost in the middle of nowhere. She apologetically asked if I would grab a bag from the trunk and give it to whom was living there, as she did not want to leave the children unattended in the van.

I was confused. No one could possibly be living here. The whole neighborbood was deserted and still under construction. There could not possibly be anyone living in the half built home we had stopped in front of. It was winter time and very cold. We were near the neighborhood of Qural Asad which was especially cold. She could see that I was confused and gently explained that there WERE people living there. She pointed out that there was a line of laundry hanging behind the broken wall. There was also a fire burning in an old drumbarrel so that the family living there would not freeze to death. I unbelievingly opened the trunk and found it full of beautiful goodie bags filled with treats and toys. I was still convinced that no one could be living there but took one and walked up to the nonexistant door.

I called out. No one answered. I called out again. Still no answer. I went back to the van.

Um Ibrahim asked me to go again and explained that they are hiding and afraid of being kicked out by the authorities that sometimes come by.

She suggested that I say: Salamu alaikum. Eid Mubarak. Do not be afraid. I just have some gifts for the kids. I am going to leave them here for you.

I did that and still no one answered.

So I left the bags and walked back to the van. As we were leaving i could see heads of little children peering around the broken wall. The women and children came out and we could hear squeals of happiness as we drove away.

We drove in silence to the next home. There was nothing to say. Immense sadness filled the van and i could not hold back my tears. We drove in silence to the next home and the next time I called out louder and waited longer.

I looked for signs that they were there. Signs that had always existed that I had never paid attention to. Signs of silent suffering that go unnoticed except by the great Awliyaa of Allah, Most High. These men and women of Allah that look for those in need and try to give any amount of relief and happiness.

May Allah taala be pleased with the late wives of our Master Sayidna Shaikh Muhammad. May Allah taala preserve them and allow us the honor of emulating them.

/ Linda

Bio: Ibn `Asakir al-Dimashqi al-Shafi`i al-Ash`ari

Bio: Ibn `Asakir al-Dimashqi al-Shafi`i al-Ash`ari

Ibn `Asakir al-Dimashqi al-Shafi`i al-Ash`ari

b. 499 – d. 571 in Damascus
radiya Allah anhu

The famous historian and greatest hadith scholar of his time. He travelled and heard hadith from over 1000 narrators. Authored several encyclopedic works, among them Tarikh Dimashq.
 

English

By Dr. G.F. Haddad

`Ali ibn al-Hasan ibn Hibat Allah ibn `Abd Allah, Thiqat al-Din, Abu al-Qasim, known as Ibn `Asakir al-Dimashqi al-Shafi`i al-Ash`ari (499-571), the imam of hadith masters in his time and historian of Damascus.

Ibn al-Najjar said: “He is the imam of hadith scholars in his time and the chief leader in memorization, meticulous verification, thorough knowledge in the sciences of hadith, trustworthiness, nobility, and excellence in writing and beautiful recitation. He is the seal of this science.”

Born in a family imbued with knowledge, he began his scholarly training at the age of six, attending the fiqh gatherings of his older brother Sa’in al-Din Hibat Allah ibn al-Hasan (d. 563) and learned Arabic and grammar at the hand of his maternal grandfather Abu al-Mufaddal al-Qurashi. Two of his uncles and one of his brothers were successively in charge of the head judgeship in Damascus, Abu al-Ma`ali Muhammad ibn Yahya ibn `Ali al-Qurashi (d. 537), Abu al-Makarim Sultan ibn Yahya (d. 530), and Muhammad ibn al-Hasan.

By the time Ibn `Asakir reached puberty he already possessed hadith certifications from the scholars of Damascus, Baghdad, and Khurasan. At age twenty, after his father died, he travelled around the Islamic world in pursuit of hadith narrations and performed pilgrimage, returning to Damascus and travelling again on and off between 519 and 533, “alone but for the Godwariness he took as his companion,” hearing hadith from 1,300 male shaykhs and 80-odd female shaykhas in Baghdad, Mecca, Madina, Asbahan, Naysabur, Marw, Tibriz, Mihana, Bayhaq, Khusrujird, Bistam, Herat, Azerbaijan, Kufa, Hamadhan, Ray, Zanjan, Bushanj, Sarkhas, Simnan, Jarbadhqan, Mawsil and elsewhere.

After 533 he sat teaching hadith in a corner of the Umayyad mosque in Damascus, then in the Dar al-Sunna school (subsequenty renamed Dar al-Hadith) built for him by al-Malik al-`Adil Nur al-Din Mahmud ibn Zanki. He shunned all kinds of material possessions and turned down the office of head preacher, concentrating on teaching, writing, and worshipping. His most famous student was the sultan Salah al-Din al-Ayyubi, who attended his funeral behind the imam al-Qutb al-Naysaburi.

Ibn `Asakir was buried at the Bab al-Saghir cemetary, next to his father, near the grave of the Caliph Mu`awiya ibn Abi Sufyan.

Ibn `Asakir authored over a hundred books and epistles and narrated under five hundred hadith lessons. Among his larger works:

  1. Tarikh Dimasqh in eighty volumes.1 Ibn Khallikan said that it contains, like al-Tabari’s Tarikh al-Rusul wa al-Muluk, several books that can be read independently.
  2. Al-Muwafaqat `ala Shuyukh al-A’imma al-Thiqat in seventy-two volumes.
  3. `Awali Malik ibn Anas and its Dhayl in fifty volumes.
  4. Ghara’ib Malik in ten volumes.
  5. Al-Mu`jam listing only the names of his shaykhs, in twelve volumes.
  6. Manaqib al-Shubban in fifteen volumes.
  7. Books of “Immense Merits”: Fada’il Ashab al-Hadith in eleven volumes, Fadl al-Jumu`a, Fadl Quraysh, Fada’il al-Siddiq, Fada’il Makka, Fada’il al-Madina, Fada’il Bayt al-Muqaddas, Fada’il `Ashura’, Fada’il al-Muharram, Fada’il Sha`ban.
  8. Al-Ishraf `ala Ma`rifa al-Atraf.
  9. Akhbar al-Awza`i.
  10. Al-Musalsalat.
  11. Al-Suba`iyyat in seven volumes, listing narrations with chains containing only seven narrators up to the Prophet — Allah bless and greet him –.
  12. Tabyin Kadhib al-Muftari Fima Nusiba ila Abi al-Hasan al-Ash`ari, a defense of al-Ash`ari and his school which he divided into the following sections:
    a) Genealogy of Abu al-Hasan al-Ash`ari
    b) Prophetic hadiths that pertain to him
    c) Al-Ash`ari’s renown for knowledge
    d) His renown for piety and worship
    e) His struggle against innovations and their proponents
    f) Dreams that indicate his high standing
    g) Five generations of his students [2] h) Those who attacked al-Ash`ari and his students

    He concluded the book with the following lines of poetry:I have chosen a doctrine that in no way resembles innovation But which successors faithfully took from predecessors. Those who are impartial declare my doctrine sound While those who criticize it have abandoned impartiality.

  13. Yawm al-Mazid in three volumes.
  14. Bayan al-Wahm wa al-Takhlit fi Hadith al-Atit (“The Exposition of Error and Confusion in the Narration of the [Throne’s] Groaning”).[3]
  15. Arba`un Hadithan fi al-Jihad.
  16. Arba`un Hadithan `an Arba`ina Shaykhan min Arba`ina Madina.

 

Ibn `Asakir defined hadith in the following verse of poetry:

It explains the Book, and the Prophet only spoke on behalf of His Lord.

Ibn `Asakir’s son, Baha’ al-Din al-Qasim ibn `Ali, said:

My father was assiduous in congregational prayer and recitation of the Qur’an. He used to recite it once a week, concluding it on the day of Jum`a, and once a day in Ramadan at which time he entered seclusion (i`tikaf) at the Eastern minaret. He performed many supererogatory prayers, devotions, and invocations. He would spend the nights before the two `ids awake in prayer and supplications. He used to take account of himself for every passing moment.

Ibn al-Subki relates that the hadith master al-Mundhiri asked his shaykh Abu al-Hasan `Ali ibn al-Mufaddal al-Maqdisi: “Which of these four contemporary hadith masters is the greatest?” He said: “Name them.” Al-Mundhiri said: “Ibn `Asakir and Ibn Nasir?” He replied: “Ibn `Asakir.” Al-Mundhiri went on: “Ibn `Asakir and Abu al-`Ala’ [al-Hasan ibn Ahmad ibn al-Hasan al-Hamadhani]?” He said: “Ibn `Asakir.” Al-Mundhiri went on: “Ibn `Asakir and al-Silafi?” Al-Maqdisi said: “Al-Silafi (is) our shaykh. Al-Silafi (is) our shaykh.”[4]

Ibn Sasra narrated: “I used to rehearse with him the names of the masters he had met. One day I said to him: ‘I believe that our master never saw anyone like himself?’ He replied: ‘Do not say that. Allah said: {Therefore justify not yourselves} (53:32).’ I replied: ‘He also said: {Therefore of the bounty of your Lord be your discourse} (93:11).’ He replied: ‘In that case yes, if someone were to say that my eyes never saw my like, he would be correct.'” Al-Khatib Abu al-Fadl ibn Abi Nasr al-Tusi said: “We do not know anyone who truly deserves the title of hadith master in our time other than him.” Al-Dhahabi said: “I do not believe that Ibn `Asakir ever met anyone of his level in his entire life.” Ibn al-Subki added: “Nor anyone near his level.”

Main sources: al-Dhahabi, Siyar A`lam al-Nubala’ 15:254-262 #5129; Ibn al-Subki, Tabaqat al-Shafi`iyya al-Kubra 7:215-223 #918.

Notes:
[1] Dar al-Fikr in Damascus has published seventy of them to date in mid-1999.
[2] Translated at www.sunnah.org/aqida/tabyin_kadhib.htm
[3] See section entitled The “Groaning of the Throne” (p. 248).
[4] This could mean either that he considered al-Silafi the greater master, or that he implicitly admitted Ibn `Asakir’s superiority but expressed it in terms of the student’s requisite adab with his teacher. Ibn al-Subki noted that Ibn al-Sam`ani was superior to all of them except Ibn `Asakir, but that he was in far-off Merv, whereas the rest were in or near Egypt and Sham.

Blessings and peace on the Prophet, his Family, and all his Companions.

copyright As-Sunna Foundation of America

عربي

t.b.d.
 

Books

تاريخ مدينة دمشق
Online database

 

Burial Place

Buried in Bab Saghir in an enclosure opposite the entrance to the burial place of Sayyiduna Mu`awiya (radyaAllah ‘anhu).

Refs

© Damas Cultural Society 2007 — Latest update:
Original site: damas-original.nur.nu

Bio: Imam Abu Hanifa

Bio: Imam Abu Hanifa

Imam Abu Hanifa

الأمام الأعظم أبو حنيفة النعمان بن ثابت الكوفيّ
d. 150 in Baghdad
radiya Allah anhu

.


 

English

The Greatest Imam Abu Hanifa

By Dr. G.F. Haddad

Al-Nu`man ibn Thabit al-Taymi, al-Imam Abu Hanifa (d. 150), called “The Imam” by Abu Dawud, and “The Imam, one of those who have reached the sky” by Ibn Hajar, he is known in the Islamic world as “The Greatest Imam” (al-imâm al-a`zam) and his school has the largest number of followers among the four schools of Ahl al-Sunna. He is the first of the four mujtahid imams and the only Successor (tâbi`i) among them, having seen the Companions Anas ibn Malik, `Abd Allah ibn Abi Awfa, Sahl ibn Sa`d al-Sa`idi, Abu al-Tufayl, and `Amir ibn Wathila.

Abu Hanifa is the first in Islam to organize the writing of fiqh under sub-headings embracing the whole of the Law, beginning with purity (tahara) followed by prayer (sala), an order which was retained by all subsequent scholars such as Malik, Shafi`i, Abu Dawud, Bukhari, Muslim, Tirmidhi, and others. All these and their followers are indebted to him and give him a share of their reward because he was the first to open that road for them, according to the hadith of the Prophet: “He who starts something good in Islam has its reward and the reward of those who practice it until the Day of Judgement, without lessening in the least the reward of those who practice it. The one who starts something bad in Islam will incur its punishment and the punishment of all those who practice it until the Day of Judgement without lessening their punishment in the least.” Al-Shafi`i referred to this when he said: “People are all the children of Abu Hanifa in fiqh, of Ibn Ishaq in history, of Malik in hadith, and of Muqatil in tafsîr.”

Al-Khatib narrated from Abu Hanifa’s student Abu Nu`aym that the latter said: “Muslims should make du`a to Allah on behalf of Abu Hanifa in their prayers, because the Sunan and the fiqh were preserved for them through him. Al-Dhahabi wrote one volume on the life of each of the other three great Imams and said: “The account of Abu Hanifa’s life requires two volumes.” His son Hammad said as he washed his father’s body for burial: “May Allah have mercy on you! You have exhausted whoever tries to catch up with you.”

Abu Hanifa was scrupulously pious and refused Ibn Hubayra’s offer of a judgeship even when the latter had him whipped. Like al-Bukhari and al-Shafi`i, he used to make 60 complete recitations (khatma) of Qur’an every Ramadan: one in the day, one in the night, besides his teaching and other duties. Ibrahim ibn Rustum al-Marwazi said: “Four are the Imams that recited the entire Qur’an in a single rak`a: `Uthman ibn `Affan, Tamim al-Dari, Sa`id ibn Jubayr, and Abu Hanifa.” Ibn al-Mubarak said: “Abu Hanifa for a long time would pray all five prayers with a single ablution.”

Al-Suyuti relates in Tabyid al-Sahifa that a certain visitor came to observe Abu Hanifa and saw him all day long in the mosque, teaching relentlessly, answering every question from both the scholars and the common people, not stopping except to pray, then standing at home in prayer when people were asleep, hardly ever eating or sleeping, and yet the most handsome and gracious of people, always alert and never tired, day after day for a long time, so that in the end the visitor said: “I became convinced that this was not an ordinary matter, but wilâya (Friendship with Allah).”

Al-Shafi`i said: “Knowledge revolves around three men: Malik, al-Layth, and Ibn `Uyayna.” Al-Dhahabi commented: “Rather, it revolves also around al-Awza`i, al-Thawri, Ma`mar, Abu Hanifa, Shu`ba, and the two Hammads [ibn Zayd and ibn Salama].”

Sufyan al-Thawri praised Abu Hanifa when he said: “We were in front of Abu Hanifa like small birds in front of the falcon,” and Sufyan stood up for him when Abu Hanifa visited him after his brother’s death, and he said: “This man holds a high rank in knowledge, and if I did not stand up for his science I would stand up for his age, and if not for his age then for his Godwariness (wara`), and if not for his Godwariness then for his jurisprudence (fiqh).” Ibn al-Mubarak praised Abu Hanifa and called him a sign of Allah. Both Ibn al-Mubarak and Sufyan al-Thawri said: “Abu Hanifa was in his time the most knowledgeable of all people on earth.” Ibn Hajar also related that Ibn al-Mubarak said: “If Allah had not rescued me with Abu Hanifa and Sufyan [al-Thawri] I would have been like the rest of the common people.” Dhahabi relates it as: “I would have been an innovator.”

An example of Abu Hanifa’s perspicuity in inferring legal rulings from source-texts is his reading of the following hadith:

The Prophet said: “Your life in comparison to the lifetime of past nations is like the period between the time of the mid-afternoon prayer (‘asr) and sunset. Your example and the example of the Jews and Christians is that of a man who employed laborers and said to them: ‘Who will work for me until mid-day for one qirât (a unit of measure, part of a dinar) each?’ The Jews worked until mid-day for one qirât each. Then the man said: ‘Who will work for me from mid-day until the ‘asr prayer for one qirât each?’ The Christians worked from mid-day until the ‘asr prayer for one qirât each. Then the man said: ‘Who will work for me from the `asr prayer until the maghrib prayer for two qirât each?’ And that, in truth, is all of you. In truth, you have double the wages. The Jews and the Christians became angry and said: ‘We did more labor but took less wages.’ But Allah said: ‘Have I wronged you in any of your rights?’ They replied no. Then He said: ‘This is My Blessing which I give to whom I wish.’”

It was deduced from the phrase “We did more labor” that the time of mid-day to `asr must always be longer than that between `asr and maghrib. This is confirmed by authentic reports whereby:

The Prophet hastened to pray zuhr and delayed praying `asr.

The Prophet said: “May Allah have mercy on someone who prays four rak`as before `asr.

`Ali delayed praying `asr until shortly before the sun changed, and he reprimanded the mu’adhdhin who was hurrying him with the words: “He is trying to teach us the Sunna!”

Ibrahim al-Nakha`i said: “Those that came before you used to hasten more than you to pray zuhr and delay more than you in praying `asr.” Al-Tahanawi said: “Those that came before you” are the Companions.

Ibn Mas`ud delayed praying `asr.

Sufyan al-Thawri, Abu Hanifa, and his two companions Muhammad ibn a-Hasan and Abu Yusuf therefore considered it better to lengthen the time between zuhr and `asr by delaying the latter prayer as long as the sun did not begin to redden, while the majority of the authorities considered that praying `asr early is better, on the basis of other sound evidence to that effect.

Like every Friend of Allah, Abu Hanifa had his enemies. `Abdan said that he heard Ibn al-Mubarak say: “If you hear them mention Abu Hanifa derogatively then they are mentioning me derogatively. In truth I fear for them Allah’s displeasure.” Authentically related from Bishr al-Hafi is the statement: “No-one criticizes Abu Hanifa except an envier or an ignoramus.” Hamid ibn Adam al-Marwazi said: I heard Ibn al-Mubarak say: “I never saw anyone more fearful of Allah than Abu Hanifa, even on trial under the whip and through money and property.” Abu Mu`awiya al-Darir said: “Love of Abu Hanifa is part of the Sunna.”

Abū Hanīfa’s Foresight

by GF Haddad
PDF from http://www.sunnah.org/history/Scholars/AbuHanifasForesight.pdf

عربي

t.b.d.
 

Sagacity of Imam Abu Hanifah

Sagacity of Imam Abu Hanifah

A man by the name of Ad-Dahhak ibn Qays al-Kharji, who rebelled during the time of the Ummayyads, entered the mosque in Kufa and told Imam Abu Hanifa, “Repent!”
“From what?” asked Abu Hanifa.
He answered, “From your having permitted arbitration.”
“Will you kill me or debate with me?” asked the Imam.
“I will debate with you.”
“And if we disagree on anything in the debate, who will decide between us?”
“I will accept whomever you wish.”
“Sit and judge between us if we disagree,” Abu Hanifa said to one of ad-Dahhak’s companions.
“Are you content for this one to decide between us?” asked Abu Hanifa to ad-Dahhak.
“Yes”
“You have allowed arbitration, so desist.”

[source: The Four Imams: Their Lives, Works, and their Schools of Thought, Muhammad Abu Zahra’s book.]

Notes & Refs

Main sources:
al-Khatib, Tarikh Baghdad 13:324-356;
al-Dhahabi, Manaqib Abi Hanifa 22-36 and Tabaqat al-Huffaz 1:168;
Ibn Hajar, Tahdhib al-Tahdhib 10:450;
Ibn Kathir, al-Bidaya wa al-Nihaya 10:114;
al-Suyuti, Tabyid al-Sahifa p. 94-95;
al-Haytami, al-Khayrat al-Hisan.

copyright As-Sunna Foundation of America

© Damas Cultural Society 2007 — Latest update:
Original site: damas-original.nur.nu

Bio: Imam Abul Hasan al-Shadhili

Bio: Imam Abul Hasan al-Shadhili

Sayyidi Imam Abul Hasan al-Shadhili

سيدي الإمام أبو الحسن الشاذلي الحسني
b. 593 – d. 656 H in Humaythira. Egypt
qaddasa Allah sirrahu

‘Ali ibn ‘ Abd Allah ibn ‘ Abd al- Jabbar ibn Tamim ibn Hurmuz ibn Hatim ibn Qusay ibn Yusuf ibn Yusha ‘ ibn Ward ibn Battal ibn Idris ibn Muhammad ibn ‘lsa ibn Muhammad ibn al-Hasan ibn ‘ Ali ibn Abi Talib.

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English

1. From Durrat al-Asrar by Ibn al-Sabbagh
– On His Noble Lineage, Travels and Rank
– Meeting with al-Khidr (s)
– How he became the Qutb
– Shaykh Izz al-Din and the Pilgrimage
– His Last Journey
2. From Lataif al-Minan of Imam Ibn ‘Ata Allah al-Sakandari
3. From Tabaqat al-Shadhiliyya of Kuhin


1. Excerpts from “Durrat al-Asrar wa Tufat al-Abarar” by Ibn al-Sabbagh
Translated by Elmer H. Douglas as “The Mystical Teachings of al-Shadhili”
Book cover, page 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 26, 27-28


On His Noble Lineage, Travels and Rank

With reference to his noble lineage, it is: ‘Ali ibn ‘ Abd Allah ibn ‘ Abd al- Jabbar ibn Tamim ibn Hurmuz ibn Hatim ibn Qusay ibn Yusuf ibn Yusha ‘ ibn Ward ibn Battal ibn Idris ibn Muhammad ibn ‘lsa ibn Muhammad ibn al-Hasan ibn ‘ Ali ibn Abi Talib.

His birthplace was in Ghumara} He entered the city of Tunis when a young lad, turned toward the East, performed many pilgrimages, and went into lraq.

He related,
When I came to lraq, I met the Shaykh Abu al-Fath al-Wasiti, the like of whom I have not seen in Iraq. My quest was for the qutb. One of the saints said to me, “Are you searching for the qutb in lraq while he is in your country? Return to your land and you will find him.

So, he returned to the Maghrib where he met his teacher, who is my master the shaykh, the saint, the gnostic, the trustworthy, the qutb, the ghawth, Abu Muhammad ‘ Abd al-Salam ibn Mashish al-Sharif al-Hasani.

He related,
When I drew near him, while he was living in Ghumara in a lodge on the top of a mountain, I bathed at a spring by the base of that mountain, forsook all dependence on my own knowledge and works, and went up toward him as one in need. Just then he was coming down toward me, wearing a patched cloak, and on his head a cap of palm leaves. “Welcome to ‘ Ali ibn ‘ Abd Allah ibn ‘ Abd al-Jabbar:’ he said to me, and repeated my lineage down to the Apostle of God. Then he said to me, “O , Ali, you have come up to us destitute of your knowledge and works, so you will receive from us the riches of this world and the next:’

He (al-Shadhili) continued,
Awe of him seized me. so I remained with him for some days until God awakened my perception, and I saw that he possessed many supernatural powers (kharq al-‘adat). For example, one day as I sat before him while a young son of his played with him on his lap, it came into my mind to question him concerning the greatest name of God. The child came to me, threw his arms about my neck, and shook me, saying, “O Abu al-Hasan, you desired to question the master concerning the greatest name of God. It is not a matter of importance that you should ask about the greatest name of God. The important thing is that you should be the greatest name of God, that is to say, that the secret (sirr) of God should be lodged in your heart:’ When he had finished speaking, the shaykh (Ibn Mashish) smiled and said to me, ‘Such a one has answered you for me:

He was, then, the Qutb of that time.
Then he said to me, “O ‘Ali, depart to the Province Ifriqiya and dwell there in a place called Shadhila, for God will name you al-Shadhili. After that you will move to the city of Tunis where charges will be brought against you before the authorities. Then you will move to the East where you will inherit the rank of qutb:’

I said to him, “O my master, give me your spiritual bequest:’ So he replied, “0 ‘ Ali, God is God and men are men. Keep your tongue from the mention of them, and your heart from inclining before them, and be careful to guard the members (jawarih) and to fulfill the divine ordinances; thus the friendship (wilaya) of God is perfected in you. Have no remembrance of them except under obligation that duty to God imposes on you; thus your scrupulousness is perfected. Then say: 0 God, relieve me from remembrance of them and spare me disturbances from them. Save me from their evils, enable me to dispense with their good through Thy good, and as a special favour assume Thou care of me among them. Verily, Thou art mighty over all things:’

Meeting with al-Khidr (s)

He related,
When I entered the city of Tunis as a young man, I found there a great famine, and I came upon men dying in the market places. I said to myself, “Had I wherewith to buy bread for these hungry people, I would surely do it:’ Then I was instructed inwardly: “Take what is in your pocket:’ So I shook my pocket and, lo, there was silver money in it. So I went to a baker at Bab al-Manara and said to him, “Count up your loaves of bread:’ He counted them for me. Then I offered them to the people who took them greedily. I drew out the pieces of money and handed them to the baker. He found them to be spurious and said, “These are Moroccan, and you Moroccans practice alchemy:’ So I gave him my burus and small bag as a pawn on the price of the bread, and turned toward the gate. Right there by the gate stood a man who said to me, “O ‘ Ali, where are the pieces of money?” So I gave them to him, and he shook them in his hand, then returned them to me, saying, “Pay them to the baker, for they are genuine:’ So I paid them to the baker who accepted them from me, saying, “These are good:’ I took my burus and bag and then looked for the man, but did not find him.

Consequently, I remained for some days inwardly perplexed until, on Friday, I went into the Zaytuna mosque, near the reserved section on the east side of the mosque, and performed two cycles of the greeting of the mosque and pronounced the salutation. Suddenly, I saw a man on my right. I greeted him and he smiled at me, saying, “O ‘ Ali, you say, ‘Had I wherewith to feed these hungry people, I should surely do it: You would presume to be more generous than God toward His creatures. Had He willed it, He would surely have fed them, for He is more cognizant of their welfare than you:’

Then I said to him, “O my master, by God, who are you?” He replied, “I am Ahmad al-Khidr. I was in China and I was told, ‘Go and look for my saint ‘ Ali in Tunis: So I came hurriedly to you:’ When 1 had performed the Friday worship, I looked about for him, but did not find him.


How Imam Abul Hasan al-Shadhili became the QutbView page scan

I journeyed together with these two [Abu ‘Ali and al-Shadhilij in the service of Abu ‘Ali and, on reaching the city of Tripoli, the Shaykh al-Shadhili said, “Let me travel along the road of the interior!’ But the Shaykh Abu ‘Ali chose the coast road. The latter saw the Apostle of God who said to him, “Abu ‘Ali, you are a saint of God and Abu al-Masan is a saint of God, and God will never arbitrate between two saints in the matter of a road to follow. Take the road which you have chosen and let him proceed along the road which he has chosen:’ So we went our separate ways until we met on the road near Alexandria.

When we had performed the morning prayers, the Shaykh Abu ‘Ali approached the tent of the Shaykh Abu al-Hasan, we being in his company. He entered into his presence, sat down before him, and behaved toward him in a way which was not customary with him. He conversed with him in speech of which we understood not a word. When he was about to depart, he said, “0, my master, extend your hand so that I may kiss it!’ So he kissed his hand and departed weeping. We were amazed at his conduct with him.

When Abu ‘Ali was well on his way, he turned toward his companions and said, “0 Yunus, Abu al-Hajjaj al-Qusuri was in the land of Egypt and he was the Qutb of his time. Last night, he died and God caused him to be succeeded by Abu al-Hasan al-Shadhili.”

So I went to al-Shadhili and gave allegiance to him as one possessing the office of Qutb. When we reached Alexandria, and the people came out to meet the party of travelers, I saw Abu ‘Ali strike with his hand the forepart of the saddle and say weeping, “0 people of this region, if you knew who it is who is advancing toward you in this caravan, you would kiss the feet of his camel, which, by God, have brought you the blessing!’


Shaykh Izz al-Din and the PilgrimageView page scan

One in whom I have confidence related to me., In the year in which he went on pilgrimage there took place the movement of the Tararsu against Egypt. As the Sultan was occupied with operations against them, he did not prepare the military escort for the caravan of pilgrims. The shaykh sent out his tent to al-Birka (where the pilgrims make a halt outside of Cairo] and certain people followed him. So the people met with the jurist, judge, and Mufti ‘Izz al-Din ibn ‘Abd al-Salam, and questioned him regarding the journey. “The journey,” he replied, “undertaken presumptiously and lacking an escort, is not allowable!’ The people informed the shaykh of that. “Let me meet with him,” he responded. He met him in the mosque on Friday. A large crowd gathered around the two. “0 jurist,” he asked, “is it your opinion that, if a man had the whole world reduced to the size of a single step for him, he would be permitted to undertake a journey amidst dangers or not?” The judge replied, “If anyone should find himself in such a circumstance, he would be beyond the bounds of a legal pronouncement (fatwa) or anything of the sort?’ “By God, beside Whom there is no other god,” the shaykh said to him, “I am of those for whom the entire world has been made into the size of a single step. Whenever I see something that causes men to fear, I walk with them to a place of security. For you and me, there is no escape from standing before God (on the Day of Judgment] that He may question me concerning the truth of what I have told you?’ So al-Shadhili departed and many charismatic events attended him on the way. The following is one of them. Thieves would attack the caravan by night, and they would find a wall built around it, as if it were a city. At the break of dawn, they would come to him, inform him of their deeds, repent to God, and travel in the company of the shaykh on the pilgrimage to Mecca. The pilgrimage accomplished, he returned and entered Cairo the first of the people. His pilgrimage companions related to others the miracles he [Abu al-Hasan] had performed. Then the jurist ‘Izz al-Din went out to meet him at al-Birka, which is a place about six miles outside of Cairo. On entering into his presence, al-Shadihili said to him, “0 jurist, by God, were it not for the training that I have received with my ancestor the Apostle of God, I would have taken the caravan on the Day of ‘Arafa and I would have stepped over with it to ‘Arafat.” “I am resigned to God:’ the mufti exclaimed. Thereupon the shaykh added, “Look at the reality of that.” So everyone present looked at the Ka’ ba. The people cried out and the jurist lowered his head between his hands and said, “You are my shaykh from this very hour.” “Rather:’ the shaykh replied, “you are my brother, if God wills:’


His last Journey – View html

The Master Abu al-Hasan ash-Shadhdhuli had made it his custom that every other year he would travel to Mecca for the Pilgrimage. Likewise in the year 656 A.H./1258 C.E., the very year in which a few weeks earlier the Mongol ruler Hulugu Jenghiz Khan had sacked Baghdad, he made preparations to go on the Pilgrimage as usual. However, this time he asked that a pickaxe, shovel, and a shroud should be included in their baggage. As was his custom he set out on the southern route, known as the spice route, overland to Damanhur, then via Qahira, up the Nile to ‘Idfu in Upper Egypt. From there he would cross the Red Sea to Jiddah, and finally make the two-day camel ride to Mecca. At Damanhur, a young boy, who was a student of the Qur’an, begged his mother to let him go with the Shaykh and his party to make the Pilgrimage. His mother, who was a widow, earnestly requested the Shaykh for her son that he be allowed to travel with his party, to which he replied, “We will look after him as far as Humaythira.”

And so it happened. It was related that Abu al-Hasan, may Allah have mercy upon him, had said, “When I entered the land of Egypt and established my dwelling there, I prayed to Allah, the Most High, saying: Ya Rabb, have You caused me to dwell in the land of the Copts, to be buried amongst them, until my flesh becomes mingled with their flesh and my bones with theirs? A reply then came to me: No `Ali, you will be buried in a land which Allah has never oppressed.” It is also recorded that in the year of his death Abu al-Hasan ash-Shadhdhuli was heard to say, “Once when I fell ill, I said: Allah, O Allah, when will the encounter with You take place? I was told: Ya `Ali, when you reach Humaythira, then the encounter will come.” He said, may Allah have mercy upon him, “I saw as if I were buried at the base of a mountain before a well containing a little salty water, which became more abundant and sweet.” And he said to his beloveds, “This year I shall perform the Pilgrimage of substitution (hajjat an-niyaba).

“One of Abu al-Hasan’s followers recorded what happened: Soon after entering the desert of `Aydhab, both the young boy and the Shaykh fell ill, the boy dying the day before we reached the watering-place of Humaythira. The followers wanted to bury the youth where he had died, but the Shaykh said, “Carry him to Humaythira.” When we arrived at this resting-place we washed the boy, and the Shaykh prayed over him before we buried him. That evening the Shaykh, who was also very sick, called his companions around him and spoke to us, counselling us to recite his Litany of the Sea (Hizb al-Bakhr) often, and he said, “Teach it to your children for the Greatest Name of Allah (al-ismu ‘l-`azam) is in it.” Then he talked privately to Sidi Abu al-`Abbas al-Mursi, giving him his orders as his successor with his special blessing. He, may Allah have mercy upon him, said to his followers, “When I am dead, look to Abu al-`Abbas al-Mursi for he is the Caliph (Khalifa) to come after me. He will have an exalted station amongst you for he is one of the Doors (abwab) of Allah, Praised and Exalted is He.” Later that evening he called for a jar of water to be filled from the well of Humaythira. When he was told, “Ya Sidi, its water is salty and bitter, but the water we have is fresh and sweet,” he replied, “Give me some of it for my intention is not what you think.” When we brought him the well-water he drank a little of it, rinsed his mouth with it and spat into the jar. Then he said, “Pour the water into the well.

“Immediately the well-water turned sweet and fresh to taste, and it was abundant enough to refresh all the travellers who stopped to replenish themselves at this place. His followers said, “The Shaykh passed the night in holy preparation and discourse with his Beloved God, continually mentioning His Name until the dawn came when he was still.”



2. From Lata’if al-Minan of Imam Ibn ‘Ata Allah al-Sakandari

t.b.d.
p.96-97 (about the well)



3. From Tabaqat al-Shadhiliyya of Kuhin

From: Kuhin: Tabaqat Al-Shadhiliyyah Al-Kubra, translated by Ahmad Ali al-Adani as “Biographies of Prominent Shadhilis”


t.b.d.


Türkçe

t.b.d.
 

Svenska

Imam Abul Hasan al-Shadhili
(f. 593 – d. 656 H.)
Biografiska noter sammanställda av bmk
Kultursällskapet Damas © 2006 – Se ursprunglig artikel

Hans fullständiga namn är: Taqi al-Din Abul Hasan `Ali ibn `AbdAllah ibn `Abd al-Jabbar. Hans släkband går på fädernet tillbaka till Profeten Muhammads (s) dotterson al-Hasan ibn `Ali ibn Abi Talib, och på mödernet till al-Husayn. Han har benämnts efter by Shadhila nära staden Tunis, dit hans läromästare Ibn Mashish sände honom för att förankra tariqan,

Imam Abul Hasan föddes i byn Gumara i Rif-området som ligger i Atlasbergen i Maghrib (dagens Marokko) år 593 H. Hans första lärare var `AbdAllah ibn Harazim (d. 633), som var elev till Abu Madyan. Som ung reste han österut för att söka sin läromästare. I Bagdad mötte han år 618 H en av den tidens störste andlige ledare, al-Sayyid Abu al-Fath al-Wasiti. Denne sade till honom: “Du har kommit hit för att söka al-Qutb – men han finns där du kommer ifrån – i Maghrib.” Så återvände och leddes till Ibn Mashish. Han klättrade upp för det berg där Ibn Mashish vistades, och fann där en brunn, där han tvättade sig ren från kroppslig och andlig smuts, och bad till Allah: “O Allah, jag har tvättat bort min kunskap och mina gårningar, så att jag inte har någon annan kunskap eller gärning än vad som kommer från denne Sheikh”. Därefter hälsade honom Ibn Mashish med orden: “Välkommen (och han nämnde hans namn och härkomst). Du kom till oss fattig på kunskap och gärning, och av oss tog du emot rikedomar från denna världen och nästa.”

Efter att ha vistats en tid i Ibn Mashish’s sällskap sände denne honom till Ifriqiya (Tunisien) ochg sade till honom: “Du kommer att bli denna tids qutb.” Abul Hasan drog sig tillbaka i en grotta i Zaghwan-beget nära byn Shadhila som ligger mellan Tunis och Qairwan. År 640 H. kom han sedan ned till staden Tunis. Han bosatte sig i al-Balad (vid “den kakelprydda moskén”) och började kalla människor till Allah. Han stannade i flera år i Tunis, och det var där han för första gången träffade den man som skulle bli hans efterträdare: Abu al-`Abbas al-Mursi. Imam Abul Hasan sade om honom: “Denne Abul `Abbas – så länge han känt Allah, har det aldrig funnits någon slöja som skilt honom från Allah. Om han så hade bett om en slöja, skulle han inte funnit någon.”

År 646 lämnade Imam Abul Hasan Tunis och bosatte sig i Alexandria i Egypten, där han sedan tillbragte resten av sitt liv. Han stred år 648 H (1250), tillsammans med sina följeslagare och andra `ulema och awlia, i slaget vid al-Masura, till försvar mot den franske kungen Louis’ korståg mot Egypten. I ett stort torn som hörde till stadsmuren inredde han bostäder till sin familj och sina följeslagare, en moské, gästrum, och utrymmen för undervisning. Bland dem som tog tariqa av honom befann sig många av hans samtida stora lärda, som `Izz al-Din ibn `Abd al-Salam, Ibn Daqiq al-Id, Makin al-Din al-Asmar, `Abd Allah al-Laqqani och många andra. Sammanlagt fostrade han 40 murider till rättfärdiga och värdiga bärare av tariqan, främst bland dem Abul `Abbas al-Mursi.

Imam Abul Hasan brukade göra hajj vartannat år. År 656 H (1258), några veckor efter det att Hulugu Jengis Khan hade skövlat Baghdad, stadde han sig på sin årliga hajj-resa. Denna gång bad han att en spade och en likskrud skulle packas i hans bagage. Hajj-rutten gick genom Damanhur, via Kairo, uppför Nilen till `Idfui övre (södra) Egypten, varifrån man korsade Röda Havet till Jeddah. Och Imam Abul Hasan gick bort i Humaythira i `Aydhab-öknen – enligt ett löfte han fått från Allah på en plats som aldrig vederfarits förtryck.

I “Lataif al-Minan” återberättas från Imam Abul Hasans son och vår mästare, Shihab al-Din Ahmad: “Sheykhen sade då han dog: ‘Sannerligen, jag tillfört denna väg, något som ingen annan kommit med,’ ” Hans kropp tvättades i Humaythiras vatten, som därefter blev välsmakande och överflödande och räckt till alla släcka törsten hos alla de ressällskap som gjort halt där sedan dess. Abu `AbdAllah ibn al-Nu`man, som brukade skriva dikter till Imam Abul Hasans ära, antyder detta i några diktrader:

“Efter hans död bevittnade jag hans underverk
Som tydligt framstår mot dem som förnekar hans upplysthet.”

Sheikh ibn `Ata Allah säger i Lata’if al-Minan: “Hans tariqa härstammar från Sheikh `Abd al-Salam ibn al-Mashish, och Sheikh `Abd al-Salam har sin härstamning från `Abd al-Rahman Sheikh al-Madani, osv. led efter led fram till al-Hasan ibn `Ali ibn Abi Talib, må allah finna behag i honom. Jag hörde vår Mästare Abu al-`Abbas säga: ‘Denna vår Väg härstammar inte fårn öster och inte från väster, utan den återförs led efter led till al-Hasan ibn `Ali ibn Abi Talib, må allah finna behag i honom, som var den förste Qutben.’ ”

“Han brukade nämna sin Sheikh, och avstå från att framhålla sina egna meriter, till en dag en person sade till honom: ‘Mästere, vi hör dig säga: “Sheikhen sade”, och det är sällan du tillskirver dig själv något.’ Sheikhen [Abul Hasan] sade då till honom: ‘Om jag med varje andetag ville säga: “Allah sade”, skulle jag sagt “Allah sade”; och om jag med varje andetag ville säga: “Allah’s Sändebud sade”, skulle jag säga “Allah’s Sändebud sade”; och om jag med varje andetag ville säga: “Jag sade”, skulle jag säga “Jag sade”. Men jag säger “Sheikhen sade” och låter bli att nämna mig själv av adab gentemot honom.’ ”

Han efterlämnade inga skrifter – han brukade säga: “Mina följeslagare är min böcker” – men det finns ett stort antal brev från den korrespondens han upprätthöll med sina följeslagare i Tunis. Dessa brev är värdefulla dokument för den som vill förstå hans lära. De genomsyras av den kärlek han hyste för sin följeslagare – ja han såg det som sin uppgift som Sheikh att vara en fader och fostrare (rabib) för dem, han kände dem mycket nära och hyste en intim vänskap med dem var de än befann sig. En del av dessa brev sammanställdes av en av Imamens tunisiska följeslagare, Muhammad ibn al-Sabbagh, i boken “Durrat al-Asrar”.

Mötet mellan Imam Abul Hasan och Qadi `Izz al-Din ibn `Abd al-Salam

Muhammad ibn Ibrahim ibn `Ayyad berättar [2/ Al-Mafakhir]:
Ett år då Sheikhen (Abul Hasan) stadde sig till Hajj-resa, var det uppror mot Kairos härskare, så denne var upptagen med att kväsa upprorsrörelsen och försåg inte (de hajj-resande) med några skyddstrupper. Sheikhen lämnade sitt tält och gav sig av, och folk följde honom. Folk samlades kring Qadin `Izz al-Din ibn `Abd al-Salam och frågade honom angående resan. Denne sade: Det är inte tillåtet att resa utan skyddstrupper när det råder fara. Sheikhen uderrättades om detta och sade då: Låt mig träffa (qadin), så ett möte anordnades i moskén samma fredag. (Sheikhen) sade till (qadin): “O faqih, om det finns någon, för vilken världen inte är mer än ett enda språng, anser du då att det är tillåtet för honom att resa trots faran eller ej?” (Qadin) sade: “Den som befinner sig på den nivån omfattas inte av fatwan.” Sheikhen sade då: “Vid Allah – ingen gud finns utom Han – jag tillhör dem, för vilka världen inte är mer än ett enda språng, och om jag ser något som utgör en fara för folk, för jag dem med ett steg till trygghet, Du vet lika väl som jag vilken ställning vi har inför Allah den Upphöjde, den Majestätiske. Du må därför be mig bekräfta sanningen i vad jag sagt.”

(Sheikhen) – må Allah finna behag i honom – reste, och på vägen framträdde många underverk. Ett av dem var t.ex. att tjuvar kom till karavanen under natten. När de befann sig mitt i karavanen reste sig runt omkring dem murar som hindrade dem från att komma ut, precis som om de befann sig i en befäst stad. På morgonen kom de til Sheikhen med ånger och omvände sig till Allah den Upphöjde.

Vid återkomsten till Cairo kom Qadin dem tillmötes och folk berättade om vad de hade sett av Allah’s underverk, Väl inne i staden avlade Qadi `Izz al-Din besök hos Sheikhen, och denne sade till honom: “O faqih, vore det inte av artighet inför min förfader, Allah’s Sändebud, välsignelser och fred vare med honom, skulle jag på `Arafat-dagen ha tagit karavanen till `Arafat-berget i ett enda språng.” Muftin svarade: “Jag tror på Allah.” Sheikehn fortsastte: “O faqih `Izz al-Din, se här bekräftelsen av det jag sagt.” Så sträckte han ut sin välsignade högra hand mot Qibla, och alla som var närvarande såg i denna stund Ka`ba framför sig, och folk ropade högt av häpnad. Qadin sänkte sitt huvud inför (Sheikhen ) och sade: “Min Mästare, från dendda stund är du min Sheikh.” Sheiken svarade honom: “Du är min broder, insha’Allah.” Må Allah den Upphöjde finna behag i dem.

I “Lata’if al-Minan” berättas förljande:

En gång när Sheikh Abul Hasan återvände till Kairo från en hajj-resa, besökte han Sheikh `Izz al-Din `Abd al-Salam, innan han gick till sitt eget hem, och sade till honom: “Allah’s Sändebud, välsignelser och fred vare med honom, hälsar dig.” Sheikh `Izz al-Din kände då sin egen ringhet och att han inte var värd en sådan hälsning. Några dagar senare besökte han Imam Abul Hasan och fann i hans sällskap bl.a. Sheikh al-`Alam Ya-Sin, en av eleverna till Shiekh Muhiy al-Din Ibn al-`Arabi, som sade: Vi är mycket glada över det vi fått höra. Det är inte många nuförtiden som hälsas av Allah’s Sändebud.” Sheikh `Izz al-Din sade: “Må Allah dra en slöja över oss.” Då sade al-`Alam Ya Sin: “Må Allah dra undan slöjan så att sanningen blir tydlig.”

Någon sade till Imam Abul Hasan: “Ingenslans på jordens ytan finner man en mera lysande cirkel för (studiet av) rättslära än Sheikh `Izz al-Din `Abd al-Salam’s, eller en mera lysande cirkel för att studiet av hadithkunskap soänSheikh Zaki al-Din `Abd al-`Azim’s, eller en mera lysande cirkel för att studiet av de (gudomliga) realiterna än din.” [Lata’if al-Minan]

Uttalanden av Imam Abul Hasan

Imam Abul Hasan brukade säga: “En Sheikh är inte den som leder till det som tröttar ut dig, utan den som leder dig till det som ger dig ro.” [Lata’if al-Minan]

Han sade: “Tecknet på att ens hjärta har befriats from kärlek till denna värld är att när han förvärvar jordiska egendomar, så använder han dem fritt, och när han förlorar dem upplever han en känsla av befrielse.” [Lata’if al-Minan]

عربي

1. From Imam al-Sha’rani: Al-Tabaqat al-Kubra (PDF) – View | Download
2. From Kuhin: Tabaqat al-Shadhiliyya: View book | Download | Chapter [1] (see below)

(see below)[/hide]


[1] سيدي أبو الحسن الشاذلي رضى الله عنه([1])
(591- 656هـ)

شيخ الطريقة الشاذلية، وأصلُ مددها، وعنصر مشربها، وقطب دائرتها الذي تدور عليه، وهو السيد الأَجَلُّ الكبير سيدنا وسَندُنا ومولانا القطب الرباني العارف الوارث المحقق بالعلم الصَّمداني، صاحبُ الإشارات العلية، والحقائق القدسية، والأنوار المحمدية، والأسرار الربانية، والمنازلات العرشية، الحامل في زمانه لواء العارفين، والمُقيمُ فيه دولة علومِ المحققين، كهفُ الواصلين، وجلاءُ قلوب الغافلين، منشئ معالم الطريقة ومظهر أسرارها، ومبدئ علوم الحقيقة بعد خفاء أنوارها، ومظهرُ عوارف المعارف بعد خفائها واستتارها، الدَّالُّ على الله وعلى سبيلِ جنته، والدَّاعي على علمٍ وبصيرة إلى جنابه وحضرته، أوحدُ أهل زمانه علمًا وحالًا، ومعرفة ومقالًا، الحسيبُ ذو النِّسبتين الطاهرتين الروحية والجسمية، والسلالتين الطيبتين الغيبية والشاهدية، والوارثتين الكريمتين الملكية والملكوتية، المحمدي العلوي الحسني الفاطمي، الصحيح النسبتين، الكريم العنصرين، فحلُ الفحول إمام السالكين، ومعراج الوارثين، الأستاذُ الواصل المرّبي الكامل أبو الحسن سيدي عليٌّ الشاذلي الحسني بن عبد الله بن عبد الجبار بن تميم بن هرمز بن حاتم بن قصي بن يوسف بن يوشع بن ورد بن بطال بن علي بن أحمد بن محمد بن عيسى بن إدريس المُبايع له ببلاد المغرب ابن عبد الله بن الحسن المثنى ابن سيد شباب أهل الجنة وسبط خير البرية أبي محمد الحسن بن أمير المؤمنين سيدنا علي بن أبي طالب كرم الله وجهه ومولاتنا فاطمة الزهراء بنت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم. وهذا هو النسب الصحيح لسيدي أبي الحسن الشاذلي على قول، وسيأتي لصاحب «السلوة» رضى الله عنه أن الصحيح في نسبه وهو ما ذكره أعني صاحب «السلوة» عن الإمام القصَّار عن صاحب «النبذة»، وسيأتي بلفظه إن شاء الله تعالى، وهو ما أعني الشيخ سيدنا ومولانا أبا الحسن الشاذلي رضى الله عنه صاحبَ الطريق، ومُظهرَ لواء التحقيق، الذي قال فيه الإمام البوصيري صاحب «البردة» و«الهمزية» في قصيدة مدحَ بها سيِّدي أبا العباس المُرسي، وشيخَه سيدي أبا الحسن الشاذلي رضي الله عنهما:

أمَّا الإمامُ الشاذليُّ طريقه

أمَّا الإمامُ الشاذليُّ طريقه * في الفضلِ واضحةٌ لعينِ المُهتدي
فانقل ولو قدما على آثاره * فإذا فعلتَ فذاك أخذٌ باليدِ
أَفدي عليًّا بالوجودِ وكلُّنا * بوجوده من كلِّ سوء نفتدي
قطبُ الزَّمان وغوثُه وإمامُه * عينُ الوجود لسانُ سرِّ المُوجِدِ
سادَ الرِّجالَ فقصَّرَت عن شأوه * هممُ المآرب للعُلى والسُّؤدد
فتلقَّ ما يلقي إليك فنطقُه * نطقٌ بروحِ القُدس أيّ مؤيد
وإذا مررتَ على مكان ضريحه * وشممتَ ريح النَّدِّ من تُرب ندي
ورأيتَ أرضًا في الفلاة بخضرةٍ * مُخضَرةٍ منها بقاعُ الغرقد
والوحشُ آمنةٌ لديه كأنَّها * حُشرت إلى حرمٍ بأوَّلِ مسجد
ووجدتَ تعظيمًا بقلبك لو سَرى * في جَلْمَدٍ سجدَ الوَرى للجَلمدِ
فقل: السلامُ عليك يا بحرَ النَّدى * الطَّامي وبحرَ العلم بل والمرشدِ

وقال الشيخ إبراهيم بن محمد بن ناصر الدين بن الميلق:

ولو قِيلَ لي من في الرِّجالِ مُكمَّلٌ * لقلتُ إمامي الشَّاذليُّ أبو الحسنْ
لقد كانَ بحرًا في الشرائع راسخًا * ولا سيَّما علمَ الفرائض والسننْ
ومن مَنهلِ التَّوحيدِ قد عبَّ وارتوى * فللَّه كم أَرْوى قلوبًا بها مِحَنْ
وحاز علومًا ليس تُحصى لكاتبٍ * وهل تحصر الكتاب ما حازَ من فَنْ
فكنْ شاذليَّ الوقتِ تَحظَ بسرِّه * وفي سائر الأوقات مُستغنيًّا بعنْ
فإنِّي له عبدٌ وعبدٌ لعبده * فيا حبذا عبدٌ لعبدِ أبي الحسنْ
إذا لم أَكنْ عبدًا لشيخي وقُدوتي * إمامي وذخري الشاذلي أَكنْ لمنْ

فيا ربِّ بالسرِّ الذي قد وهبتَه

* تمنُّ علينا بالمواهب والفطنْ

وما أحسن قول العارف سيدي علي بن عمر القرشي بن الميلق:

أنا شاذليٌّ ما حييتُ فإنْ أَمتْ * فمشورتي في النَّاس أن يَتَشذَّلوا

وقال بعضهم:

تمسَّكْ بحبلِ الشاذليِّ ولا ترد * سواه من الأشياخ إنْ كنتَ ذا لبِّ
فأصحابُه كالشَّمسِ زاد ضياؤها * على النجمِ والبدرِ المُنير من الحبِّ

وقال آخر:

تمسَّكْ بحبِّ الشاذليِّ فإنَّه * له طُرقُ التَّسليك في السرِّ والجهرِ
أبو الحسنِ السَّامي على أهلِ عصرهِ * كراماتُه جلَّتْ عن الحدِّ والحصرِ

وقال آخر:

تمسَّك بحبِّ الشَّاذليِّ فتلقَ ما * تَرومُ وحققْ ذا المناط وحصّلا
توسَّل به في كلِّ حالٍ تُريدُه * فما خابَ من يأتي به متوسِّلا

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Bio: Imam Ahmad Raza Khan

Bio: Imam Ahmad Raza Khan

Imam Ahmad Raza Khan

d. 1340 H. (1921 CE.) in Bareilly, India

Imam Ahmad Raza Khan
By Mohammad Monawwar Ateeq

Imam Ahmad Raza Khan (d.1921), conventionally known as a leader of the twentieth century Ahl-e Sunnat wa Jama’at tradition (people of the Sunna and the majority) to its followers and to others as the Barewli Movement, was an alim and sufi in British India. He was born a year before the civil and military revolt of 1857 and was traditionally educated by his father, Mufti Naqi Ali Khan (d.1880) at home in Bareilly, under whom he completed the Dars-e Nizami syllabus studying a range of twenty-one Islamic sciences by the age of thirteen. He studied with other teachers too and traces intellectual links to the three centers of Islamic learning in India; Lakhnouw, Khayrabad and Dehli.1 In his licenses and Isnad certificates to the scholars of Makkah and Madinah in 1905, he put on record to have pursued an extensive spectrum of twenty eight sciences alone. He authored works in more or less everything he studied2 some of which received compliments from leading Sunni scholars of Hijaz, Yemen, Syria and Egypt.

Imam Ahmad Raza occupied most of his time in writing responses to people seeking guidance in religious, social, moral and political affairs which absorbed him to the very end of his life producing a bulky fatawa compendium in the Hanafi Law, now fully edited and indexed in thirty-three over sized volumes.4 He was an authoritative author, gifted scholar of classical Islamic sciences both the rational (ma’qulat) and transmitted sciences (manqulat) offering original contributions in nearly every field he studied, phenomenal Arabist, distinguished Mufti, a genius in the pantheon of great thinkers and recognized as a maker of the Muslim world5. He never wavered from supporting the Sunni doctrines and remained mindful of the positions of his elders as he was not just a scholar of Law but also a committed student of a Sufi father and devout murid of the Barakatiyya Sayyids of Marahra, who followed the Qadiri path.

Bio: Imam Ahmad Zarruq

Bio: Imam Ahmad Zarruq

Sayyidi Imam Ahmad Zarruq al-Fasi

الشيخ أحمد زَرُّوق الفاسي
b. 846 H. in Fas – d. 899 H. i Misrata
qaddasa Allah sirrahu

(more…)

Bio: Imam al-Awza´i

Bio: Imam al-Awza´i

`Abd al-Rahman ibn `Amr ibn Yuhmad Abu `Amr al-Awza`i

الإمام عبد الرحمن الأوزاعي
b. 88 – d. 158 H. in Beirut, Libanon (707 – 744 CE) tabi´i
radiya Allah anhu

Tabi´i, faqih and muhaddith of Sham

English

Al-Awza`i

By Dr. G.F. Haddad

`Abd al-Rahman ibn `Amr ibn Yuhmad Abu `Amr al-Awza`i (88-158), Shaykh al-Islam, the Wise Scholar of the People of Sham, one of the mujtahid imams of the Salaf along with the Four Imams, Sufyan al-Thawri, al-Tabari, Dawud al-Zahiri and others, the first – with Ibn Jurayj and Abu Hanifa – to compile the Sunna of the Prophet — Allah bless and greet him — and the Companions under fiqh subheadings. Born orphaned and poor in Ba`labak and raised in al-Kark in the Bekaa valley, he came to live in the area known as – and populated by – “the variegated tribes” (al-Awza`) in Damascus then moved to Beirut where he remained garrisoned until his death, his fame having spread to the entire Islamic world of his time. One of those who combined assiduous worship with science and the affirmation of truth, he is considered a Proof in himself (hujja) as a narrator, known for his superlative understanding of the Law, great erudition, and piety. Al-Shafi`i said: “I never saw a man whose fiqh resembled his hadith more than al-Awza`i.”1

He narrated from a host of Tabi`in, among them `Ata’ ibn Abi Rabah, Abu Ja`far al-Baqir, `Amr ibn Shu`ayb, Makhul – whom he surpassed in knowledge, – Qatada, Rabi`a ibn Yazid al-Qasir, Bilal ibn Sa`d, al-Zuhri, Yahya ibn Abi Kathir – his first shaykh,- `Abd al-Rahman ibn al-Qasim, `Ata’ al-Khurasani, `Ikrima, `Alqama, Ibn al-Munkadir, al-Walid ibn Hisham, Muhammad ibn Sirin, Nafi` – Ibn `Umar’s freedman – and many others. From him narrated his two shaykhs al-Zuhri and Yahya ibn Abi Kathir, Shu`ba, al-Thawri, Malik, Sa`id ibn `Abd al-`Aziz, Isma`il ibn `Ayyash, Baqiyya, Yahya al-Qattan, and many others.

Al-`Abbas ibn al-Walid said: I never saw my father admire anything in the world as much as he admired al-Awza`i. He used to exclaim about him: “Glory to You! You do what You wish.” O my son! Kings are powerless to discipline themselves and their own children the way that al-Awza`i disciplined himself. I never in my life heard him say an excellent word except the listener was bound to observe that it applied to him. Nor did I ever see him laugh without restraint. Whenever he addressed the subject of our return to our Maker, I would say to myself: I wonder, is there one heart in this gathering that is not weeping?

Al-Hiql said: “Al-Awza`i gave replies covering about seventy thousand issues.” `Abd al-Rahman ibn Mahdi said: “The People (al-nas) in their time were four: Hammad ibn Zayd in al-Basra, al-Thawri in al-Kufa, Malik in al-Hijaz, and al-Awza`i in al-Sham.”2 Isma`il ibn `Ayyash said: “I heard people say, in the year 140, that in our day the wise scholar of the Umma is al-Awza`i.” When the latter came to Mecca, Sufyan al-Thawri walked ahead of him shouting: “Open the way for the Shaykh!” Malik compared the two saying: “One of them [Sufyan] is more knowledgeable than the other, but is not fit to be the Imam [i.e. the Caliph], while the other [al-Awza`i] is.” This was also the opinion of al-Fazari, `Ali ibn Bakkar, and Ibn al-Mubarak.

He was fearless in telling the truth to princes. After massacring the Banu Umayya, the harsh king `Abd Allah ibn `Ali – al-Saffah’s uncle – summoned him and asked him in front of his court: “What is your opinion of what we have done?” Al-Awza`i related: “I thought to myself and decided to tell him the truth, bracing for certain death. I narrated to him the hadith: `Actions are only according to intentions.’3 He said: `What do you say about our killing the people of that dynasty?’ I narrated to him the hadith: `Killing a Muslim is forbidden except in three cases: adultery after marriage, apostasy after Islam, and unlawful manslaughter.’4 He continued: `Tell me about the caliphate, is it not our inheritance as stipulated by the Prophet — Allah bless and greet him?’ I replied: `Had this been the case, `Ali – Allah be well-pleased with him – would have never left anyone come before him.’ He said: `But what do we say about the treasury of the Banu Umayya?’ I replied: `If they were licit to them, they are illicit to you, and if they were illicit to them, they are even more illicit to you.'”

Al-Awza`i did not rise from his place of morning prayer until sunrise, and the sun did not pass the zenith except he was seen standing in prayer. Al-Walid ibn Mazyad said: “No-one surpassed him in intensity of worship.”Among his sayings:

* Marwan al-Tatari said that al-Awza`i said: “Whoever stands in prayer at night at length, Allah shall make the station of the Day of Resurrection easy for him.”

* Al-Walid ibn Muslim and `Abd Allah ibn al-Mubarak related that al-Awza`i said: “This science was noble, men would transmit it to one another, but when it spread to books, those other than its rightful custodians became involved with it.”5

* “Whoever holds on to the rare and unusual positions of the scholars has left Islam.” This is similar to Ibn `Abd al-Salam’s saying: “There is no good in one who over-maneuvers (yatahayyal) so as to impose his doctrine despite its weakness and the fact that his evidence is far removed from the truth – whether he interprets the Sunna, or the Consensus, or the Book – standing on bases that are neither right nor true, through corrupt figurative interpretations and rare responses.”6

* “The Book stands in greater need to the Sunna than the Sunna to the Book.” Ibn `Abd al-Barr said: “That is because the Sunna expounds the meaning of the Book (and not vice versa).”7

* Al-Walid ibn Mazyad said that al-Awza`i, asked about humility (khushu`) in prayer, replied: “Downcast gaze, lowering the wing of submission, and softness of heart which is sorrow and dread.” He also said: “I saw al-Awza`i, he was like a blind man due to his humility.”

* Al-Walid heard al-Awza`i define the naïve (al-ablah) as “he who is in blind ignorance of evil but acutely discerning of goodness.”

* “Whoever remembers death much, a little suffices him for livelihood; and whoever realizes that his utterances are counted as deeds, his speech becomes spare.”

* `Abd Allah ibn Ahmad narrated from al-Hasan ibn `Abd al-`Aziz from `Amr ibn Abi Salama al-Tinnisi that al-Awza`i said: “I saw myself as if carried up by two angels who camped me in front of the Lord of Power and Might. He said to me: `Are you my servant `Abd al-Rahman who commands good deeds?’ I replied: `By Your Power and Might! You know best.’ Then they descended again and brought me back where I first was.”

Among al-Awza`i’s notable rulings is that the thigh is part of a man’s legal nakedness in the mosque, but not in the bath.8

Muhammad ibn `Abd al-Rahman al-Sulami said: “I saw al-Awza`i, he was of above-average build, slim, somewhat swarthy, and he used henna.” He used to wear a round turban without a hanging extremity (`adhaba). Al-Dhahabi said: “In addition to his brilliance in the science and his foremost rank in works, he was also a master in the art of writing letters.” Four communities attended his funeral in Beirut: the Muslims carried his bier, followed by the Jews, the Christians, and the Copts. Yazid ibn Madh`ur said: “I saw al-Awza`i in my sleep and asked him: `Show me a level by which to draw near to Allah.’ He replied: `I did not see a level higher than that of the wise scholars of knowledge (al-`ulama’), and, after it, that of the grief-stricken (al-mahzunin).'” SAN 7:86-104 #1049.
_______________________

1 A reference to al-Awza`i’s faithful application of his knowledge in his life.

2 This is a notable example of the use of al-nas to mean the major ulamas.

3 Narrated from `Umar by Bukhari and Muslim.

4 Narrated from Ibn Mas`ud by Bukhari, Muslim, and in the Four Sunan; from `Uthman by al-Tirmidhi (hasan), al-Nasa’i, Ibn Majah, Ahmad, al-Hakim (4:350), al-Shafi`i in his Musnad, al-Bazzar in his Musnad; and from `A’isha by Abu Dawud. See al-Bayhaqi’s Kitab al-Murtadd in Ma`rifa al-Sunan (12:237-258).

5 This statement refers to the books which are passed on for circulation as in modern times, not to those used by the early narrators as mnemonic records when narrating. It is established that early hadith narrators did not narrate except from record, as demonstrated by M.M. Azami and others. ‘Abd Allah ibn Ahmad ibn Hanbal said: “I never saw my father narrate except from a book, save less than a hundred hadiths.” In al-Dhahabi, Siyar A`lam al-Nubala’ (9:457). The best source on the proof-texts for this fact is al-Khatib al-Baghdadi’s book Taqyid al-‘Ilm (“The Tethering of Knowledge”). This title is taken from Anas’s saying: “Tether knowledge with writing” (qayyidu al-‘ilma bi al-kitab). Anas also said: “We would not consider as knowledge the knowledge of those who did not write down their knowledge.” Taqyid (p. 96-97). See also al-Hakim al-Tirmidhi’s chapter entitled “Writing is the means to tether knowledge and preserve it from oblivion” in his Nawadir al-Usul (p. 39-41).

6 Ibn `Abd al-Salam, Al-Qawa`id al-Sughra (p. 144).

7 Narrated by al-Darimi and others and cited by Ibn `Abd al-Barr in Jami` Bayan al-`Ilm (2:1193-1194 #2351). and al-Shatibi in al-Muwafaqat (Salafiyya ed. 1343 4:10).

8 The rulings of the Four Schools agree that the definition of “nakedness” (`awra) for a man is all that is above the knees and below the navel front and back whether in public or private. Among the proofs for this is the Prophet’s — Allah bless and greet him — saying: “The [man’s] thigh is nakedness.” Narrated from Jarhad al-Aslami, `Ali, and Muhammad ibn Jahsh – with three sound chains according to al-Arna’ut – by Abu Dawud, Ibn Majah, Ahmad, Malik, al-Hakim (4:180-181), Abu Ya`la in his Musnad (#331), al-Tahawi in Sharh Mushkil al-Athar (4:401-406 #1697, #1699, #1700, #1704), al-Baghawi in Sharh al-Sunna (9:21-22), Ibn Hibban in his Sahih (4:609-611), and others. Al-Tahawi said in Sharh Ma`ani al-Athar (1:474): “Mass-narrated, sound reports from the Prophet — Allah bless and greet him — have reached us that the thigh is nakedness.” Al-Kattani cited it in Nazm al-Mutanathir.

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From wiki
الإمام عبد الرحمن الأوزاعي

الإمام الحافظ إمام بيروت وسائر الشَّام والمغرب والأندلُس أبو عمرو عبدُ الرحمٰن بن عمرو بن يُحمد الأوزاعي، فقيه ومُحدّث وأحد تابعي التابعين وإمام أهل الشام في زمانه. أُضيف إلى ألقابه لقب إمام العيش المُشترك في لُبنان في العصر الحديث، لِما مثَّلته مواقفه في عصره من تسامح مع المسيحيين واليهود من أهل الشَّام، ولُقِّب بِشفيع النصارى لِموقفه الحازم في مُواجهة والي الشَّام والخليفة العبَّاسي أبو جعفر المنصور، اللذان عزما على إجلاء أهالي جبل لبنان المسيحيين بعد أن ثارت جماعة منهم وتمرَّدت على العبَّاسيين وشقَّت عصا الطاعة، فرفض الأوزاعي إجلاء هؤلاء كُلُّهم طالما أنَّ فئةً منهم فقط كانت من ثارت، ووقف بوجه الخِلافة بِعناد مُذكرًا أهل السُلطة بالعدل بين الناس وأنَّ خطأ فئة لا يستوجب مُعاقبة الجماعة، فأُبطل هذا القرار، وسلم أهالي جبل لُبنان من تعسُّف السُلطة، وحفظوا لِلأوزاعي جميله.[1]

على الأرجح وُلد الأوزاعي في بعلبك، وعاش فترة من صباه في قرية الكرك البقاعيَّة يتيمًا فقيرًا، ثُمَّ انتقل مع أُمِّه إلى بيروت. وكان قبل ذلك قد عاش مع عائلته في دمشق، وتنقَّل بين حلب وحماة وقنسرين وسواها. أُطلق عليه اسم «الأوزاعي» نسبةً إلى «الأوزاع» وهي قبيلة يمنيَّة حميريَّة من بطن ذي الكلاع من قحطان. نزل أفرادٌ منها في دمشق قرب باب الفراديس، وقد أُطلق على المنطقة التي نزلوا فيها اسم قرية «الأوزاع». لم يذكر المُؤرخون والفُقهاء والعُلماء شيئًا عن والد الإمام الأوزاعي باستثناء ما أشار إليه الإمام نفسه، ولا عن والدته أو أخواله، غير أنَّهم أشاروا إلى أنَّ كان له عمٌّ واحد، والثَّابت أنَّهُ تزوَّج أكثر من مرَّة، ورُزق بِثلاث بنات وصبيٍّ واحد، وكان له حفيدين من بناته بِحسب الظاهر.[2]

عاش الأوزاعي في عهدين سياسيين هامين، فشهد نهاية الدولة الأموية وقيام الدولة العباسية، وعاصر من الخُلفاء: الوليد بن عبد الملك، وسليمان بن عبد الملك، وعمر بن عبد العزيز، ويزيد بن عبد الملك، وهشام بن عبد الملك، والوليد بن يزيد، ويزيد بن الوليد، وإبراهيم بن الوليد، ومروان بن محمد، وأبو العباس السفاح، وأبو جعفر المنصور. وكانت الفترة التي عاشها الإمام الأوزاعي تزخر بِالعلم والعُلماء والفُقهاء والقُرَّاء والمُحدثين، ومن أبرز عُلماء تلك الفترة الأئمَّة: مالك بن أنس، وجعفر الصادق، وسفيان الثوري، والحسن البصري، ومحمد بن سيرين، وأبو حنيفة النعمان، والليث بن سعد، وسواهم. وكان الأوزاعي من المُتفوقين علميًّا وفقهيًّا وجُرأةً على الكثير من عُلماء عصره، وقد أفتى وهو في الثالثة عشرة من عمره في مسائل فقهيَّة، بينما أفتى وهو في السابعة عشرة من عمره في مسائل عقائديَّة. وكان الأوزاعي مؤمنًا أشد الإيمان بالقاعدة الإسلامية «الرحلة في طلب العلم»، لذا تنقل في مُدن الشَّام وفي اليمامة والبصرة والمدينة المنورة وبيت المقدس، وحجَّ أكثر من مرة، لِذلك فقد تعمَّق في العُلوم الدينيَّة والشرعيَّة بِشكلٍ لافتٍ لِلنظر. أمَّا فيما يختص بالقضاء فقد رفض الأوزاعي منصب القضاء في العصرين الأُموي والعبَّاسي، فلمَّا وُلي زمن يزيد بن الوليد جلس مجلسًا واحدًا ثُمَّ استعفى، إيمانًا منه بِأنَّ القضاء مسؤوليَّة إسلاميَّة ضخمة لا يُمكن لِأي إنسان أن يتحمَّل وزر مسؤوليَّتها.[3]

وكان الأوزاعي من كبار الأئمَّة المُدافعين عن الإسلام والسُنَّة النبويَّة، لا سيَّما في فترة تزايد البدع والجدل والانحراف عن القُرآن والسُنَّة،[4] كما كان حريصًا على الجهاد والرباط والدفاع عن المظلومين وعن الحق، وكان استقراره في ثغر بيروت بدافع الرباط ورد الاعتداءات عن ديار الإسلام، وكانت الفترة التي قضاها في بيروت أكثر سني حياته المُنتجة والغزيرة، ففيها طوَّر مذهبه، وانتشر في كافَّة أنحاء الشَّام وانتقل إلى المغرب والأندلُس، لِيكون خامس مذاهب أهل السنة والجماعة، لكن لم يُكتب لمذهبه البقاء، فاندثر بعد أن لم يهتم تلامذته بتدوينه والحفاظ عليه، فحل مكانه المذهب الحنفي والشافعي في الشَّام والمالكي في المغرب والأندلس. توفي الأوزاعي في بيروت سنة 157 هـ، وكانت جنازته كبيرة وقيل أن من شارك فيها من المسيحيين واليهود كان أكثر ممن شارك من المسلمين، وأنَّ قسمًا من هؤلاء أشهر إسلامه يومها. دُفن الأوزاعي في قرية «حنتوس» جنوب بيروت، وشُيِّد على قبره مقام ومسجد عُرف بِمسجد الإمام الأوزاعي، ومع مُرور السنوات تغيَّر اسم القرية حتَّى أصبحت تُعرف بـ«الأوزاعي»، وشكَّلت جُزء من بيروت الكُبرى مع مرور الزمن.

تقديرًا لإنجازات الإمام الأوزاعي ورمزيَّته في بيروت، أُنشأت كُليَّة لِلدراسات الإسلاميَّة في المدينة سُميت على اسمه: كُليَّة الإمام الأوزاعي لِلدراسات الإسلاميَّة، وتمَّ إصدار طابع بريدي تذكاري سنة 2009م عن وزارة الاتصالات في لُبنان بعد موافقة مجلس الوزراء، وتبنَّت بلديَّة بيروت اقتراح المؤرخ الدكتور حسان حلاق بتسمية ساحة سوق الطويلة في وسط بيروت التجاري بساحة الإمام الأوزاعي، وبإعادة ترميم زاويته القائمة في ذات الساحة منذ عصره حتَّى اليوم.

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Damas Cultural Society © 2007
Bio: Imam al-Dirqawi al-Hasani

Bio: Imam al-Dirqawi al-Hasani

Mawlaya Imam `Arabi al-Dirqawi al-Hasani

الشيخ السيد العربي بن أحمد الدِرقاوِي الحسني
d. 1239 H. in Rif
qaddasa Allah sirrahu

Great Imam and reviver of the Shadhili Tariqa.
His Shaykh was Sayyidi Sh. ‘Ali al-Jamal
He passed on his secrets to Sayyidi Sh. Muhammad ibn Hamza Zhafir al-Madani
– may Allah be pleased with them all

 

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From Kuhin: Tabaqat al-Shadhiliyya
Transl. bmk

From the bio of the great Sheikh and Imam,
Sheikh of all Gnostics and Rearer of all those who rear by looks and attachment,
Sayyiduna Sheikh  ´Arabi ibn Ahmad al-Darqawi al-Hasani

radiya Allah ´anhu wa afada ´aleina min ma’rifatihi

He – may Allah be pleased with him – memorized the seven Qira´at in his home town of Banu al-Zarwal – a tribe known as people of ´iffa (descency) and richly provided with the blessings of Allah ta´ala. Then he went to study in the city of Fas – may Allah ta’ala protect it. It was  there that he met his first Sheikh, the great Sheikh and Gnostic al-Sharif Abul Hasan Sayyidi ´Aliyy knows as al-Jamal, may Allah make us benefit from him.

He used to visit the maqam of Mawlana Idris ibn Idris, may Allah be pleased with both of them. At his grave, he recited sixty silkat [khatams of the Quran], asking Allah to show him to a Guiding Sheikh. After concluding the sixtieth khatam, he cried copiously, so that his eyes became red. He left the maqam and passed by the Sharif Sayyidi Hamid, a grandson of the great Sheikh and Gnostic Mawlana ´Abd al-´Aziz al-Dabbagh [whose sayings are recorded in “al-Ibriz”], who said to him: “How come I see you in this state?” Sayyiduna Hamid urged him to speak, until he told him that he was in need of someone who would take his hand. Sayyiduna Hamid said: “I will lead you to him, provided you do not consult people of deficient opinion and dull intelligence about it”.

As al-Sharshiyy said in his poem ending on the letter Ra:
Ask only one who has Vision (basira)
who is free from [his own] desire, and is not deluded

Sayyiduna Sheikh ´Arabi al-Darqawi – may Allah santify his secret – relates:
“I then asked him: Who is he? He replied: He is the great Teacher of noble descent the Helper who gathers (al-Gauth al-Jami´), the wide Ocean, Abul Hasan Sayyidi ´Ali ibn ´Abd al-Rahman al-´Umarani, who is called “al-Jamal” – may Allah be pleased with him.

It was my habit never to embark on anything, great or small, without first [praying] the Istikhara of the Prophet (s). So that night, I asked Allah to guide me to the good (istikhara), while engrossed in [questions about] his attributes: What is he like? How would I meet him? – so that I did not sleep that night.

After praying the dawn prayer, I headed towards the Rumliyya (where his grave is now, and it is well known and visited) to visit [him there]. I knocked at the door, and there I found him tidying the zawiya, as he kept on doing that every day with his blessed hand, despite his hight age and sublime rank. He said: What do you want? I said: I want, o my Master, that you take my hand [and guide me] to Allah. He rose in front of me as an imposing figure. He made me doubt about my quest, concealing his state from me. He said: Who said that to you? Who has taken my hand [to guide me], that I could take yours? And he rebuked me and turned me away with angry words – all that in order to test my sincerity. So I turned away from him.

That night I again asked Allah to guide me to good (istikhara), I prayed the dawn prayer and again went to him in his zawiya. Again I found him busy tidying the zawiya – may Allah be pleased with him. I approached the door, and he opened for me, and I said: “Will you take my hand [and guide me] to Allah?”  He grasped my hand and said to me: Welcome! and made me enter into his place in the zawiya.

He was exceedingly glad at [seeing] me, exalted with happiness. I said to him: O my Master, how I have been seeking a Sheikh! He said to me: And how have I been seeking a sincere murid! He taught me the wird and said to me: Go and come back! So I would go and come every day, and he pointed out some of the poeple of Fas to me – may Allah preserve her (Fas) from all harm.”

He remained wtih his Sheikh for two years. When the great opening came to him and was firmly established in his hal, and Allah willed that he be of benefit to His servants, he released the rein of His Providence for him to move back from Fas to his country, the land of Banu Zarwal, where he is today. He then asked permission from his Sheikh to travel with his sons, and he gave him permissin – may Allah be pleased with him and make us benefit from him.
_____________________

Ref: Hasan b. Muhmmad al-Kuhan al-Fasi: Tabaqat al-Shadhiliyya al-Kubra


عربي

قال الإمام المحدّث محمد بن جعفر بن إدريس الكتاني رحمه الله في ترجمة مولانا العربي الدرقاوي رضي الله عنه ما نصه

من الأفراد الكمَّل العارفين بالله الدّالين بأقوالهم و أفعالهم جميع أحوالهم على الله جامعًا لمحاسن الشيم و الأخلاق طائرًا بصيته المعجب في جميع البلاد من المشرق و المغرب حتى انتشرت أتباعُه في عامة الأقطار و عمرت زواياه بالإخوان الفقراء في سائر البوادي و الأمصار و صار شيخ العصر في مقام الجبر و الكسر كعبةً للطائفين و قدوةً للسالكين و ملاذًا للخائفين و سراجًا للسائرين و ظهرت له كرامات أجلى من الشمس في الوضوح يغدو بمشاهدتها جميع من أهَّله الله لرؤيتها و يروح و تواترت بها النقول فتلقاها العظماء بالقبول

أخذ رحمه الله عن جماعة من الأولياء و جمهور من الكبراء الأصفياء و عمدته منهم الشيخ العارف بالله مولانا أبو الحسن علي الجملرضي الله عنه فبه أشرقت في صدره أنوار العرفان و تجلت له من ربّه شموس الإحسان ووقع له الفتح الكبير و المدد الفيَّاض الغزير و تخرَّجَ على يده هو من لا يحصى من الشيوخ و أرباب التمكين و الرسوخ

منهاج طريقته

و طريقته رضي الله عنه مبنية على اتباع السنة في الأقوال و الأفعال و العبادات و العادات و مجانبة البدع كلها في جميع الحالات مع كسر النَّفس و إسقاط التدبير و الاختيار و التبري من الدَّعوى و الاقتدار و الإكثار من الذّكر آناء الليل و أطراف النهار و الإشتغال بالمذاكرة و ما يعني و ترك ما يُعني و بالجملة فطريقته رضي الله عنه جلالية الظاهر جمالية الباطن و إن شئت قلت سفلية الظاهر علوية الباطن كطريقة شيخه

ولادته

ولد رحمه الله بعد الخمسين و المائة و الألف 1150 هـ / 1737 م ببني زروال وبها توفي ليلة الثلاثاء الثاني و العشرون من صفر الخير عام 1239هجرية الموافق لـ 25 من نوفمبر 1823 ميلادية و أحواله و أوصافه و معارفه لا يفي بها قلم و هي من الشهرة كنار على علم رضي الله عنه و نفعنا به و بأمثاله آمين

من بركات المكان الذي وُلد فيه أي بني زروال

إن القبيلة التي وُلد فيها رحمه الله مباركة لها منافع كثيرة و خواص شهيرة منها
أنَّ بها أولاد الخلفاء الأربعة ساداتنا أبي بكر و عمر و عثمان و علي رضي الله عنهم
و منها ما جمع الله فيها من الزروع و الدروع و العنب و الزيتون و الفواكه و شجاعة أهلها
و منها أنَّ الولي الكبير الأستاذ الشهير سيدي الحاج بن فقيرة الزروالي قرأ سلكة أي ختمة برواية السبع في الروضة الشريفة روضة النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم فلما ختمها أجابه صلى الله عليه وسلم و قال هكذا أنزل عليَّ أيها الإمام الزروالي بارك الله فيك و في قبيلتك الزروالية

قراءته و حفظه للقرآن

حفظ القرآن رضي الله عنه في السلكة الأولى حفظًا مُتقنًا و كان محبوبًا عند جميع من رآه قال رحمه الله كنت أسلك للطلبة ألواحهم و كثيرًا ما أقبض اللوح بيدي و أقول لصاحبه قبل أن أنظر فيه هذا اللوح ثقيل فيه كذا و كذا خسارة أو خفيف ما فيه إلاَّ كذا و كذا أو لا شيء فيه فلا أجد إلاَّ ما أخبرتهم به إلهاماً من الله سبحانه و تعالى

و كانت حالته في القراءة عدم التَّكلف بل يكتب اللوح و يتأمله قليلاً و يتركه و يشتغل بالكتابة بألواح الطلبة و يسرد معهم و كذلك قراءته للسبع حتَّى حفظها

ملاقاته بشيخه في التصوف الشيخ و سيدي علي الجمل رحمه الله 1182 هـ / 1768 م

قال مولانا العربي الدرقاوي رضي الله عنه و كان من عادتي أن لا أقوم على أمر من الأمور جليلاً أو حقيرًا إلاَّ بعد الإستخارة النبوية فاستخرت الله في تلك الليلة فبت أخوض في صفاته أي الشيخ المربي كيف هو؟ و كيف تكون ملاقاتي معه؟ حتى لم يأخذني النوم تلك الليلة و لـمَّا قصدته لزاويته بالرميلة التي بين المدن عدوة الوادي من جهة القبلة شرفها الله و هي التي ضريحه بها الآن مشهور مقصودٌ للزيارة فدققت الباب فإذا به قائمٌ يشطب أي يكنس الزاوية إذ كان لا يترك تشطيبها بيده المباركة كل يوم مع كبر سنه و علو شأنه فقال أيش تريد؟ قلت أريد ياسيدي أن تأخذ بيدي لله فقام معي قومةً عظيمةً و لبَّس الأمر عليَّ و أخفى عني حاله و صار يقول من قال لك هذا؟ و من أخذ بيدي أنا حتَّى آخذ بيدك؟ و زجرني و نهرني و كل ذلك اختبارًا لصدقي فوليت من عنده قال فاستخرت الله تلك الليلة أيضًا فصليت الصبح و قصدته لزاويته أيضًا فوجدته على حاله يشطب الزاوية رضي الله عنه فدققت الباب ففتح لي و قلت تأخذ بيدي لله؟ فقبض علي يدي و قال لي مرحبًا بك و أدخلني لموضعه بالزاوية و فرح بي غاية الفرح و سُـرَّ بي غاية السرور فقلت له يا سيدي كم لي أُفتش على شيخ؟! فقال لي و أنا أفتش على مريد صديق!!! فلقنني الوِردَ و قال لي امش و اجيء أي تردد علي بلا حرج أو تعالى لتزورني بدون حرج فكنت أمشي و أجيء كلَّ يوم فيذكرني مع بعض الإخوان من أهل فاس حرسها الله من كلِّ بأس

و لزم مولاي العربي الدرقاوي رضي الله عنه شيخه سنتين و لما فاجأه الفتح المبين و تمكن من حاله غاية التمكين و أراد الله نفع العباد به خرق عنان عنايته إلى الإنتقال من فاس إلى بلده قبيلة بني زروال حيث هو الآن بها فاستأذن شيخه في الرحيل بأولاده فأذن له في ذلك

جملة من سيرته أحواله و نسكه التي أدركه أصحابُه عليها

كان رضي الله عنه زاهدًا متجردًا عن الدنيا و زخرفها مخالفاً لنفسه و مجاهدًا لها و تركه للأخف عليها و متابعته لما يثقل عليها إذ لا يثقل عليها إلاَّ ما كان حقًّا و أسرع إجابةً و فتحًا كما قال رضي الله عنه و إقباله على الحق و إعراضه عن جملة الخلق لا يبالي بـهم سواءً مدحوه أو ذموه و تمسكه بالفاقة و الإفتقار و يثاره للذلة و الإحتقار و حذره مما ألفه الناس من الجمع و الادخار لا يترك عشاءه لغدائه ولا من غذائه لعشائه بل يأخذ قدر ما يقيم به بنيته و بنية عياله و يخرج الباقي لعباد الله و هذا مسلكٌ عظيمٌ لا يقدرُ عليه إلاَّ من أقدره الله

قال الشيخ العلامة العارف الكبير أبو العبَّاس سيدي أحمد بن عجيبة الأنجري الحسني مكث مولانا العربي على هذه الحالة الموصوفة خمسًا و عشرين سنةً لا يترك من عشائه لغدائه و لا غذائه لعشائه بل حتى ما يكون في الصباح من دهن الفتيلة أي فتيلة المصباح الزيتي الذي كان يستعمل للإضاءة ليلاً ثقةً بالله و اعتصامًا بالله و كان تأتيه الفتوح من عند الله و لا يأخذ منها إلاَّ قدر ضرورته و زوجه و أولاده منها و هم جماعة كالطير في وكرها غدواً و أصيلاً حتى أتاه الإذن من الله فكان يأخذ بالله كما كان يترك لله و صار يزيد بكل شيء و لا ينقص منه شيء

كان رضي الله عنه آية في معرفة الله و العمل بسنة رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم و الكرم و الحلم و الصبر و التأني و العفة و الخشية و الهيبة و السكينة و التؤدة و التواضع و الحياء و الجود و السخاء و الزهد و الورع و الرحمة و التوكل و الشفقة و القناعة و الاكتفاء بعلم الله و الأنس و الإطمئنان بالله و السكون إليه في جميع الأحوال و العشق و الشوق و العزم و القريحة و النية الصالحة و المحبة و الظن الحسن و الصدق و الهمة العالية و سعة الصدر و الأخلاق الكريمة و المحاسن العظيمة و الأحوال السُّنيَّة السَّنيَّة و المقامات السمية و المواهب اللدنية و المواجيد الربَّانية صاحب محوٍ و فناءٍ و صحوٍ و بقاءٍ و غيبةٍ في مولاه و شهودٍ لما به تولاه قد أُغرق في بحر الحقيقة و أُعطي القوة و التمكين و الرسوخ في المعرفة و اليقين و سلك من السنة منهاجًا قويمًا و طريقًا مستقيمًا و شرب من الخمرة الآلهية صفوًا وورد من منهلها الأروى فقويت أنواره و فاضت في الآفاقِ بيناته و أسراه وسقى الجمَّ الغفير من شرابه كؤوساً و ملأ قلوبهم و أرواحهم أقمارًا و شموسًا فتوالت بذلك إرادته و دامت لديهم مناولته و مُـدُّوا منها على الأبد بمددٍ جسيمٍ و ذلك فضل الله يؤتيه من يشاء

و كل ما ذكرناه مما ليس شأنه أن تقام عليه البراهين و البينات لا سيما عند أهل الاعتقادات الكاملة و النيات الصالحة على أن مآثر هذا الجليل قد بلغت مبلغ التواتر القطعي خصوصًا عند أهل هذا الشأن العظيم

و حسب كل من لم يصدق بما جئنا به و لم يصل إلى مقامهم أن يظن الظن الحسن في عباد الله الصالحين و أن يسلم المسألة لأهلها حتى يدخل في حيز من حسن إسلام المرء تركه ما لا يعنيه فينتفع هكذا بالتسليم و كما ينتفع بالإيمان بالغيب و أما من أراد نفيها دخل حتما في قوله تعالى : بَلْ كَذَّبُوا بِمَا لَمْ يُحيطُوا بِعلمِـهِ

وفاته رضي الله عنه

توفي مولانا رضي الله عنه ليلة الثلاثاء 22 صفر الخير 1239 هجرية الموافق لسنة 1823 ميلادية فقد توفي عن سن عالية نحو 80 سنة غسلته زوجه الصدِّيقة الصائمة القائمة السيدة مريم بنت الشيخ ابن خدة الحسناوي و صلى عليه الأستاذ الأجل عبد الرحمن من حفدة الشيخ الكبير أبي البقاء عبد الوارث اليصلوتي العثماني و كل ذلك بإيصائه المرة بعد المرة دُفن رضي الله عنه بزاويته ببني زروال بحبل الزبيب و هي على مسيرة يومين من مدينة فاس المحروسة بالله

Dirqawi letters

Introduction to The Dirqawi letters
Mawlay al-Arabi ad-Darqawi: Letters from the Shaykh to the fuqara Arabic PDF.
Transl. into English by Aisha Bewley as “The Darqawi Way”, Norwich: Diwan Press, 1981. English PDF | Selection

Shaykh Ibn ‘Abbas, Sayyidi Ahmad ibn Muhammad az-Zagari al-Hasani, known as Ibn al-Khayyat, wrote concerning Sayyidna Moulay al-Arabi ad-Darqawi, as a way of introduction to Moulay al-Arabi’s Risala:

In the Name of Allah, the most Beneficient the most Merciful

Salutations and peace upon our master Muhammad and his family. Praise be to Allah who placed in every age one who calls to Allah and is a guide to the treatment of the sicknesses of the nafus and to the path of putting hearts right. Whoever answers his call is happy. Whoever is arrogant or shy continues with the hobbling-cord of his sickness. SubhannAllah! He purifies the hearts of whomever He wills of His slaves and makes them Imams in the path of guided conduct. They travel on the Path to Allah and they recognize its states. They have insight into the machinations of the nafs. They know its actions. Their Master has guided them to His Path after much strivng. Their selves have been put to rest after struggle and suffering. They have drawn near to their Master with sincere intention and their Master has drawn near to them as befits the sublime essence.

These are the letters of the Sheikh, the Imam, the Ghawth who benefits the elite and the common, the famous wali and great siddiq, the perfect realized gnostic, the one who has arrived, who is drown

ed in the sea of Tawhid, utterly crushed and annihilated in the immensity of the sublime essence, who is firmly established and firmly rooted, the lofty mountain which joins the shari’at of our master Muhammad and the haqqiqa, bewildered in every station of his realization, the Cave of mankind and the shelter of the elite and common. He is the sign, ayyat, of the Merciful and the rarity of the age, the word of Allah from His direct presence, and the shelter of His resplendent tajalli-manifestati on. He is the Sharif ad-Darqawi al-Hasani, the teacher, endowed with noble qualities, our lord and master al-Arabi, may Allah give us the beneift of his baraka and send banck some of his fragrant breeze to us. He is loved by those from who the veils have been lifted and from whom others are distant. The cosmos is crushed and annihilated in their eyes since they see He is One, the Conqueror. What contemplation it is! How sweet it is! What a station it has! How high they are!

Regarding his letters, it is a drink which is clear and pure for the thirsty. All examinations agree that the knowledge of their author is an overflowing sea. In them are the commands and words of the shari’at of Muhammad, and the sunnah and actions of the tariqa, and the secrets and states of the reality, Haqqiqa.

Oh brother (and sister)! Grab on to them and act according to them. Take on their character. All that there is in them is the shari’at of the master of the Messengers, peace and blessings of Allah upon him and his family, the path of the wayfarers, indications of the realized gnostics who have arrived, and the estasies of the beloved lovers. They, like their author, are well-known and famous in every land. They are spread out as this Darqawi Tariqa is spread out, the group of the dutifully obedient, may Allah have mercy upon all of them (those of the past, the future, and the current brotherhood) .

I said: Moulay al-Arabi ad-Darqawi, the author of these letters, may Allah be well pleased with him, was the answer for this world in the heart of the sources. How many people who had blind eyes, heedless hearts, and ears deaf to perception of the divine presence were opened by Allah at his hand, and the hand of his companions and heirs after him! They were not aware and now their hearts have found a nest and their spirits a residence, may Allah profit us by their baraka.

–––––

Maqam Pics

tbd

Refs

References

Damas Cultural Society © 2007

Bio: Imam Al-Ghazali

Bio: Imam Al-Ghazali

Imam Al-Ghazali Muhammad b. Muhammad, Abu Hamid al-Tusi al-Shafi`i

(d. 505 i Tus)
radiya Allah anhu

English

Imam al-Ghazzali by Dr. G.F. Haddad

عربي

t.b.d.
 

His Khalwa in the Umawi mosque

He lived for some time in Damascus, and used the western minaret of the Umawi mosque as a khalwa room.

The Umayya mosque

o Overview diagram
o Maqam of Prophet Yahya
o Maqam of Sayyiduna Husayn
o Imam al-Ghazali’s khalwa room
o More…

 

Minaret
of Prophet `Isa (s)
and maqam of sayyiduna
al-Husayn     v
Main
dome
v
<
Western minaret,
with imam
al-Ghazali’s

khalwa room

 

Umayya mosque overview diagram

© Damas Cultural Society 2007 — Latest update:
Original site: damas-original.nur.nu

Bio: Imam al-Jazuli

Bio: Imam al-Jazuli

Sayyidi Imam Muhammad b. Sulayman al-Jazuli al-Hasani al-Shadhili

الإمام الجزولي – أبو عبد الله محمد الجُزُولي السملالي الحسني الشاذلي
d. 869/870/873 H. in Marrakash
qaddasa Allah sirrahu

(more…)

Bio: Imam al-Sha'rani

Bio: Imam al-Sha’rani

Sayyidi Al-Qutb al-Sha’rani al-Shafi´i al-Shadhili

الشيخ سيدنا أبو المواهب شرف الدين عبد الوهاب علي الشعراني الأنصاري الشافعي الشاذلي
d. 973 H. (1565 CE) in Cairo – radiya Allah ‘anhu

(more…)

Bio: Imam al-Shurubulali

Bio: Imam al-Shurubulali

Imam Shurunbulali is Abul Ikhlas Hasan ibn `Ammar ibn `Ali al Shurunbulali al Wafa’i (964-1069 H.), a major Hanafi imam and verifier (muhaqiq) whose works form an integral part of the school.
(more…)
Bio: Imam Al-Suyuti

Bio: Imam Al-Suyuti

Imam al-Suyuti

اﻺمام الحافظ عبدالرحمن بن أبي بكر بن محمد جلال الدين السيوطي
b. – d. 910 H. in Cairo ( CE)
qaddasa Allah sirrahu

(more…)

Bio: Imam Al-Tahawi

Bio: Imam Al-Tahawi

Abu Ja´far al-Warraq Al-Tahawi

الإمام أبو جعفر اوراق الطحاوي
b. – d. 321 C. H. in Cairo (… CE)
may Allah be pleased with him

English

عربي

Dr. Mahmud Sobieh

From Siyar al-A’lam View | Download
From Tarwid al-Mihan – ترويض المحن View | Download | Read online: Open | Close

Burial Place

Cairo

More

Bio: Imam al-Tirmidhi

Bio: Imam al-Tirmidhi

Imam Abu ´Isa Muhammad b.´Isa al-Tirmidhi

الإمام محمد بن عيسى بن سورة الترمذي
b. 209 – d. 279 H. in … ( CE)
radiya Allah anhu

A student of Imam al-Bukhari.
Author of one of the six canonocal hadith collections

English

Imam Tirmidhi (209 – 279 H)

By Dr. G.F. Haddad

Imam Tirmidhi was born in the year 209 A.H. during the reign of the Abbasid Khalifa Ma’mun al-Rashid. The Abbasid Caliphate, despite its brilliant contributions to Islam, brought along with it many thorny problems. Greek Philosophy had a free flow into the Islamic world. This was fully sanctioned by the government until eventually it declared the Mu’tazila school of thought as the state religion. Anyone who opposed the Mu’tazila school of thought would be opposing the state. With the influence of Greek philosophy infiltrating within the people, many Muslims began attempting to reconcile between reason and revelation. As a result they deviated themselves and misled many innocent weak Muslims away from Allah and His Prophet (s). Many scholars of Islam had come to the fore in order to defend the Shari`ah. Forgeries and interpolations in Hadith by rulers who wished to fulfil their personal motives was common. In the first century `Umar bin Abdul `Aziz (r) initiated a movement for the compilation of the holy hadith of the the Prophet (s) as there was a fear of it being lost. Eventually this gigantic task was undertaken by six towering scholars of Islam. One of them was Imam Abu `Isa Muhammed ibn `Isa Tirmidhi

Having grown up in an environment of learning, together with possessing many great qualities naturally drove Imam Tirmidhi to dedicate his life totally towards the field of Hadith. He obtained his basic knowledge at home and later travelled to far off lands in search of this great science. He studied Hadith under great personalities such as Imam Bukhari, Imam Muslim and Imam Abu Dawud. In some narrations Imam Bukhari and Imam Muslim are his students as well.

Once Imam Bukhari mentioned to him “I have benefited more from you than you have benefitted from me.” Musa ibn `Alaq once said: “When Imam Bukhari passed away, he left no one in Khurasan who compared with Abu `Isa Tirmidhi in knowledge, memory, piety and abstinence.” According to `Abdullah ibn Muhammed Al-Ansari, Imam Tirmidhi’s Al-Jami` is more beneficial than the works of Bukhari and Muslim since their compilations can only be understood by a very deep sighted scholar whereas Al-Jami` can be understood by both the scholar and the layman.

Imam Tirmidhi said that he compiled this book and presented it to the learned of Hijaz, Iraq and Khurasan and they were pleased with it. Who ever has this book in his home, it is as though he has the Prophet (s) speaking to him there.

His remarkable memory:

Imam Tirmidhi had an exceptionally remarkable memory. If he heard something once he never forgot it. Once on his way to Makkah, Imam Tirmidhi met a scholar of hadith (muhaddith) from whom he had previously copied two chapters of hadith. Thinking that he had the notes with him he asked the scholar if he would allow him to read out these two chapters so that he could correct any errors. After realizing that he did not have those notes with him he took a blank piece of paper and read out the entire two parts from memory. When the muhaddith realized what he was doing he rebuked Imam Tirmidhi saying: “Have you no shame, why are you wasting my time.” Imam Tirmidhi assured him that he had committed all the ahadith to memory. The scholar was not convinced, even though Imam Tirmidhi had recited all the hadith from memory. Imam Tirmidhi requested him to recite to him some other hadith. The scholar recited forty ahadith which Imam Tirmidhi thenrepeated without making a single error, thus showing his remarkable power of committing hadith to memory.

Another incident has been recorded by Hakim ul-Ummat in his Al-Misk-us-Zaki, depicting the profound memory of Imam Tirmidhi. He writes:

Imam Tirmidhi had lost his sight towards the latter portion of his life. Once whilst on a journey, at a certain point he bowed his head. When asked as to why he did this, he replied: “Is there not a tree here whose branches hang over in such a manner that it harms those who are passing by.” They answered in the negative. He was quite shocked when he heard this as he distinctly remembered there being a tree and was worried as to whether his memory was failing him or not. He stopped the caravan immediately and asked his companions to enquire from the locals whether a tree had existed there or not. “If it is established that no tree existed then I will stop narrating the Hadith of the Prophet (s) due to my weak memory.” On inquiry it was shown to them that a tree had previously existed over there but due to it being a hindrance to travelers it was removed.

Imam Tirmidhi had a large number of students from all over the world. The most famous amongst them were Haysam ibn Kulaib, Abul Abbaas and Muhammed ibn Ahmed Shah Abdul `Aziz describes Imam Tirmidhi in the following words: “His memory was unique and his piety and fear of Allah ta’la was of a very high caliber. He would cry so much out of the fear of Allah, that towards the end of his life he lost his sight.”

According to Ibn Taymiyya and Shah Waliullah, Imam Timidhi was an independent Jurist (Mujtahid). Moulana Anwar Shah Kashmiri is of the opinion that he was a Shafi`i.

In the year 279 A.H. in a village called Bawag at the age of 70 , Imam Tirmidhi left this temporary abode for the everlasting life of the hereafter. May Allah swt fill his grave with light. The enormity of his sacrifices and the extent to which he served the religion can never be fully comprehended.

Many books of hadith were compiled before Imam Tirmidhi decided to compile his Al-Jami`. Dawud Tayalisi and Ahmed ibn Hanbal had compiled books consisting of both authentic and weak hadith. Later Imam Bukhari compiled his Sahih and omitted all weak narrations from it. His main objective was to derive masa’il / laws from the relevant hadith. Later Imam Muslim compiled his book with a primary focus on the isnad (different chain of narrators). Imam Nasa’i’s aim was to mention the discrepancies of the hadith whilst Abu Dawud prepared a book which became the basis for the fuqaha. Imam Tirmidhi had combined the styles of Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Dawud and Nasa’i by mentioning the discrepancies regarding the narrators and also making his compilation a basis for the jurists.

The Special characteristics of al-Jami` ut-Tirmidhi

1. It is a Sunan and a Jami`.

2. Only 83 hadith are repeated.

3. Imam Tirmidhi omits the major portion of the hadith and only mentions that part which is relevant to the heading. (title)

4. After mentioning a hadith he classifies it narration (whether it is authentic or weak, etc.)

5. He specifies the narrators names, e.g. if the narrators kunya (honorific name) was mentioned, he would then mention his proper name and vice versa.

6. One hadith in Tirmidhi is a thulaathiyaat i.e. the transmitters of the hadith betwen Imam Tirmidhi and the Prophet (s) are only three.

7. Every hadith in Tirmidhi al-Jami` is “ma’mul bihi” (practised upon by the jurists.)

8. He explains the different madhahib together with their proofs.

9. He gives an explanation to all difficult ahadith.

10. His book has been set out in an excellent sequence, hence to look for a hadith is very easy.

11. There is no fabricated hadith in the entire book.

The conditions of Imam Tirmidhi in the selection of hadith

According to the commentators of Al-Jami Imam Tirmidhi maintained the following conditions throughout the compilation of his book.

1. He never narrated hadith from those who fabricated hadith. 2. Allama Tahir Muqaddisi mentions that al-Jami` ut-Tirmidhicontains four types of hadith:

[1] Those ahadith that conform with the conditions of Bukhari and Muslim. [2] Those ahadith that conform with the conditions of Abu Dawud and Nasa’i. [3] Those ahadith that have certain discrepancies either in the sanad or matan. [4] Those weak hadith that some fuqaha have relied on.

3. Imam Tirmidhi accepts a hadith which is narrated with the word “a’n” provided both the narrators are contemporaries. 4. After mentioning a weak hadith, he explains the state of its weakness. 5. A mursal hadith is accepted by Imam Tirmidhi when it is supported by a chain of narrators which is not broken.

The status of al-Jami` ut-Tirmidhi among the six authentic books of hadith. al-Jami` ut-Tirmidhi has been categorized as fifth amongst the six most authentic books of hadith. According to the most preferred opinion, Bukhari enjoys the highest status, followed by Muslim, Abu Dawood, Nasai, Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah respectively. Haji Khalifa in al-Kashf al-Dhunoon has categorised Tirmidhi in third position. Al-Dhahabi has written that Tirmidhi in actual fact should be holding the third position, but due to him bringing weak narrators like Kalbi and Masloob its status has dropped. However, looking at the manner in which he set out his book it seems that Haji Khalifa’s opinion is best.

Some of the commentaries of Tirmidhi

{1.} ‘A’ridat-ul-Ahwazi

An Arabic compilation of Qadi Abu Bakr ibn `Arabi (r) in 7 volumes.

{2} Qut-ul Mughtazi

Compiled by Jalal ad-Din Suyuti (r).

{3} Tuhfat-ul Ahwadhi

Written by Sheikh Abdur Rahmaan Mubaarakpuri in 10 volumes. He is very critical against the Ahnaaf.

The Terminology of Imam Tirmidhi

The classification of hadith was firmly established by Ali ibn Madini (r) and later by his student Imam Bukhari (r). However Imam Tirmidhi was the first Imam to base his book on these classifications.

Imam Tirmidhi classifies most of the Ahadith and mentions its reliability. Altogether Imam Tirmidhi uses nine different terms.

1.) sahih: That hadith wherein each reporter must be trustworthy, he must have the power of retention and the sanad of the hadith must go back to Nabi (sallallahu alyhi wasallam) without any interruption, it must agree with those of other reliable reporters and there should be no hidden defect in the matan or the sanad. N.B. Imam Tirmidhi does not consider it a prerequisite that a sahih Hadith must have several chains of narrators.

2.) hasan: That hadith which does not contain a reporter accused of lying, it is not shaaz and the hadith has been reported through more than one sanad.

3.) da`eef: Such a hadith wherein the narrators are not trustworthy, or they don’t posses the ability of retaining, or there is a break in the chain of narrators, or the hadith is shaaz or mu’alall.

4.) gharib: According to Imam Tirmidhi a hadith is classified gharib for one of the following reasons..

(a) it is narrated from one chain only.

(b) there is some addition in the text.

(c) it is narrated through various chains of transmitters but having within one of its chains an addition in the sanad.

5.) hasan gharib: These two can be combined. i.e. hasan refers to the uprighteousness of the narrators whilst gharib implies that he is alone in transmitting the hadith.

6.) sahih gharib: This term implies that the hadith is authentic but there is only one sanad.

7.) hasan sahih gharib: This hadith is hasan since it has several chains of transmitters, it is sahih as the chains are all authentic and it is gharib in the words that Imam Tirmidhi narrated.

8.) hasan sahih: This term has caused much confusion amongst the Muhadditheen since hasan is lower in rank than sahih. While sahih indicates to the excellent retention power of a narrator, hasan indicates to a deficiency in this regard hence it seems that both are opposites and is not possible to reconcile. The mutaqaddimeen have given many explanations to this :

[1] Ibn Hajar (r) has mentioned that the word “aw” is omitted hence the hadith will be either hasan or sahih. [2] Ibn Salah is of the opinion that when a hadith is reported with two sanads, one should be considered as hasan and the other as sahih. [3] Ibn Kathir says that Imam Tirmidhi has made up a new term which implies the hadith to be higher than hasan but lower than sahih. [4] Ibn Daqiq ul `Eid is of this opinion that sahih and hasan are not opposites. Rather they belong to the same category. However hasan will be considered as inferior to sahih hence they both can be combined. This opinion has been given most preference by the Muhadditheen.

CONCLUSION

By the third century A.H. a number of collections on hadith were compiled. Imam Tirmidhi was one of those scholars who contributed greatly towards this field of hadith. In this modern age the world at large is deeply indebted to Imam Tirmidhi for his compilation of hadith. May Allah swt make it possible for all of us to benefit tremendously from this priceless collection of hadith.

عربي

t.b.d.

Books

t.b.d.

Burial Place

Muhammad ibn `Isa at-Tirmidhi was born during the reign of the Abbasid caliph al-Ma’mun. His year of birth has been reported as 209 AH (824/825).

Imam al-TIrmidhi died on Monday night, 13 Rajab 279 AH (Sunday night, 8 October 892) in Bugh. He is buried on the outskirts of Sherobod, a 60 kilometers north of Termez in Uzbekistan. [wiki]

Bio: Imam Ibn Daqiq al-Id

Bio: Imam Ibn Daqiq al-Id

Sayyidi Imam Ibn Daqiq al-Id

أبو الفتح سيدي تقي الدين بن دقيق العيد
b 625 H. in Hijaz – d. 702 H. in Cairo (1228-1302 CE)

(more…)

Bio: Imam Sari Al-Saqati

Bio: Imam Sari Al-Saqati

Abū ‘l-Ḥasan Sarī ibn al-Mughallis Saqatī

(b. 155 – d. 251 H. in Baghdad)
radiya Allah anhu

.


He was Abu al-Hasan Sari (al Sirri) b. al-Maghallis al-Saqati, the imam of Baghdad of his day, and one of the first formultators of sufi sayings. He was a student of Ma`aruf al-Karkhi, and one of the companions of Bishr al-Hafi. He was the maternal uncle of al-Junayd and his teacher. He took hadith from al-Fadil. From him narrated al-Junayd and Abu al-`Abbas b. Masruq, the first in Baghdad to speak about al-haqa’iq wa al-isharat. – He was born and died in Baghdad. He passed away in 251/253 H. at the age of ninety-eight.
 

Silsila

As-Sari as-Saqati (d. 251 H. In Baghdad)
Ma´ruf al-Karkhi (d. 201 H.)
Imam `Ali al-Rida (d. 203 H.)
ImamMusa al-Kazim (d, 182 H.)
Imam Ja`far as-Sadiq (b, 83 – d. 148 H.)
his father Muhammad al-Baqir ibn ‘Ali (b. 59 – 114 H.)
his father Zayn al ‘Abidin ‘Ali ibn Husayn (b. 38 – d. 94H.)
his father Sayyid al-shuhadaa Imam Husayn ibn ‘Ali (b. 4 – d. 61 H.)
Imam al-Anbiya, Sayyiduna wa Mawlana Muhammad ibn `AbdAllah (d 11 H.)

English

t.b.d.

Svenska

Ur: Al-Risala al-Qusahayriyya, översatt till svenska av Övers. Göran Ogén

Abu‑‘l‑Hasan Sarī b. al‑Mughallis al‑Saqatī [d. 251/865] var morbror till al‑Djunayd och dennes lärare, och själv var han lärjunge till Macrūf al‑Karkhī. Han var en av sin tids mest enastående vad gäller gudligheten, de sublima tillstånden(1) och enhetsbekännandets olika slags vetande(2).‑{1}

Jag (al‑Qushayrī) hörde Muhammad b. al‑Husayn berätta, att han hört cAbd Allāh b. cAlī al‑Tūsī berätta, att han hört Abū cAmr b. cAlwān berätta, att han hade hört Abu‑‘l‑cAbbās b. Masrūq berätta att al‑Sarī al‑Saqatī brukade idka handel på marknadsplatsen. En dag kom Macrūf al‑Karkhī – vars krets al‑Sarī tillhörde – till honom och hade ett föräldralöst barn med sig och sade: »Kläd denne föräldralöse!» Sarī sade: »Jag klädde honom då, och Macruf gladde sig därvid och sade ›Måtte Gud få dig att hata Denna Världen och befria dig från det du befinner dig i!‹. Därpå lämnade jag handelsboden, och inget är mig förhatligare än Denna Världen. Och allt som kommit mig till del har jag Macrūfs välsignelser att tacka för.»‑{2}

Jag hörde sufimästaren Abū cAbd al‑Rahmān al‑Sulamī {Gud förbarme sig över honom!} säga, att han hört Aū Bakr al‑Rāzī säga, att han hört Abū cUmar al‑Anmātī säga, att han hade hört al‑Djunayd berätta ›Jag har inte sett någon ägna sig mer åt gudstjänst än Sarī, som uppnådde en ålder av nittioåtta år(3) och aldrig sågs ligga ned – utom då han var dödssjuk!‹.‑{3}

Det berättas om Sarī att han har sagt: »Sufism [tasawwuf] är en beteckning med tre betydelser: (1) en sufier vars inre ljus ej släcker hans gudsfruktans ljus; (2) en sufier som ej talar om en inre mening i ett vetande på sådant sätt att den upphäver den yttre meningen i Skriften [al‑kitāb] eller i Profetens goda exempel [sunna]; (3) en sufier som inte låter miraklerna få honom att riva sönder slöjorna till Guds förbud.» al‑Sarī dog år 257 (år 871 A.D.)(4).‑{4}

Jag hörde mäster Abū cAlī al‑Daqqāq berätta om al‑Djunayd {Gud förbarme sig över honom!} att denne hade sagt: »Sarī frågade mig en dag om kärleken [mahabba], och jag svarade ›En del människor säger att kärlek är samförstånd [muwāfaqa], andra säger att kärlek är altruism [īthār], andra åter definierar kärlek än si och än så‹. Då tog Sarī tag i huden på sin arm och drog i den, men den ville inte tänjas ut, varpå han sade ›Vid den Upphöjdes allmakt! Om jag säger att denna hud på grund av kärlek till Gud har torkat ut på detta armben, så talar jag förvisso sant!‹. Därpå svimmade han av, och hans ansikte rörde sig runt likt en skinande måne, varvid Sarīs hy(5) tycktes anta en rödaktig nyans.»‑{5}

Det berättas om Sarī att han sade: »Sedan trettio år tillbaka ber jag ständigt om förlåtelse för att vid ett tillfälle ha sagt ›Lov vare Gud!‹. Då frågade man, hur det kom sig, och han svarade ›En eldsvåda drabbade Bagdad, och en man kom mig till mötes och sade till mig ›Rädda din handelsbod!‹, och då sade jag ›Lov vare Gud!‹. Och sedan trettio år tillbaka är jag ångerfull över det jag sade, eftersom jag önskade mig själv bättre än det som drabbade andra troende!» cAbd Allāh b. Yūsuf berättade detta för mig och sade, att han hört Abū Bakr al‑Rāzī säga, att han hört Abū Bakr al‑Harbī berätta, att han hade hört al‑Sarī berätta detta.‑{6}

Det berättas om Sarī att han sagt ›Jag tittar på min näsa alltsomoftast dagligen av rädsla för att den har blivit svart, eftersom jag fruktar att Gud gör mitt utseende svart på grund av det jag sysslar med‹.‑{7}

Jag hörde Muhammad b. al‑Husayn {Gud förbarme sig över honom!} säga, att han hört Muhammad b. al‑Husayn b. al‑Khashshāb säga, att han hört Djacfar b. Muhammad b. Nusayr säga, att han hört al‑Djunayd säga att han hade hört al‑Sarī säga ›Jag känner till en genväg som leder till Paradiset‹ och då frågat honom ›Vilken?‹. Han svarade ›Du skall inte be någon om något, och du skall inte ta emot något från någon, och du skall inte äga något som du kan ge någon något av!‹.‑{8}

Jag hörde cAbd Allāh b. Yūsuf al‑Isbahānī säga, att han hört Abū Nasr al‑Sarrādj al‑Tūsī säga, att han hört Djacfar b. Muhammad b. Nusayr säga, att han hört al‑Djunayd säga, att han hade hört al‑Sarī säga ›Jag önskar dö i någon annan stad än i Bagdad‹. Man frågade honom då ›Varför detta?‹, och han svarade ›Jag är rädd för att min grav inte kommer att ta emot mig och att mina missgärningar kommer i dagen!‹.‑{9}

Jag hörde cAbd Allāh b. Yūsuf al‑Isbahānī säga, att han hört Abu‑‘l‑Hasan b. cAbd Allāh al‑Fuwatī al‑Tarsūsī säga, att han hört al‑Djunayd säga, att han hade hört al‑Sarī säga ›O Gud! Hur mycket du än straffar mig med något, så straffa mig inte med beslöjningens vanära!‹.‑{10}

Jag hörde cAbd Allāh b. Yūsuf al‑Isbahānī säga, att han hört Abū Bakr al‑Rāzī säga, att han hört al‑Djurayrī säga, att han hade hört al‑Djunayd säga: »En dag gick jag in till al‑Sarī al‑Saqatī, som stod och grät, och jag frågade honom ›Vad är det som får dig att gråta?‹, och han svarade ›I går kom min dotter(6) till mig och sade ‘O du min fader! Den här natten är het, så jag hänger upp det här vattenkruset här. Därpå somnade jag in och drömde att jag såg en slavinna av skönaste skapnad som just stigit ned från himmelen, och jag frågade ‘Vem tillhör du?’, och hon svarade ‘Den som inte dricker det avkylda vattnet som finns i vattenkruset!‹. Då tog jag vattenkruset och slog det mot marken, varvid det gick sönder.» al‑Djunayd sade: »Jag såg lerskärvorna, som han inte tog bort och inte rörde vid, tills jord och skräp hade utplånat spåren av dem.»‑{11}
_________________________
1) al‑ahwāl al‑sanīya.
2) culūm al‑tawhīd.
3) Knysh översätter passagen helt oförklarligt så här: ”I visited him for ninety-eight years without ever seeing him lying down […]”!
4) Enligt al‑Sulamī: år 251 [år 865], Tabāqat al‑sūfīya, ed. Pedersen s. 41.
5) I den arabiska texten står det endast: Sarī.
6) I den arabiska texten står det: flickan [al‑sabīya].

Books & Refs


© Damas Cultural Society 2007 | Original site

Bio: Mawlay Idris II - The Founder of Fas

Bio: Mawlay Idris II – The Founder of Fas

Moulay Idris II – Founder of the City of Fas

سيدنا ومولانا إدريس الأزهر  
b. 157 H. – d. 213 H. in Fas

.


He is Idris b. Idris b. `Abdullah b. al-Hasan II, Abu’l-Qasim. His father was Mawlay Idris I of Zarhun (d. 157 H.). The Idrisis are scions of the Prophet who settled in Morocco and nearby areas. They are from the progeny of Imam al-Hasan b. ‘Ali b. Abu Talib, may Allah have mercy on both of them.

English

Sayyiduna Idris al-Azhar was the second ruler of Morocco from the Adarisa Dynasty, and the founder of Fez. He was born in Walild, his father passing away while he was still a foetus. Upon his father’s death, the political affairs of the Berbers were managed by Rashid. After the latter’s death in AH 186, Idris was switched to the guardianship of Abu Khalid al-‘Abdi until he turned eleven, whereupon the Berbers swore allegiance to him in the mosque of Walila, in AH 188. He then took over his father’s throne and ruled in a praiseworthy manner. He was generous, eloquent and resolute. He was loved by his subjects and succeeded in winning over the inhabitants of Tunis, Tripoli in Lybia and Islamic Spain. Walila was crowded by outside delegations and by locals, which is why he planned the foundation of Fez in the year AH 192, as mentioned by the author in detail. After visiting Tlemcen in present-day Algeria, he returned to Fez, where he was unanimously supported by the Berber and Zanata tribal groups. The Moroccans separated themselves from Abbasid rule, from the outermost Sus region until the Shalaf Valley near Tangier. The whole of Morocco was stable under his rule, and he minted coins in his name. He passed away in Fas in 213 H.

Sayyiduna Idris al-Azhar (the Most Radiant)

From: Kuhin: Tabaqat Al-Shadhiliyyah Al-Kubra – in the entry on The Wafai Masters
translated by Ahmad Ali al-Adani as “Biographies of Prominent Shadhilis”

When his rule over Morocco became established, the general political climate became favourable to him and he was approached by multiple delegations of allegiant Arabs. As a result of this, it became clear that existing city of Volubilis [1] was too small to accommodate everyone. He thus wished to build a city that he might inhabit, along with his close entourage and governmental notables. One day, he set out on a riding party along with a retinue of close aides to choose an ideal spot. He eventually reached Mount Zaligh. Delighted by its height and by the purity of its air and soil, he had construction work began there. Some of the houses and fences had already been erected when, during one night, a flood came and demolished the houses and fences. Accordingly, he stopped any further work taking place and sent his adviser ‘Umayr b. Mus’ab al-Azdi [2] to find another location to build the new city he had his sights on.

‘Umayr b. Mus’ab alighted in Fahs Sayis, together with a retinue of close aides. He was pleased by this location and explored it well. From there, he arrived at the springs from which the valley of Fez sprouts forth. There he noticed some sixty original sources of water and found it all agreeable.

Armed with the good news, he headed back to Mawlay Idris al-Azhar so he too could take a look at the spot. Mawlay Idris al-Azhar found it to his liking. He purchased the thicket, wherein it was located, from the tribes of Banu al-Khayr and Banu Yarghish, who entered Islam at his hands. He then began to build the city, which he moved to along with his children. He built the mosque known as Jami’ al-Ashyakh, where he would deliver the public sermon on Fridays. He followed this up by building Jami’ al-Shurafa’. When he had completed it, he had the Friday public sermon established there too. He subsequently built his house, known as Dar al-Qaytun, in an area inhabited by the Jutiyyun nobles. He encircled it with marketplaces. He also instructed people to build, saying, ‘Whoever builds in a place or plants in it, it will be his.’ As a result, people began building things.

When the city of Fez was complete, he climbed the pulpit and delivered a sermon to the people amassed there, raising his hands skywards, and praying: ‘O Allah, You are fully aware that I did not build this city out of boastfulness, pride, ostentation, fame or material competition. I have only intended that You be worshipped in it, Your Book be recited in it, the laws of Your din be established in it, along with the Sunna of Your Prophet, Muhammad (upon him salutations and peace) , so long as the world endures. O Allah, give success to its inhabitants and residents to what is good, help them attain it, spare them the burden of their enemies, bestow on them abundant provisions, and unsheathe from them the sword of faith-testing ordeal and splitting disunion. You are indeed All-Powerful over every thing.’ Those in attendance recited amin after his supplication, and thus facets of goodness abounded in the city and blessings were manifest in it. Allah actualized his supplication by His favour, Glorified and Exalted is He: hardly will you find a poor man, in fact, but that he has ample provision; and hardly does a year pass by except that saints and pious people, whose number cannot be encompassed by other than their Creator, emerge from the city.

Among the fine qualities of urban Fez is that its river divides it into two, its brooks branching out amid houses, public baths, streets and marketplaces. It abounds in mosques, including the Qarawiyyin Mosque, which is considered the largest mosque in the world, in length and width. It has forty doors for entry. It is called Qarawiyyin Mosque because it is said that the reason behind its construction was a channel from al-Qayrawan. There is also the Andalus Mosque, the Diwan Mosque and other ones too.

The jurist ‘Abdullah al-Maghili praised it when he was serving as judge in the city of Azemmour and was yearning to be back in the urban area of Fez, may Allah safeguard it from any calamity:

O Fez, from moist earth Allah enlivened your soil
And gave you to drink the effusion of clouds spread out
O garden of this world surpassing Homs
By its vista more radiant and prettier
Room after room, and underneath flowing
A tastier water than cascading fresh nectar
And silken orchards embellished
By brooks as if vipers or tongues.

Mawlay Idris al-Azhar died on 2 Jumada II AH 213. He was thirty six years old. He was buried in his mosque, opposite its eastern wall. His shrine in Fez’s urban area is one of the sacred places therein. Moroccans seek it to find cure [from illnesses]. In this respect, it is like the shrine of Imam Abu ‘Abdullah al-Husayni in Egypt. Visitors head for it from far-away locations, and read litanies and the Dala’il [al-Khayrat] there. It has many endowments. O Allah, benefit us by them and by their secrets.


Footnotes:
[1] A Moroccan city near Tangiers (Mu jam al-Buldan, 5/384).
[2] ‘Umayr b. Mus’ab b. Khand b. Harthama b. Yaild b. al-Mulahhab b Abu sufra al-Azdi was a wazir and political leader after whom the spring of ‘Ayn `Umayr, not far from Fez, is named. He was, together with his father, in al-Andalus when the Moroccan Caliphate fell into the hands of Idris b. Idris. ‘Umayr went to visit him with a delegation of fellow Azd tribesmen. Idris al-Azhar appointed him as close adviser ( wazir) and as head of his army, in addition to giving in marriage to him one of his daughters, named ‘Atika. When Idris al-Azhar founded the city of Fez, he sent ‘Umayr to the place in which the said spring was located, which is why it took his name. He was one of the chivalrous Arab chiefs of his times. He died in Fez. He is the ancestor of Bana al-Maljum, a clan who bequeathed some notable judges from Fez.

عربي

From Kuhin: Tabaqat al-Shadhiliyya: View book | Download | Chapter [27]
سيدنا ومولانا إدريس الأزهر
سيدنا ومولانا إدريس الأزهر([8]) منشئ مدينة فاس رضى الله عنه، وسبب إنشائه لها لمَّا تمكَّن سلطانُه في المغرب، وصفا له الجو، وكثرت الوفود من العرب عليه، وضاقتْ بهم مدينة وَلِيلَى([9])، أَراد أن يَبني لنفسه مدينةً يسكنها هو وخاصَّتُه، ووجوه دولته، فركب يومًا في جماعةٍ من حاشيته، وخرجَ يتخيَّرُ البقاع، فوصل إلى جبل زالغ، فأعجبه ارتفاعه، وطيبُ هوائه وتربته، فشرع في البناء فيه فبنى بعضًا من الدور، ونحوَ الثُّلث من السور، فأتى السيلُ في بعض الليالي فهدمَ الدور والسور، فكفَّ عن البناء إلى أن بعث وزيره عُميرَ ابنَ مُصعب الأزدي يرتاد موضعًا يبني فيه المدينة التي عزم عليها، فنزل هو وجماعةٌ من الحاشية حتى انتهى إلى فحصِ سايس، فأعجبه المحلُّ، فأوغل فيه حتى انتهى إلى العيون التي ينبع منها وادي فاس، فرأى بها من عناصر الماء ما ينيف عن الستين عنصرًا، فاستطابه، فرجع إلى مولانا إدريس الأزهر رضى الله عنه لينظر إلى البقعة، فأعجبته، فاشترى الغيضة([10]) من بني الخير، وبني يرغش، وأسلموا على يديه، وشرعَ في بناء المدينة، وانتقل إليها هو وأولاده، وبنى بها الجامعَ المعروف بجامع الأشياخ، وأقامَ فيه الخطبة، ثم أخذ في بناء جامع الشُّرفاء، فأتمَّه وأقام فيه الخطبة أيضًا، وبنى دارَه المعروفة بدار القيطون، التي يسكنها الشرفاء الجوطيون، وأدار الأسواق حوله وأمرَ الناس بالبناء، وقال لهم: من بنى موضعًا أو اغترسه فهو له. فبنى الناسُ من ذلك شيئًا كثيرًا.

ولما فرغَ من بناء مدينة فاس، وحضرتِ الجمعةُ الأولى صَعِدَ المنبرَ، وخطب في الناس، ورفع يديه، وقال: اللهم، إنَّك تعلمُ أنَّي ما أردتُ ببناء هذه المدينة مباهاةً ولا مُفاخرةً، ولا رياء ولا سمعةً ولا مكاثرة، وإنَّما أردت أن تُعبَدَ بها، ويُتلى بها كتابُك، وتُقام بها حدودُك وشرائعُ دينك وسنةُ نبيك محمد صلى الله عليه وسلم ما بقيتِ الدنيا، اللهم وفِّقْ سكانها وقطَّانها للخير، وأعنهم عليه، واكفهم مؤونة أعدائهم، وأدرر عليهم الأرزاق، واغمد عنهم سيفَ الفتنة والشقاق، إنك على كلِّ شيء قدير. فأمَّنَ الناسُ على دعائه، فكثرتِ الخيرات بالمدينة، وظهرت بها البركاتِ، وقد حقَّقَ الله دعاءه بفضله سبحانه وتعالى، قلَّما تجد فقيرًا إلا وهو في سَعَة من الرزق، وما من عام يمرُّ إلا وقد تخرج منها أولياء وصلحاء لا يُحصيهم إلا خالقُهم.

ومن محاسن حضرةِ فاس أنَّ نهرها يشقُّها نصفين، وتتشعبُ جداوله في دورها وحماماتها وشوارعها وأسواقها، وبها مساجدُ كثيرة، منها مسجد القرويين، وهذا المسجد يعدُّ أعظمَ مساجد الدنيا طولًا وعرضًا، له أربعون بابًا، وسُمّي بالقرويين لما قِيل أن سبب إنشائه فتاةٌ من القيروان، وجامع الأندلس، وجامع الديوان، وفيها غيرُ ذلك، وقد مدحها الفقيه ابن عبد الله المغيلي لما كان يلي خطة القضاء بمدينة آزمور، ويتشوّق إلى حضرةِ فاس حرسها الله من كل باس:

يا فاسُ حَيَّا اللهُ أرضَك من ثرى * وسَقاكِ من صوبِ الغمام المُسبلِ
يا جنَّة الدُّنيا التي أَربتْ على * حمصَ بمنظرها البَهيِّ الأجملِ
غُرفٌ على غُرفٍ ويجري تحتها * ماءٌ ألذُّ من الرَّحيقِ السَّلْسَل([11])

وبساتنٌ من سُندسٍ قد زخرفت * بجداولٍ كالأيم أو كالمفصلِ([12])

وكان وفاة مولانا إدريس الأزهر رضى الله عنه ثاني جُمادى الآخرة سنة ثلاث عشرة ومئتين، وعمره نحو ست وثلاثين سنة، ودفن بمسجده بإزاء الحائط الشرقي منه، ومقامُه في حضرة فاس من الأماكنِ المقدَّسةِ، تُستشفى به أهلُ المغرب قاطبةً، وهو بمثابة الإمام أبي عبد الله الحسيني رضى الله عنه بمصر، تقصدُه الزّوارُ من الأماكن البعيدة، ويقرؤون عنده «الدلائل» والأحزاب، وله أوقافٌ كثيرةٌ. اللهم انفعنا بهم، وبأسرارهم.

وآخرُ من توفي منهم سيدي عبد الخالق السادات بن وفا، وله مقصورةٌ مستقلة قد نُقش عليها اسمه، وهذا المسجد باقٍ على حاله إلى الآن، تُقام فيه الشعائر الدينية. اللهم إنّا نسألُكَ بسرِّهم لديك ومكانتهم عندك أن تُميتنا على حبِّهم، وتمدَّنا بأنوارهم. آمين.


([8]) إدريس بن إدريس بن عبد الله بن الحسن المثنى، أبو القاسم، ثاني ملوك الأدارسة في المغرب الأقصى، وباني مدينة «فاس» ولد في وَلِيلَى سنة 173هـ. فقام بشؤون البربر راشد فقتل سنة 186هـ، ثم قام بكفالته أبو خالد العبدي حتى بلغ الحادية عشر، فبايعه البربر في جامع وَلِيلَى سنة 188هـ. وكان جوادًا فصيحًا، أحبته الرعية، واستمال أهل تونس وطرابلس الغرب والأندلس فغصت وَلِيلَى بالوفود فبنى مدينة فاس سنة 192هـ وانتقل إليها، ثم غزا المصامدة، ونفرا فانقادت إليه، وزار تلمسان ثم عاد إلى فاس وصفا له ملك المغرب وضرب السكة باسمه وتوفي بفاس. [«الأعلام» (1/278)].
([9]) وَلِيلَى: مدينة بالمغرب قرب طنجة. [«معجم البلدان» (5/384)].
([10]) الغيضةُ: الشجر الكثير الملتف. و: الموضع الذي يجتمع فيه الماء فينبت فيه الشجر.
([11]) الرحيق: الخمرُ. و: ضرب من الطيب. السَّلْسَل: الماء العذب الصافي السلِسُ السهل إذا شرب تسَلْسَل في الحلق.
([12]) السُّنْدُسُ: ضربٌ من رقيق الديباج. الأيم: الحية أو ذكر الأفعى.

Photos

t.b.d.

Bio: Moulay 'Abd al-Salam ibn Mashish

Bio: Moulay ‘Abd al-Salam ibn Mashish

Sayyidi Moulay `Abd al-Salam Ibn Mashish al-Hasani al-Idirisi

القطب المُنير سيدي عبد السلام بن مشيش
d. 622 H. Jabal ‘Alam near Tetuan
qaddasa Allah sirrahu

He was `Abd al-Salam ibn Sulayman, known as Ibn Mashish, whose lineage goes back to Sayyiduna Idris, the founder of the city of Fas and descended of Sayyiduna al-Hasan, grandson of the Prophet Muhammad (sallAllah aleihi wa sallam)…

Bio English

1. From Damas Cultural Society
2. From Kuhin: Tabaqat Al-Shadhiliyya
3. From dar-sirr.com



Sayyidi Mawlaya `Abd al-Salam Ibn Mashish al-Hasani al-Idirisi
Compiled by bmk / Damas Cultural Society © 2008 – original page

He was `Abd al-Salam ibn Sulayman, known as Ibn Mashish, whose lineage goes back to Sayyiduna Idris, the founder of the city of Fas and descended of Sayyiduna al-Hasan, grandson of the Prophet Muhammad (sallAllah aleihi wa sallam). He was was born around 559 or 563 H. in a village on the `Alam mountain near Titwan, an ancient city in the region of Habt (Ghumara) in northern Maghrib, where one of his forefathers came to settle among the Berbers. He studied the Quran and Maliki law under the Idrisite sharifs of Banu Arus, in addition to prominent Sufi scholars such as Sidi Salem of Qabilat Bani Yusuf and sharif Sidi al-Hajj Ahmed Aqatran Asalani of Qabilat Bani Abraj, near modern Taza. He supported himself by the work of his own hands, tillign the earth. 2 For some time he lived for some time in Sabta, teaching Quranic recitation to children. He and waged jihad , fighting with the Almohad army in al-Andalus. 3

His Lineage2
He was `Abd al-Salam b. Sulayman ibn Abi Bakr b. `Ali al-`Alami b. Buharma b. `Isa b. Salam al.-`Arus b. Ahmad Mazwâr b. `Ali Haydara b. Muhammad b. Idris al-Thani b. Idris al-Awwal b. `Abd Allah al-Kamil b. al-Hasan al.Muthanna b. al-Hasan al-Sibt b. `Ali b. Abi Talib and Fatima al-Zhara daughter of the Messenger of Allah Muhammad b. `Abd Allah – salllAllah `aleihi wa sallam.

ـ سيدي عبد السلام بن سليمان المعروف بمشيش بن أبي بكر بن علي العلمي الإدريسي بن بو حرمة بن عيسى بن سلام العروس بن أحمد مزوار الإدريسي بن علي حيدرة بن محمد بن إدريس الثاني بن إدريس الأول بن عبد الله الكامل بن الحسن المثنى بن الحسن السبط بن علي بن أبي طالب و فاطمة الزهراء بنت الرسول محمد بن عبد الله صلى الله عليه وعلى آله وسلم

His Spiritual Path
He took the spiritual sciences from `Abd al-Rahman ibn al-Husayn al-`Attar, a spice merchant from the city of Sabta, who was called “az-Zayyat” or “al-Madani” because he resided in the oil sellers’ quarter of Medina (where his tomb is still found). His first encounter with Sheikh `Abd al-Rahman al-`Attar took place when he was at the age of seven. He was in a state of jadhb (spriritual attraction) when the Sheikh came to him, dsiplaying the signs of the people of Allah, and said to him: “I am your Sheikh”. He fortold him of his rank, his spiritual states, and mentioned each of his maqams one by one. Then he said: “I am your intermediary (wâsita) in every state and maqam”. 1

The last twenty years of his life Sayyidi Ibn Mashish devoted to worship and contemplation on the heights of Jabal al-`Alam (Flag Mountain), a period which culminated in his encounter with his only disciple, the fellow Idrisite Imam Abul Hasan Shadhili (d. 656 H.)

From him the al-Salat al-Mashishiyya, on which the Wazhifa of Imam Abul Hasan al-Shadhili is based.

His Passing
He died as a martyr year 622 H., when he Spanish, led by their missionary Ibn Abi Tawajin Laktami, headed to Jabal al-Alam and killed the Shaykh in the very place where he initiated Imam Abul Hassan Shadhili. He was buried on the moutain.

Sources

[1] Al-Hasan b. Muhammad al-Kuhun: Tabaqat al-Shadhiliyya al-Kubra
[2] Dr. Amal b. Idris b. al-hasan al-`Alami: `Aqd Farid fi Tarikh al- Shurafa’ al-talid (quoted at ar.wikipedia.org)
[3] From www.dar-sirr.com

© Damas Cultural Society 2007 — Updated 2008, 2010 — Latest update: 2017-05-19
Original page: damas-original.nur.nu



Ibn Mashish

From: Kuhin: Tabaqat Al-Shadhiliyyah Al-Kubra, translated by Ahmad Ali al-Adani as “Biographies of Prominent Shadhilis”

t.b.d.



The origin of Banu ‘Arus
From Dar-Sirr3

Upon the death of Sidna al-Imam Moulay Idriss II, he left twelve sons, who were sent throughout Morocco by their grandmother Kanza to proliferate the Idrissi-Hassanid sharifism. One Idrissite imam, however, became through his descendents an important figure in the development of the sharifian paradigm of sainthood. Moulay Ali ‘Haydara, a grandson of Moulay Idriss II, received the bay’a as Imam and ruler of Fez in 221/836. When he failed to designate his infant son Moulay Ahmed Mizwar as his successor before his own death in 234/849, the Idrissite imamate passed into the hands of his cousins, the descendents of Moulay Omar ibn Moulay Idriss II, who lived in the regions of Habt and Ghumara in northern Morocco.

After being passed over for the imamate, Moulay Ahmed Mizwar became disenchanted with politics and devoted himself to a life of worship and asceticism. Sometime before the turn of the tenth century, or just before the Idrissite state became a bone of connection between the Fatimids of Ifriqiya and the Umayyads of Spain, he moved from Fez to northern Morocco and established himself at Hajar an-Nasr (Escarpment of the Eagle), a fortes situated in the Habt region among the Sanhaja Berber tribes of Ahl Sarif, Banu Yusuf, and Sumata. As his nickname, Mizwar (Berber. lion or leader) implies, this great grandson of Moulay Idriss II was adopted as a spiritual leader by the tribes who lived near his mountaintop stronghold. According to local tradition, when the chiefs of these tribes asked Moulay Ahmed Mizwar to delegate a member of his family to join them and favour them with the baraka of the Prophet Sidna Mohammed (peace and blessing be upon him) he chose his son Abdessalam (known locally as “Sidi Sellam”). As a means of honouring the young sharif, who had recently married, the tribesman renamed themselves “Banu Arus” (Sons of the Bridegroom), the appellation by which they are known today. For the next seven generations, the descendents of Sidi Sellam established themselves among the Berbers of Banu Arus while maintaining a reputation for holiness that was based almost exclusively on their Hassanid descent.

Birth and childhood Moulaya Abdus-Salam Ibn Mashish
Around the year 530/1135-6, a child named Sulayman, but later named “Mashish” (Ber. Little Cat”), was born to a sharif of the Bani Arus known as Abu Bakr ibn Ali. Upon reaching maturity, Sulayman Mashish withdrew from the world as an ascetic and built a hermitage that still stands among the ruins of his natal village of Aghyul.

In either 559/1146 or 563/1148, he sired a son named Moulay Abdessalam, who would become the patron saint of Moroccan Sufism. According to sources, Moulay Abdessalam became a Fool of God (Majdoub) at the age of 7, when a man, with righteousness on his face, entered on him to a cave and said: “I am your master who initiate you (amudduka)”.

His life
Mawlana Abu Mohammed Moulay Abdessalam Ibn Mashish lived for sixty-three years, the same lifespan as of the prophet Sidna Mohammed, peace and blessing be upon him. During this period, his career passed through three distinct faces. First, he was a scholar and studied the Quran and Maliki jurisprudence under the Idrissite sharifs of Banu Arus in addition to prominent Sufi-scholars such as Sidi Salem of Qabilat Bani Yusuf and sharif Sidi al-Hajj Ahmed Aqatran Asalani of Qabilat Bani Abraj, near modern Taza. Later, he was a mujahid, a defender of the faith, and lived in Sabta, where he supported himself by teaching Quranic recitation to children and fought with the Almohad army in al-Andalus. Finally, after embracing Sufism, he devoted the last twenty years of his life to worship and contemplation on the heights of Jabal al-Alam (Flag Mountain), a period which culminated in his encounter with his only disciple, the fellow Idrissite and founder of the Shadhiliya Sufi order, Sidi Abul Hassan Shadhili (d. 656/1241). Moulay Abdessalam was martyred in 622/1207 after the Spanish, led by their missionary Ibn Abi Tawajin Laktami, headed to Jabal al-Alam and killed the Shaykh in the very place where he initiated Abul Hassan Shadhili. His tomb on Jabal al-Alam is the first visited shrine in Northern Morocco.

عربي

From Kuhin: Tabaqat al-Shadhiliyya View book | Download | Read chapter [2] online
[2] سيدي عبد السلام بن مشيش([1])
(… – 622)

قطبُ دائرة المحققين، أستاذُ أهل المشارق والمغارب، وسندُ الواصلين إلى أنجح المطالب، سيدنا ومولانا عبد السلام ابن سيدنا مَشيش ابن سيدنا أبي بكر الحسني الإدريسي.

كان رضى الله عنه قطبَ الوجود، وبقية أهل الشهود، الغوث الفرد، الجامع لأسرار المعاني، غوث الأمة، وسراج الملّة، صاحب العلوم اللدنية، والمعارف الربانية، الجامع بين علم الشريعة والحقيقة، لم تطلع الشمسُ على مثله في زمنه.

له كراماتٌ وخوارق لا تدخل تحت حصرٍ، منها: أنه يوم ولادته سمع سيدي عبدُ القادر الجيلاني رضي الله عنه ونفعنا به آمين، هاتفًا يقول: يا عبد القادر، ارفع رجلك عن أهل المغرب، فإنَّ قطبَ المغرب قد ولد في هذا اليوم، فتمشى الأستاذ عبد القادر إلى جبل الأعلام بالمغرب، حيث مولد سيدي عبد السلام، وأتى إلى أبيه سيدي مَشيش، وقال له: أخرجِ لي ولدك. فخرّجَ له أحدَ أولاده، فقال له: ما هذا أريد. فأخرج له أولادَه كلهم، وقال له: ما بقي إلا ولدٌ واحد ولد في هذا اليوم. فقال له سيدي عبد القادر: عليَّ به؛ فهو الذي أُريده. فأخرجه سيدي مَشيش، فأخذه سيدي عبد القادر، ومسحَ عليه، ودعا له.

وكان رضى الله عنه إذا أهلَّ هلال رمضان يمتنعُ عن ثدي أمه، فإذا أذن المغربُ قاربه، وارتضع منه.

ويكفيك في فضله أنَه أستاذُ الأقطاب الثلاثة: سيدي إبراهيم الدُّسوقي، وسيدي أحمد البدوي، وسيدي أبي الحسن الشاذلي رحمهم الله.

توفي رضى الله عنه شهيدًا قتله ابن أبي الطواجن، ودفن بموضعه بجبل الأعلام بثغر تطوان، وبُني عليه مقامٌ، وضريحٌ، وقبة قصيرة.

ومقامُه من الأماكن التي يُستجاب عندها الدعاء، وهذا ممَّا لا شكَّ فيه، وقد جرَّب ذلك غيرُ واحدٍ، ومقامه في أرضِ المغرب، كمقام الشافعيِّ بمصر، وفيه يقول القائل:

اطلب بسرِّ ابن مَشيش ما تُريد * تَنَلْه وإن كان عنكَ بعيد

وكان رضى الله عنه يقول: من زارَ قبري حرَّم الله جسده على النار.

اللهم انفعنا بمحبَّته، وأمتنا على حبّه وأثره آمين.

([1]) عبد السلام بن مشيش بن أبي بكر (منصور) بن علي (أو إبراهيم) الإدريسي الحسني، أبو محمد: ناسك مغربي، اشتهر برسالة له تدعى «الصلاة المشيشية» شرحها كثيرون، ولد في جبل العلم بثغر تطوان، وقتل فيه شهيدًا سنة 622هـ. قتلته جماعة بعثهم رجل يدعى ابن أبي الطواجين الكتامي (ساحر متنبئ) ودفن بقبة الجبل المذكور. [«الأعلام» (4/9)].

Poetry

Three poems in honor of Moulay Abdus Salam Ibn Mashish
By His Eminence Shaykh Muhammad Al-Yaqoubi
Composed and recited by the author during the Ziyara to the Maqam of Moulay Ibn Mashish Sept 15-16 2018 / 1440 H.

The Mine of Light – معدن الأنوار
The secrets of the Mashishiyya Prayer – أسرار الصلاة المشيشية
The Virtues of Moulay AbdusSalam Ibn Mashish – مولاي عبد السلام ابن مشيش

Mashishiyya

The Mashishi Prayer

t.b.d.

Photos

Burial place
of Maolay `Abd al-Salam ibn Mashish on the `Alam mountain, Morocco
Click pictures to enlarge

From dar-sirr.com3
Maqam of Moulaya Abdus-Salam ibn Mashish


Photos from Jabal ´Alam: Noor Lesley Petrie
Visitors at his Burial place at Tetuan

Jabal ´Alam maqam with mosque

Jabal ´Alam- Mosque


Jabal ´Alam mountain view


Jabal ´Alam mountain view


Jabal ´Alam mountain view


Jabal ´Alam - The well a the foot of the mountain where Sayyiduna Imam Abul Hasan washed before meeting Sayyiduna Ibn Mashish Jabal ´Alam – The well a the foot of the mountain where Sayyiduna Imam Abul Hasan washed before meeting Sayyiduna Ibn Mashish Jabal ´Alam - The well


From Anonymous

Burial place at Jabal Alam

Location

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t.b.d.
Bio: Nur al-Din b. Zanki

Bio: Nur al-Din b. Zanki

Nur al-Din b. Zanki

b. 511 – d. 579 in Daamascus
radiya Allah anhu
– السلطان أبو القاسم نور الدين محمود ين أبي سعيد(أبو سعد) زنكي بن سيف الدين –


Just ruler of Damscus, first in history ot build a Dar al-hadith, gave many books as waqf, built schools and mosques and institueted many awqaf, loved and honored the pple of din; strong in warfare, a good archer, he would only consume out of wealth he gained by buisineness or spoils of war according to what the `ulema deemd lawful; he forbade wide under his rule, known for his justice and rightousness, rebuilt the city walls and fortresses of all Sham: Aleppo and Hums and Hama and Damascus and other places; build several hospitals, the most famous one in Damascus, which was institueted as waqf, and where rich and poor were attended to; and he made Daria (a village in the Ghuta west of Damascus) a waqf for poor Muslims. [Ziarat al-Sham p. 27-28, quoting Ibn Khaldun] He was buried in the city wall of Damascus, later his remains were moved to a madrasa he had built for the Hanafis on the Westersn side of (الخواصين أو الخوامين، معروف الآن بسعق الخياطين وكان يعرف بسوق الآخصاصين)ـ
[Ziarat al-Sham p. 29]

© Damas Cultural Society 2007 — Latest update:
Original site: damas-original.nur.nu

Bio: Qadi ´Iyad

Bio: Qadi ´Iyad

Qadi ´Iyad

القاضي عياض بن موسى بن عياض اليحصبي
b. 476 – d. 544 H. in Marrakesh (1083 – 1149 CE)
may Allah be pleased with him

English

From dar-sirr
Among the great Moroccan influential advocates of the cult of the Holy Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) is the Patron Saint of Marrakech Sidi al-Qadi Abul Fadl Iyyad ibn Musa al-Yahsubi al-Sabti al-Maghribi (d. 544/1129), the premier Hadith scholar of the late Almoravid period and qadi al-jama’a of the cities of Granada and Sabta (“current occupied Ceuta, may Allah turn it to Dar al-Islam). A famous adage, of whom it was said, “Were it not for Iyyad Morocco would not have been mentioned,” the Qadi’s most famous work, Kitab Shifa bita’rif huquq al-Mustapha (The Antidote in knowing the rights of the Chosen Prophet), is a tradition based treatise that promotes the veneration of the Chieftain of the Universe, the Reason of Existence, the Seal of Prophethood and Messengership, Sidna Mohammed ibn Abdellah (peace and blessing be upon him) as the universal archetype of humanity. Al-Qadi Iyyad portrays the Holy Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) as a mortal man who was blessed with superhuman qualities. Although he acknowledges that the Holy Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) had human limitations, he restricts these to the Prophet’s outward or bodily aspects alone. With respect to his inner qualities, the Prophet had more in common with the divine than with other of his species. This is proven of Qadi Iyyad by the Prophet’s enjoyment of divine protection and his freedom from major sins and weaknesses. For al-Qadi Iyyad, Holy Prophet’s al-qudwa al-‘hasana (beautiful example) is a paradigm for religious and nonreligious behaviour alike. Thus the Prophet’s actions exemplifies the best of human undertakings: “the best manner of living, the most efficacious teaching, the most useful knowledge, and the finest of personal attributes”. Since many of these qualities pertain to the prophet’s inborn nature and cannot be duplicated by other human beings, al-Qadi Iyyad urges his readers to instead immolate Sidna Mohammed’s acquired virtues, such as his generosity, forebearness, bravery, good fellowship, moral standards, justice, asceticism, and God-consciousness.

عربي

From Siyar al-A’lam View | Download
From Tarwid al-Mihan – ترويض المحن View | Download | Read online: Open | Close

From shamela

عياض بن موسى بن عياض بن عمرون اليحصبي السبتي، أبو الفضل: عالم المغرب وإمام أهل الحديث في وقته.
كان من أعلم الناس بكلام العرب وأنسابهم وأيامهم. ولي قضاء سبتة، ومولده فيها، ثم قضاء غرناطة.
وتوفي بمراكش مسموما، قيل: سمه يهودي.

وجمع المقري سيرته وأخباره في كتاب «أزهار الرياض في أخبار القاضي عياض – ط» ثلاثة مجلدات من أربعة و «الإعلام بحدود قواعد الإسلام – ط» و «شرح حديث أم زرع – خ» جزء لطيف، في خزانة الرباط (1857 كتاني) والظاهرية بدمشق.


Books

Books on shamela
من تصانيفه
• «الشفا بتعريف حقوق المصطفى – ط»
• و «الغنية – خ» في ذكر مشيخته،
• و «ترتيب المدارك وتقريب المسالك في معرفة أعلام مذهب الإمام مالك – ط» أربعة أجزاء وخامس للفهارس،
• و «شرح صحيح مسلم – خ» [ثم طُبع]  
• و «مشارق الأنوار – ط» مجلدان، في الحديث،
• و «الإلماع إلى معرفة أصول الرواية وتقييد السماع – ط» في مصطلح الحديث وكتاب في «التاريخ».

كتب المصنف بالموقع

  1. الشفا بتعريف حقوق المصطفى – وحاشية الشمني
  2. الإلماع إلى معرفة أصول الرواية وتقييد السماع
  3. مشارق الأنوار على صحاح الآثار
  4. التنبيهات المستنبطة على الكتب المدونة والمختلطة
  5. الشفا بتعريف حقوق المصطفى – محذوف الأسانيد
  6. الغنية في شيوخ القاضي عياض
  7. ترتيب المدارك وتقريب المسالك
  8. إكمال المعلم بفوائد مسلم

Burial Place

Marrakesh

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Bio: Salman al-Farisi

Bio: Salman al-Farisi

Salman al-Farisi

d. 33/35 H. in Madina Munawwara
radiya Allah anhu

.


 

Hadith from Shamail

Hadith from Shamail al-Tirmidhi
t.b.d.

English

1. From Abdul Wahid Hamid: “Companions of The Prophet”
2. From naqshbandi.org


1. From Abdul Wahid Hamid: “Companions of The Prophet”, Vol.1
View on sunnah.org

This is a story of a seeker of Truth, the story of Salman the Persian, gleaned, to begin with, from his own words:

I grew up in the town of Isfahan in Persia in the village of Jayyan. My father was the Dihqan or chief of the village. He was the richest person there and had the biggest house.

Since I was a child my father loved me, more than he loved any other. As time went by his love for me became so strong and overpowering that he feared to lose me or have anything happen to me. So he kept me at home, a veritable prisoner, in the same way that young girls were kept.

I became devoted to the Magian religion so much so that I attained the position of custodian of the fire which we worshipped. My duty was to see that the flames of the fire remained burning and that it did not go out for a single hour, day or night.

My father had a vast estate which yielded an abundant supply of crops. He himself looked after the estate and the harvest. One day he was very busy with his duties as dihqan in the village and he said to me:

“My son, as you see, I am too busy to go out to the estate now. Go and look after matters there for me today.”

On my way to the estate, I passed a Christian church and the voices at prayer attracted my attention. I did not know anything about Christianity or about the followers of any other religion throughout the time my father kept me in the house away from people. When I heard the voices of the Christians I entered the church to see what they were doing.

I was impressed by their manner of praying and felt drawn to their religion. “By God,” I said, “this is better than ours. I shall not leave them until the sun sets.”

I asked and was told that the Christian religion originated in AshSham (Greater Syria). I did not go to my father’s estate that day and at night, I returned home. My father met me and asked what I had done. I told him about my meeting with the Christians and how I was impressed by their religion. He was dismayed and said:

“My son, there is nothing good in that religion. Your religion and the religion of your forefathers is better.”

“No, their religion is better than ours,” I insisted.

My father became upset and afraid that I would leave our religion. So he kept me locked up in the house and put a chain on my feet. I managed however to send a message to the Christians asking them to inform me of any caravan going to Syria. Before long they got in touch with me and told me that a caravan was headed for Syria. I managed to unfetter myself and in disguise accompanied the caravan to Syria. There, I asked who was the leading person in the Christian religion and was directed to the bishop of the church. I went up to him and said:

“I want to become a Christian and would like to attach myself to your service, learn from you and pray with you.”

The bishop agreed and I entered the church in his service. I soon found out, however, that the man was corrupt. He would order his followers to give money in chanty while holding out the promise of blessings to them. When they gave anything to spend in the way oRGod however, he would hoard it for himself and not give anything to the poor or needy. In this way he amassed a vast quantity of gold. When the bishop died and the Christians gathered to bury him, I told them of his corrupt practices and, at their request, showed them where he kept their donations. When they saw the large jars filled with gold and silver they said.

“By God, we shall not bury him.” They nailed him on a cross and threw stones at him.

I continued in the service of the person who replaced him. The new bishop was an ascetic who longed for the Hereafter and engaged in worship day and night. I was greatly devoted to him and spent a long time in his company.

(After his death, Salman attached himself to various Christian religious figures, in Mosul, Nisibis and elsewhere. The last one had told him about the appearance of a Prophet in the land of the Arabs who would have a reputation for strict honesty, one who would accept a gift but would never consume charity (sadaqah) for himself. Salman continues his story.)

A group of Arab leaders from the Kalb tribe passed through Ammuriyah and I asked them to take me with them to the land of the Arabs in return for whatever money I had. They agreed and I paid them. When we reached Wadi al-Qura (a place between Madinah and Syria), they broke their agreement and sold me to a Jew. I worked as a servant for him but eventually he sold me to a nephew of his belonging to the tribe of Banu Qurayzah. This nephew took me with him to Yathrib, the city of palm groves, which is how th e Christian at Ammuriyah had described it.

At that time the Prophet was inviting his people in Makkah to Islam but I did not hear anything about him then because of the harsh duties which slavery imposed upon me.

When the Prophet reached Yathrib after his hijrah from Makkah, I was in fact at the top of a palm tree belonging to my master doing some work. My master was sitting under the tree. A nephew of his came up and said:

“May God declare war on the Aws and the Khazraj (the two main Arab tribes of Yathrib). By God, they are now gathering at Quba to meet a man who has today come from Makkah and who claims he is a Prophet.” I felt hot flushes as soon as I heard these words and I began to shiver so violently that I was afraid that I might fall on my master. I quickly got down from the tree and spoke to my master’s nephew. “What did you say? Repeat the news for me.”

My mastcr was very angry and gave me a terrible blow. “What does this matter to you? Go back to what you were doing,” he shouted.

That evening, I took some dates that I had gathered and went to the place where the Prophet had alighted. I went up to him and said:

“I have heard that you are a righteous man and that you have companions with you who are strangers and are in need. Here is something from me as sadaqah. I see that you are more deserving of it than others.”

The Prophet ordered his companions to eat but he himself did not eat of it.

I gathered some more dates and when the Prophet left Quba for Madinah I went to him and said: “I noticed that you did not eat of the sadaqah I gave. This however is a gift for you.” Of this gift of dates, both he and his companions ate.

The strict honesty of the Prophet was one of the characteristics that led Salman to believe in him and accept Islam.

Salman was released from slavery by the Prophet who paid his Jewish slave-owner a stipulated price and who himself planted an agreed number of date palms to secure his manumission. After accepting Islam, Salman would say when asked whose son he was:

“I am Salman, the son of Islam from the children of Adam.”

Salman was to play an important role in the struggles of the growing Muslim state. At the battle of Khandaq, he proved to be an innovator in military strategy. He suggested digging a ditch or khandaq around Madinah to keep the Quraysh army at bay. When Abu Sufyan, the leader of the Makkans, saw the ditch, he said, “This strategem has not been employed by the Arabs before.”

Salman became known as “Salman the Good”. He was a scholar who lived a rough and ascetic life. He had one cloak which he wore and on which he slept. He would not seek the shelter of a roof but stayed under a tree or against a wall. A man once said to him: “Shall I not build you a house in which to live?” “I have no need of a house,” he replied.

The man persisted and said, “I know the type of house that would suit you.” “Describe it to me,” said Salman.

“I shall build you a house which if you stand up in it, its roof will hurt your head and if you stretch your legs the wall will hurt them.”

Later, as a govenor of al-Mada’in (Ctesiphon) near Baghdad, Salman received a stipend of five thousand dirhams. This he would distribute as sadaqah. He lived from the work of his own hands. When some people came to Mada’in and saw him working in the palm groves, they said, “You are the amir here and your sustenance is guaranteed and you do this work!”

“I like to eat from the work of my own hands,” he replied. Salman however was not extreme in his asceticism. It is related that he once visited Abu ad-Dardaa with whom the Prophet had joined him in brotherhood. He found Abu adDardaa’s wife in a miserable state and he asked, “What is the matter with you.”

“Your brother has no need of anything in this world*” she replied.

When Abu ad-Dardaa came, he welcomed Salman and gave him food. Salman told him to eat but Abu adDardaa said, “I am fasting.”

“I swear to you that I shall not eat until you eat also.”

Salman spent the night there as well. During the night, Abu ad-Dardaa got up but Salman got hold of him and said:

“O Abu ad-Dardaa, your Lord has a right over you. Your family have a right over you and your body has a right over you. Give to each its due.”

In the morning, they prayed together and then went out to meet the Prophet, peace be upon him. The Prophet supported Salman in what he had said.

As a scholar, Salman was noted for his vast knowledge and wisdom. Ali said of him that he was like Luqman the Wise. And Ka’b al-Ahbar said: “Salman is stuffed with knowledge and wisdomÑan ocean that does not dry up.” Salman had a knowledge of both the Christian scriptures and the Qur’an in addition to his earlier knowledge of the Zoroastrian religion. Salman in fact translated parts of the Qur’an into Persian during the life-time of the Prophet. He was thus the first person to translate the Qur’an into a foreign language.

Salman, because of the influential household in which he grew up, might easily have been a major figure in the sprawling Persian Empire of his time. His search for truth however led him, even before the Prophet had appeared, to renounce a comfortable and affluent life and even to suffer the indignities of slavery. According to the most reliable account, he died in the year thirty five after the hijrah, during the caliphate of Uthman, at Ctesiphon.

Burial Place & Location

Mosque of Salman al-Farisi, Ghazwa-e-Khandak Site, Madina Munawwara

Photo sources: 1, Featured

Location:
Masjid Salman al-Farisi (Arabic: مسجد سلمان الفارسي) is part of a group of mosques known as al-Masajid al-Sab’a (Arabic: المساجد السبعة) or The Seven Mosques, located north-west of the Haram.

Map – Geotag Icon Show on overview map

 

Bio: Sh-. `Abd al-Rahman al-`Attar al-Madani

Bio: Sh-. `Abd al-Rahman al-`Attar al-Madani

Sayyidi `Abd al-Rahman al-`Attar al-Madani al-Hasani al-Idrisi

(الشيخ عبد الرجمن المدني العَطَّار الحسني (الملقب بالزَّيات
d. around 600 H. in Madina al-Munawwara
radiya Allah anhu

.


 

English

From Dar Sirr 2008
`Abd al-Rahman ibn al-Husayn al-`Attar was a spice merchant from the city of Sabta, who was called “az-Zayyat” or “al-Madani” because he resided in the oil sellers’ quarter of Medina (where his tomb is still found), while devoting himself to worship at the Prophet’s mosque. Sidi al-Madani’s spiritual master was Sidi Tuqiyudin al-Fuqayyir, who hailed from the Iranian city of Nahrawan but lived near Wasit in Iraq, the home city of Sidi Abul Fath al-Wasiti (d. 642/1227). Sidi Tuqiyudin apparently had two spiritual lineages: one involving an Iraqi line that is commonly cited as the main silsila in Morocco, whose chain of transmission comes from Sidna al-Hassan ibn Ali, and another, now forgotten leading to Sidi Ahmed ar-Rifa’i (d. 678/1236). Another of Sidi al-Madani’s spiritual masters is the Andalusian mystic Sidi Abi Mohammed Jaafar ibn Abdellah ibn Sayyid Buna al-Khuza’i who took from the Patron Saint of the Maghreb Shaykh Sidi Abu Madyan Shuayb al-Ghawt (d. 594).

عربي

From Kuhin: Tabaqat al-Shadhiliyya View book | Download | Read chapter [3] online
[3] سيدي عبد الرحمن الزيات (…- القرن الخامس)

شيخ مولانا عبد السلام بن مَشيش العارفُ الرباني، والغوث الصمداني، الشريف سيدي عبد الرحمن المدني العطَّار، الملقب بالزيَّات، لسكناه بحارة الزيَّاتين بالمدينة المنورة، على صاحبها أفضل الصلاة والسلام.

وكان رضى الله عنه من أكابرِ أولياء الله تعالى، وكان من رجالِ الغيب، وكان غوثًا كاملًا، فردًا جامعًا، أتى إلى مولانا عبد السلام بن مَشيش لمَّا وقعَ له الجذب، وهو ابن سبع سنين، فدخلَ عليه، وهو عليه سيما أهل الله، فقال له: أنا شيخك. وأخبره عن أموره وأحواله ومقاماته مقامًا مقامْ، وقال له: أنا واسطتك في كلِّ حالٍ ومقام.

وقد سُئل بعد ذلك سيدي عبدُ السلام: هل كنت تأتيه أو يأتيك؟ قال: كلُّ ذلك كان. قيل له: طيًّا أو نشرًا؟ فقال: طيًّا.

Photos

t.b.d.
 

Refs

Damas Cultural Society © 2017
Latest update: 2007-07-26
Original page
———————-
Bio: Sh. 'Ali Jamal al-'Amrani

Bio: Sh. ‘Ali Jamal al-‘Amrani

Sayyidi Shaykh ´Ali al-Jamal al-‘Amrani al-Hasani

الشيخ السيد علي بن عبد الرحمن العمراني الجمل
d. 1194 H. in Fas
qaddasa Allah sirrahu


His Shaykh was Sayyidi Sh. al-‘Arabi ibn Ahmad ibn ‘Abd Allah
He passed on his secrets to Sayyidi Imam `Arabi al-Dirqawi
– may Allah be pleased with them all

English

Biography

t.b.d.
From Kuhin: Tabaqat al-Shadhiliyya

Ref: Hasan b. Muhmmad al-Kuhan al-Fasi: Tabaqat al-Shadhiliyya al-Kubra


عربي

[1]
[2]
wiki



From alaw1934

علي الجمل العمراني
في ديسمبر 22, 2017

الشيخ العارف بالله، الدال على الله، شيخ الطريقة، وإمام أهل الحقيقة، معدن المواهب الربانية، ومنبع المعارف الإلهية، قطب الأنام، وغياث الإسلام، الغوث الجامع، والبحر الواسع، الكبريت الحمر، والحجة الأشهر؛ أبو الحسن سيدي علي بن عبد الرحمن بن محمد بن علي بن إبراهيم بن عمران الشريف الحسني الإدريسي العمراني من شرفاء بني عمران أهل قبيلة بني حسان؛ الملقب بالجمل لكونه وجد ناقة أو بعير راقدا ببعض طرق بفاس؛ فرفعه ووضعه خارج الطريق. فرآه بعض الناس فقال: هذا هو الجمل. فاشتهر بذلك، وهو ملقب عند ملائكة الرحمن بالجمَال.

كان رحمه الله أولا بفاس متصلا بالمخزن، ثم خرج منها إلى تونس على عهد السلطان أبي عبد الله محمد؛ المدعو: ابن عربية. ابن أمير المؤمنين مولانا إسماعيل خوفا على نفسه من أشرافها، إذ كان ممن تولى أمرهم من قبل السلطان ولحقتهم الإذاية منه. فلقي بتونس مشايخ انتفع بهم، وبعثوه إلى وازان عند الشيخ مولاي الطيب الوازاني رضي الله عنه؛ فلقيه بوازان عام ثلاثة وخمسين ومائة وألف، ثم بعثه مولاي الطيب إلى فاس، فقدم عليها؛ وذلك في السنة المذكورة، وقرأ بها ما شاء الله من التصوف على الشيخ أبي عبد الله جسوس، وصحب العارف الكبر أبا المحامد سيدي العربي بن أحمد ابن عبد الله معن الأندلسي، ولزم خدمته مدة من ستة عشرة عاما، حتى انتفع به غاية النفع، وسمع منه الأسرار ما لا يكيف ولا ينحصر.

وكان قد فتح له أولا على يد شريف كبير السن حسن الوجه من ناحية المشرق له: عبد الله. وجده بتطوان وصحبه بها سنتين، ثم لما توفي شيخه سيدي العربي؛ بني لنفسه زاوية بالرميلة حيث ضريحه الآن، وكثر أتباعه وخدامه.

وكان رضي الله عنه آخذا بالشريعة في جميع أحكامها، لا يتعدى أمرها، ويلبس تارة فاخر الثياب، وتارة رثها، وينتعل تارة بالنعل المعروف بالشربيل، وتارة يحفي قدمه بالكلية، ويمد يده بالسؤال لقوم مخصوصين بلا إلحاح ولا إلحاف.

وأكثر ما تراه جالسا في القرويين بالباب المظلم لناحية المظلم لناحية باب فندق سيدي عبد المجيد، دائم الفكرة، كثير العْبرة والعَبْرة، وإذا كلمته؛ وجدت منه بحرا زخارا بالعلم والعرفان، وكان من أجل شيوخ الطريق من أهل تجريد الظاهر والباطن معا؛ متقشفا ذاكرا خاضعا متواضعا، خاليا عن الدعوى محيدا عن أهلها، مولعا بالوحدة وكتبها، وقوانين أهلها، وله اليد الطولى في أصولها وفروعها وحقيقتها، على طريقة الشيخ أبي الحسن الششتري ونظرائه من الأكابر.

وكان مستغرق الأوقات في رؤية النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم يقظة ومناما حتى كان يقول: “مهما خطر ببالي رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم وجدته هو وأصحابه العشرة الكرام البررة حاضرين بين يدي؛ حسا لا معنى، ونتكلم معهم، ونأخذ العلم والعمل من عين العلم والمل صلى الله عليه وسلم”.

وكان تلميذه العارف بالله مولاي العربي الدرقاوي يقول فيه : “والله ما كان شيخنا مولاي علي الجمل إلا أكبر استغراقا في ذات رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم من أبي العباس المرسي!”. وقال في رسائله: “ترجع لي والله أعلم أنه أقوى من سيدي المرسي بما رأيت منه من الاستغراق في رؤيته صلى الله عليه وسلم ومخاطبته إياه”.

وكان من أهل التصريف في وقته، حتى قيل: إنه كان يُزَطّطُ القوافل بهمته، وربما كان يخرج لباب المدينة ويأخذ من أرباب القافلة درهما لكل جمل من أجمالها، فيذهبون ويربحون في سلعتهم ويرجعون للبلد سالمين غانمين. واتفق في يوم من الأيام أن بعض أرباب القافلة تشطر معه في جمل؛ فلم يعطه عليه شيئا. فخرج فيهم اللصوص ونبهوا لهم ذلك الجمل وحده، لم ينهبوا لهم غيره، وشاع ذلك في البلد، ولم يتشطر معه بعد ذلك أحد.

وأدرك رضي الله عنه القطبانية العظمى، بل عاش فيها جل عمره؛ على ما ذكره تلميذه مولاي العربي في رسائله؛ ونصه: “وأستاذنا رضي الله عنه قد كان يسأل القواربط بفاس البالي عمره الله من حانوت إلى خانوت كالمضطر الكبير، مع أنه قد عاش غوثا جل عمره، وقد تعدى عمره ثامنين سنة”. هـ.

وكان كما ذكره أيضا تلميذه المذكور يعرف اربعا وعشرين طريقا في الحكمة، كل طريق منها تقيم الساعي لدار الملك، ومع ذلك كان يسأل القواريط من الناس بالأسواق ويده ترتعش من شدة الكبر، ومن أراد أن يعرف مقامه في التحقيق، وينطق في علو مرتبته في الطريق؛ فليطالع كتابه الذي ألفه؛ فإنه عزيز الوجود، وفيه من الفوائد، خرق العوائد.

وقد كان الشيخ سيدي عبد الواحد الدباغ رضي الله عنه يقول: “لا يعرف سيدي عليا إلا من كان هو سيدي علي!”، أي: من كان في مقامه. ويقول أيضا: “كان سيدي علي فقيها كبيرا، عالما شهيرا في علم الضدين”، يعني: الحقيقة والشريعة، والحرية والعبودية، والجمع والفرق، والسكر والصحو، والسلوك والجذب، والفناء والبقاء … وما أشبه ذلك.

وقد تربى به وتأدب، وتخرج وتهذب، جماعة من الأكابر؛ أجلهم: الفقيه الأستاذ الأنور، القطب العارف الأشهر؛ أبو المحامد مولاي العربي بن أحمد الدرقاوي الشريف الحسني الزروالي. وقد بالغ في الثناء على شيخه المذكور في مواضع من رسائله رضي الله عنهما، ونفعنا بهما. وكان أول لقاء به في زاويته بالرميلة إذ اقال مولانا العربي الدرقاوي رضي الله عنه:

وكان من عادتي أن لا أقوم على أمر من الأمور جليلاً أو حقيرًا إلاَّ بعد الإستخارة النبوية فاستخرت الله في تلك الليلة فبت أخوض في صفاته أي الشيخ المربي كيف هو؟ و كيف تكون ملاقاتي معه؟ حتى لم يأخذني النوم تلك الليلة و لـمَّا قصدته, أي الشيخ أبو الحسن علي الجمل, لزاويته بالرميلة التي بين المدن عدوة الوادي من جهة القبلة شرفها الله و هي التي ضريحه بها الآن مشهور مقصودٌ للزيارة فدققت الباب فإذا به قائمٌ يشطب أي يكنس الزاوية إذ كان لا يترك تشطيبها بيده المباركة كل يوم مع كبر سنه و علو شأنه فقال أيش تريد؟ قلت أريد ياسيدي أن تأخذ بيدي لله فقام معي قومةً عظيمةً و لبَّس الأمر عليَّ و أخفى عني حاله و صار يقول من قال لك هذا؟ و من أخذ بيدي أنا حتَّى آخذ بيدك؟ و زجرني و نهرني و كل ذلك اختبارًا لصدقي فوليت من عنده قال فاستخرت الله تلك الليلة أيضًا فصليت الصبح و قصدته لزاويته أيضًا فوجدته على حاله يشطب الزاوية رضي الله عنه فدققت الباب ففتح لي و قلت تأخذ بيدي لله؟ فقبض علي يدي و قال لي مرحبًا بك و أدخلني لموضعه بالزاوية و فرح بي غاية الفرح و سُـرَّ بي غاية السرور فقلت له يا سيدي كم لي أُفتش على شيخ؟! فقال لي و أنا أفتش على مريد صديق!!! فلقنني الوِردَ و قال لي امش و اجيء أي تردد علي بلا حرج أو تعالى لتزورني بدون حرج فكنت أمشي و أجيء كلَّ يوم فيذكرني مع بعض الإخوان من أهل فاس حرسها الله من كلِّ بأس

توفي صاحب الترجمة رضي الله عنه بفاس عشية يوم السبت تاسع وعشرين ربيع الأول سنة أربع وتسعين، وقيل: سنة ثلاث وتسعين ومائة وألف 1193هـ، /1779م، عن مائة وستة أعوام، أو خمسة؛ على ما في فهرسة الكوهن. وحكى بعضهم عن ولده سيدي محمد الشريف أنه ولده وهو من مائة وثمان عشرة سنة والله أعلم.

ودفن من الغد وهو: يوم الأحد بزاويته التي بحومة الرميلة من عدوة فاس الأندلس، قرب مسجد الشيخ سيدي أبي مدين الغوث نفعنا الله به، وبنيت عليه هناك قبة، وقبره بها مشهور معروف مزار، عليه دربوز من خشب، ودفن معه بها وبما اتصل بها جماعة من أصحابه وأصحابهم رضي الله عنهم.

قال سيدي علي الجمل رضي الله عنه:
من صفات كمال الولاية لله أن لا يحتاج الولي إلى شيء آخر غير الحال الذي قلده الله له في أي لحظة كانت وليس لديه رغبة أخرى بخلاف الإرادة الإلهية ففي أحد الأيام كان الشيخ العارف أبو العباس أحمد اليماني نسأل الله أن ينفعنا به جالسا مع بعض فقرائه و كان الجدل حول حقيقة الولاية و كان لكل واحد منهم رأي واستمر الخلاف وقرروا أن يعرضوا المسألة على الشيخ و عرض كل فقير رؤيته لحقيقة الولاية واستمع الشيخ دون أن يؤكد كلام أي منهم وعندما رأوا أنهم عاجزون عن الوصول للمقصود قالوا: “يا سيدي نأمل من الله و منكم أن تبلغونا حقيقة الأمر ما هي حقيقة الولاية؟”, فأجاب الشيخ: “صاحب الولاية عندما يجلس في الظل فإنه لا يصبو إلى أن يجلس تحت الشمس وعندما يجلس تحت الشمس فإنه لا يصبو إلى أن يجلس في الظل”.

وقال رضي الله عنه في كتابه الرسائل في التصوف (مخطوط خاص): سبحان من هيأ أقواما لخدمته وأقامهم فيها, وهيأ أقواما لمحبته وأقامهم فيها , أهل الخدمة تجلى لهم الحق بصفة الجلال والهيبة فصاروا مستوحشين من الخلق قلوبهم شاخصة لما يرد عليها من حضرة الحق قد نحلت أجسادهم وأصفرت ألوانهم وخمصت بطونهم بالشوق ذابت أكبادهم وقطعوا الدياجي بالبكاء والنحيب واستبدلوا الدنيا بالمجاهدة في الدين ورغبوا في جنة عرضها السموات والأرض أعدت للمتقين وأهل المحبة تجلى لهم الحق بصفة الجمال والمحبة وسكروا بخمر لذيذ القربة شغلهم المعبود عن أن يكونوا من العباد ولا من الزهاد اشتغلوا بالظاهر والباطن وهو الله فحجبوا عن كل ظاهر وباطن زهدوا في التنعم والأنعام واشتغلوا بمشاهدة الملك العلام وقد قيل في حقهم :

نسيم الوصل هب على الندامى فأسكرهم وما شربوا مداما
ومالت منهم الأعطاف ميلا لأن قلوبهم ملئت غراما
و ناداهم عبادي لا تناموا ينال الوصل من هجر المناما
ينال الوصل من سهر الليالي على الأقدام من لزم القياما
وما مقصودهم جنات عدن ولاالحور الحسان ولا الخياما
سوى نظر الجليل فذا مناهم فيا بشرى لهم قوما كراما

من مؤلفاته:
– نصيحة المريد في طريق أهل السلوك والتجريد ويسمى أيضاً اليواقيت الحسان في تصريف معاني الإنسان.
– الرسائل في التصوف (مخطوط خاص)

المصادر
– كتاب المقصد الأحمدي “المقصد الأحمد في ذكر سيدنا ابن عبد الله أحمد” للعلامة الطيب القادري
– سلوة الأنفاس و محادثة الأكياس بـمن أقبر من العلماء و الصلحاء بفاس

ترجم له في “الروضة المقصودة”، و”سلوك الطريق الوارية”، و”إمداد ذوي الاستعداد” وغيرها.
الأعلام السابقين

تعليقا



From ghrib.net

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
سيدي علي بن عبد الرحمن العمراني الجمل: ت 1194 ه
اسمه ونسبه:

هو الإمام الجليل الشيخ العارف بالله، الدال على الله، شيخ الطريقة وإمام أهل الحقيقة، أبو الحسن سيدي علي بن عبد الرحمن بن محمد بن علي بن إبراهيم بن عمران الشريف الحسني الإدريسي العمراني من شرفاء بني عمران أهل قبيلة بني حسان؛ لُقب بالجمل، والأصل في لقبه بالجمل كما قال مولاي العربي الدرقاوي: “أنه كان في حال صغره قويا شديدا، وكان ذات يوم سائرا ببعض طرق فاس، إذ وجد بها ناقة أو بعيرا صغيرا راقدا، فرفعه ووضعه خارج الطريق، فرآه بعض الناس حين فعل ما فعل فقال: هذا هو الجمل، فاشتهر رحمه الله بالجمل عند أهل فاس، فهذا هو السبب في لقبه بسيدي علي الجمل”.

علمه وأخلاقه:
كان الشيخ سيدي عبد الواحد الدباغ يقول: “لا يعرف سيدي عليا إلا من كان هو سيدي علي”،[3] أي لا يعرفه حق المعرفة إلا من بلغ مرتبته.

ويقول مولاي العربي الدرقاوي: “كان بحرا لا ساحل له؛ لأن علمه كان أحلى من السكر وعمله كان أمرَّ من الحنظل، إذ كان دائما يقول كلام ولي الله تعالى سيدي أبي المواهب التونسي رضي الله عنه: من ادعى شهود الجمال قبل تأدبه بالجلال أرفضه فإنه دجال”،[4] ويقول الشيخ سيدي عبد الواحد الدباغ: “كان سيدي علي فقيها كبيرا، عالما شهيرا في علم الضدين، يعني: الحقيقة والشريعة، والحرية والعبودية، والجمع والفرق، والسكر والصحو، والسلوك والجذب، والفناء والبقاء… وما أشبه ذلك”.

وكان رحمه الله متواضعا خيِّرا يقوم بأعمال الزاوية بمفرده، وفي ذلك يقول مولاي العربي الدرقاوي عنه: “لما قصدته لزاويته بالرميلة التي بين المدن عدوة الوادي لي من جهة القبلة -شرَّفها الله- وهي التي ضريحه بها الآن مشهور مقصود للزيارة فدققت الباب فإذا به قائم يُشطب الزاوية إذ كان لا يترك تشطيبها بيده المباركة كل يوم مع كبر سنه وعلو شأنه”.
مؤلفاته:

• نصيحة المريد في طريق أهل السلوك والتجريد ويسمى أيضاً اليواقيت الحسان في تصريف معاني الإنسان. وهو مطبوع، طبعته دار الكتب العلمية، بتحقيق: عاصم إبراهيم الكيالي الحسيني، سنة 2005م/1426هـ.

• أنوار الطريقة وأسرار الحقيقة.
• الرسائل في التصوف، (مخطوط).

من رسائله :

الرسالة الأولى
في تسليم الأمور كلها لمولاها

قال : مهما تركت الأمور لمولاها يتصرف فيها كما يشاء ، يردّها – سبحانه – إليك ،
ويمكنك من زمامها ، ويأمرها تكون عند أمرك ونهيك ، تتصرّف فيها بمشيئتك ،
حتى لا يكون منها إلا ما تريد ، ومهما تعرضت للأمور وأردتها أن تكون عند أمرك ونهيك
يردّك مولاك إليها ، ويمكّنها من زمامك ، كانت الأمور خديمة لك مملوكتك حين أطلقت منها ،
فلما أردتها صرت أنت خديما لها ، مملوكا لها ، تفعل بك ما أرادت ، وشتان ما بين المالك والمملوك

سبب عبوديتك للوجود هو حبّ عبودية الوجود إليك ، وأنت و الوجود عبيد لله ،
وسبب عبودية الوجود إليك هو عبوديتك لله : ( يا دنيا ! اخدمي من خدمني ، وأتعبي من خدمك )

الرسالة الثانية
صفات الداخل إلى الحضرة الإلهية

قال رحمه الله ورضي عنه : اعلم أن الحضرة الإلهية مثل الجنة لا يدخلها صاحب حسد
ولا صاحب بغض ، ولا صاحب غلّ ، ولا صاحب غضب ، ولا صاحب همّ ،
ولا صاحب نكد ، قال تعالى : ( ونزعنا ما في صدورهم من غلّ إخوانا على سرر متقابلين ،
لا يمسّهم فيها نصب وما هم منها بمخرجين ) الحجر : 47 – 48

* رحمه الله و نفعنا بعلومه

Letters

Letters

اخترت لكم من مخطوط كتاب ( مجموع رسائل سيدي علي الجمل )
هذه الحكم الربانية ، للشيخ والعارف بالله الغوث الرباني سيدي علي العمراني الملقب بالجمل ونفعنا به آمين .

الرسالة الأولى
في تسليم الأمور كلها لمولاها

قال : مهما تركت الأمور لمولاها يتصرف فيها كما يشاء ، يردّها – سبحانه – إليك ،
ويمكنك من زمامها ، ويأمرها تكون عند أمرك ونهيك ، تتصرّف فيها بمشيئتك ،
حتى لا يكون منها إلا ما تريد ، ومهما تعرضت للأمور وأردتها أن تكون عند أمرك ونهيك
يردّك مولاك إليها ، ويمكّنها من زمامك ، كانت الأمور خديمة لك مملوكتك حين أطلقت منها ،
فلما أردتها صرت أنت خديما لها ، مملوكا لها ، تفعل بك ما أرادت ، وشتان ما بين المالك والمملوك
سبب عبوديتك للوجود هو حبّ عبودية الوجود إليك ، وأنت و الوجود عبيد لله ،
وسبب عبودية الوجود إليك هو عبوديتك لله : ( يا دنيا ! اخدمي من خدمني ، وأتعبي من خدمك )

الرسالة الثانية
صفات الداخل إلى الحضرة الإلهية
قال رحمه الله ورضي عنه : اعلم أن الحضرة الإلهية مثل الجنة لا يدخلها صاحب حسد
ولا صاحب بغض ، ولا صاحب غلّ ، ولا صاحب غضب ، ولا صاحب همّ ،
ولا صاحب نكد ، قال تعالى : ( ونزعنا ما في صدورهم من غلّ إخوانا على سرر متقابلين ،
لا يمسّهم فيها نصب وما هم منها بمخرجين ) الحجر : 47 – 48

الرسالة الثالثة
في الحضّ على خرق العوائد
وقال : اعلم أنه ما من نبيّ مرسل ، ولا وليّ مربّ إلا وأول ما يأمر به
الذين اتبعوه من الناس بخرق العوائد التي يجدهم عليها .
وفي الأصل الحقيقة كلها خرق العوائد ، وخرق العادة لا بدّ منه لكل موجود ,
ولكن شتّان من يأتيها عارفا طائعا ، وبين من يأتيها جاهلا عاصيا ،
وكل من خرق العادة لأجل شيء ، يظفر به على كل حال .
قال صاحب الحكم : ( كيف تخرق لك العوائد وأنت لم تخرق من نفسك العوائد ؟ )
وخرق العادة يكون قهرا أو بالحكمة إرادة ،
والحكمة والقدرة كلاهما وصف المولى – جلّ ثناؤه – والقدرة من عين الحكَم
والاكتساب من عين الحكمة ، والكل من الله وإليه .

الرسالة الرابعة
تحقّق بأوصافك يمدّك بأوصافه
وقال : صاحب الحقائق العلوية موكول إلى نفسه ،
وصاحب الحقائق السفلية متوكل على ربه ،
وشتّان ما بين المتوكل على نفسه ، والمتوكل على ربه .
قال ابن عطاء الله السكندري في الحكم : ( تحقّق بأوصافك يمدّك بأوصافه )

الرسالة الخامسة
ما قابلك مولاك بشيء إلا قابلتك الأكوان بمثله
وقال : اعلم أنك أنت تزيد ذلاّ بين يدي مولاك والأكوان تزيد ذلاّ بين يديك ،
أنت تزيد خضوعا وفقرا بين يدي مولاك والأكوان تزيد خضوعا وفقرا بين يديك ،
لأن الكون مثل المرآة ما قابلت مولاك بشيء إلا قابلتك الأكوان بمثله .
* رحم الله سيدي علي العمراني الجمل و نفعنا بعلومه آمين .

الرسالة السادسة
تحقّق بأوصافك يمدّك بأوصافه
وقال : صاحب الحقائق العلوية موكول إلى نفسه ،
وصاحب الحقائق السفلية متوكل على ربه ،
وشتّان ما بين المتوكل على نفسه ، والمتوكل على ربه .
قال ابن عطاء الله السكندري في الحكم : ( تحقّق بأوصافك يمدّك بأوصافه )

الرسالة السابعة
في أقسام النّية
وقال : النية على قسمين : نية معنوية باطنية ، وهي المعروفة عند جميع الخلق بالنية ،
ونية أخرى تقابلها ظاهرية ، حسية وهي : الصحبة والمجالسة ، يعني دوام مجالسة الرجل لأهل فنه
الأولى تجرّ الثانية ، وهي المعنوية ، تجرّ الحسية ، ويكون بالعكس : الحسية تجرّ المعنوية .
والإنسان إذا فاتته الحسية يمسك بالمعنوية ، وإذا فاتته المعنوية يمسك بالحسية ،
وكل من توجّه لأمر ولم تكن عنده نية معنوية أو نية حسية ، لا سبيل له للدخول لذلك الأمر ،
لأن هاتين النيتين هما مفتاح الأمو

الرسالة الثامنة
ما قابلك مولاك بشيء إلا قابلتك الأكوان بمثله
وقال : اعلم أنك أنت تزيد ذلاّ بين يدي مولاك والأكوان تزيد ذلاّ بين يديك ،
أنت تزيد خضوعا وفقرا بين يدي مولاك والأكوان تزيد خضوعا وفقرا بين يديك ،
لأن الكون مثل المرآة ما قابلت مولاك بشيء إلا قابلتك الأكوان بمثله

الرسالة التاسعة
كلاّ نمدّ هؤلاء وهؤلاء من عطاء ربك

وقال : ( إن الله يرزق العبد على قدر همّته ) الحديث
ومن ذلك أن الله يمدّ كل فرقة من خلقه بما طلبت ، يمدّ من طلب الاسم بالاسم
ويمدّ من طلب الصفات بالصفات ، ويمدّ طالب الذات بالذات ، ومادة كل واحد على قدر ضميره ،
القويّ مادته على قدر قوّته ، والضعيف مادته على قدرضعفه ،
وأهل الاسم يطلبون الاسم بالاسم ، يمدّهم الله بالاسم ، كعامة المسلمين ،
وأهل الصفات يطلبون الصفات بالصفات يمدّهم الله تعالى بالصفات ، كخاصة المسلمين ،
وأهل الذات يطلبون الذات بالذات يمدّهم الله بالذات ، كخاصة الخاصة – نفعنا الله بالجميع .

وأما صاحب الاسم : واقف مع نفسه له الأجرة ما دام في عمله حتى يقطع ،
وعلامته : تارة في شدّة وتارة في رخاء .
وطالب الصفات : واقف مع القدرة شاخص ببصره لما يبرز منها لا يرى لنفسه قدرا ، ولا يعبأ بها
وهذا مقامه مقام الشكر ، والشاكر لا ينقطع أبدا ،
وعلامته : الرجوع إلى الله في السّراء والضّراء .
وطالب الذات لا يشهد في الوجود إلا الله ، غائب عن الأكوان في المكوّن ، مستغرق في شهود مولاه
لا يخطر على قلبه سوى مولاه ، ولا يرى بعينه ، ولا يسمع بأذنيه إلا هو ، استوى رجاؤه وخوفه
وعلامته : أن استوت عنده الأشياء كلها ، وأضدادها ، لا فرق عنده بين الحلو والمرّ ،
وبين العدوّ والحبيب ، وبين العطاء والمنع ، وبين الإساءة والإحسان ،
و بين العلوّ والسفل إلى ما لا نهاية له .

From ghrib.net and others


جاء في الكتاب المخطوط: “معنى الإنسان” لسيدي علي بن عبد الرحمان العمراني المشهور بالجمل (ت 1194) شيخ مولاي العربي الدرقاوي:

• الصمت إذا كان عن علم فهو أعلى من الكلام وأشرف، والكلام إذا كان عن جهل فهو أوضع من الصمت وأحقر. (ورقة 17).
• الأفعال تنقص الأقوال. (ورقة 59).
• إذا كثر الكلام قلت فائدته، وإذا قل الكلام كثرت فائدته. (ورقة 191).
• من رأيته مجيبا عن كل ما سئل ومعبرا لكل ما شهد، وذاكرا لكل ما علم، فاستدل بذلك على وجود جهله. (ورقة 73).
• القابل على الخلق هو المدبر عن الحق، والمدبر عن الخلق هو المقبل عن الحق. (ورقة 42).
• لا يحل لإمرىء أن يقدم على أمر حتى يعلم حكم الله فيه. (ورقة 58).
• الشاكر لا ينقطع أبدا، وعلامته الرجوع إلى الله في السراء والضراء. (ورقة 68).
• إذا أردت أن تكون صادقا مع الله، فكن صادقا مع عباد الله. (ورقة 95).
• كلما يفعل صاحب الفلس بفلسه يفعل صاحب النفس بنفسه، إلا أن صاحب النفس ملِك وصاحب الفلس مملوك، وذلك لأن الله تعالى خلق الفلس كرامة للنفس، ولم يخلق النفس كرامة للفلس. (ورقة 155).
• كل ما تباشره بالصدق لا يباشرك إلا بالصدق، وكل ما تباشره بالكذب لا يباشرك إلا بالكذب. (ورقة 175).
• من تواضع للوجود اختيارا، تواضع له الوجود قهرا، ومن تكبر على الوجود اختيارا تكبر الوجود عليه قهرا. (ورقة 188).
• الإنسان على قدر طلوعه في المُلك يكون نزوله في المِلْك، وعلى قدر نزوله في المِلك يكون طلوعه في المُلك. (ورقة 205).
• من رأى الناس كلهم على خطأ، فهو أي الرائي على خطأ، ومن رأى الناس كلهم على صواب، فالرائي على صواب، ومن رأى الناس تارة على صواب وتارة على خطأ، فهو تارة على صواب وتارة على خطأ. (ورقة 259).
• كل من تتعزز عليه يتعزز عليك، وكل من تتذلل له يتذلل لك كان ملكا أو مملوكا. (ورقة 260).
• الخلق مثل الأرض أين ما حفرت تجد الماء، إلا أن بعض المواضع الماء فيها قريب، والبعض الماء فيها بعيد. (ورقة 262/263).
• اترك صحبة العاجزين أمثالك واصحب من لا يخفى عليه أقوالك وأفعالك وأحوالك، واترك من يعجز عن دفع الضرر عن نفسه. (ورقة 307).

From aljounaid.ma

Sayings

Sayings

From shadiliamashishia

مع سيدي علي الجمل قدس سره
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
اللهم صل على سيدنا محمد و آل سيدنا محمد

قال سيدي علي الجمل العمراني الشاذلي قدس سره :

اعلم أن نتيجة عبودية أهل الله الفناء في الله، كما أن نتيجة
الفناء في الله البقاء بالله، كما أن نتيجة البقاء بالله الفناء و لا فناء،والبقاء و لا بقاء،عبودية أهل الله عبودية كسبية،وعبودية أهل الفناء في الله عبودية قهرية،وعبودية أهل البقاء بالله عبودية كسبية بعد القهرية، وعبودية أهل بقاء البقاء كسبية قهرية، قهرية كسبية.

الأولى :عبودية بوجود الوسائط.
والثانية وهي المسماة بالفناء:عبودية مع فقد الوسائط.
الثالثة وهي المكناة بالبقاء:عبودية بوجود الوسائط. والرابعة وهي المكناة
ببقاء البقاء:عبودية بوسائط مع فقد الوسائط، و عبودية بفقد الوسائط مع وجود الوسائط.

وهذا المقام الرابع بقال له: مقام التلوين في التمكين و الرسوخفي مقامات اليقين…

وقال أيضا قدس سره:
سبحان من هيأ أقواما لخدمته وأقامهم فيها, وهيأ أقواما لمحبته وأقامهم فيها , أهل الخدمة تجلى لهم الحق بصفة الجلال والهيبة فصاروا مستوحشين من الخلق قلوبهم شاخصة لما يرد عليها من حضرة الحق قد نحلت أجسادهم وأصفرت ألوانهم وخمصت بطونهم بالشوق ذابت أكبادهم وقطعوا الدياجي بالبكاء والنحيب، واستبدلوا الدنيا بالمجاهدة في الدين، ورغبوا في جنة عرضها السموات والأرض أعدت للمتقين وأهل المحبة، تجلى لهم الحق بصفة الجمال والمحبة وسكروا بخمر لذيذ القربة، شغلهم المعبود عن أن يكونوا من العباد ولا من الزهاد، اشتغلوا بالظاهر والباطن وهو الله، فحجبوا عن كل ظاهر وباطن زهدوا في التنعم والأنعام واشتغلوا بمشاهدة الملك العلام وقد قيل في حقهم :

(القصيدة لمولانا عبدالقادر الجيلاني قدس سره)
نسيم الوصل هب على الندامى**** فأسكرهم وما شربوا المداما
ومالت منهم الأعناق ميلا **** لأن قلوبهم ملأت غراما
و ناداهم عبادي لا تناموا **** ينال الوصل من هجر المناما
ينال الوصل من سهر الليالي **** على الأقدام من لزم القياما
وما مقصودهم جنات عدن **** ولاالحور الحسان ولا الخياما
سوى نظر الجليل فذا مناهم **** فيا بشرى لهم قوما كراما

وقال قدس سره في بعض حكمه:

• الأفعال تنقص الأقوال.
• إذا كثر الكلام قلت فائدته، وإذا قل الكلام كثرت فائدته.
• من رأيته مجيبا عن كل ما سئل ومعبرا لكل ما شهد، وذاكرا لكل ما علم، فاستدل بذلك على وجود جهله.
• القابل على الخلق هو المدبر عن الحق، والمدبر عن الخلق هو المقبل عن الحق.
• لا يحل لإمرىء أن يقدم على أمر حتى يعلم حكم الله فيه.
• الشاكر لا ينقطع أبدا، وعلامته الرجوع إلى الله في السراء والضراء.
• إذا أردت أن تكون صادقا مع الله، فكن صادقا مع عباد الله.
• كلما يفعل صاحب الفلس بفلسه يفعل صاحب النفس بنفسه، إلا أن صاحب النفس ملِك وصاحب الفلس مملوك، وذلك لأن الله تعالى خلق الفلس كرامة للنفس، ولم يخلق النفس كرامة للفلس.
• كل ما تباشره بالصدق لا يباشرك إلا بالصدق، وكل ما تباشره بالكذب لا يباشرك إلا بالكذب.
• من تواضع للوجود اختيارا، تواضع له الوجود قهرا، ومن تكبر على الوجود اختيارا تكبر الوجود عليه قهرا.
• الإنسان على قدر طلوعه في المُلك يكون نزوله في المِلْك، وعلى قدر نزوله في المِلك يكون طلوعه في المُلك.
• من رأى الناس كلهم على خطأ، فهو أي الرائي على خطأ، ومن رأى الناس كلهم على صواب، فالرائي على صواب، ومن رأى الناس تارة على صواب وتارة على خطأ، فهو تارة على صواب وتارة على خطأ.
• كل من تتعزز عليه يتعزز عليك، وكل من تتذلل له يتذلل لك كان ملكا أو مملوكا.
• الخلق مثل الأرض أين ما حفرت تجد الماء، إلا أن بعض المواضع الماء فيها قريب، والبعض الماء فيها بعيد.
• اترك صحبة العاجزين أمثالك واصحب من لا يخفى عليه أقوالك وأفعالك وأحوالك، واترك من يعجز عن دفع الضرر عن نفسه.

Maqam

Ziyara April 29 , 2018, with Sayyiduna Sh. Muhammad al-Yaqoubi
Photo: Umm Idriss


From karkariya
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Video

The Knowledge of Shaykh Abdul Aziz Dabbagh |  Sh. Hamza Yusuf

Bio: Sh. Abd al-‘Aziz al-Dabbagh

Sayyidi Shaykh Abd al-‘Aziz al-Dabbagh al-Hasani

الشيخ مولانا عبد العزيز الدباغ
b 1095 – d. 1131 H. (1718 CE) in Fas

(more…)

Bio: Sh. Abul Hassan ´Ali ibn Hirzihum

Bio: Sh. Abul Hassan ´Ali ibn Hirzihum

Sayyidi Abul Hassan Ali ibn Hirzihum

d. 544 H. (1129 CE) in Fas
qaddasa Allah sirrahu

Teacher of Sayyiduna Shaykh Abu Madyan al-Ghawth

.


 

Dar-Sirr article

Background
Once Andalusian Malikism became states policy in Marrakech and Fez, as well as in Cordoba and Seville, Arab jurists acting under the authority of Almoravid governors set out to suppress dissenting opinions. As a part of this crackdown, all copies of al-Ghazali’s (d. 526/1111) I’hya’ ‘ulum ad-din were ordered confiscated and publicly burned. According to most historians, the banning of this work was due to al-Ghazali’s Shafi’i-inspired critiques of non-usuli legal traditions. Another reason, perhaps, was al-Ghazali’s belief, following his teacher Sidi Abul Ma’ali Abdelmalik Jawayni (d. 499/1105), that all knowledgeable Muslims—and not just the official ulama—could act as representatives of the Muslim community. According to this theory, all learned men had a right to be considered as “those who loosen and bind” (ahl al-hall wal ‘aqd) and could have a voice in the conformation or rejection of claimants to the throne. Since this wider group of ulama included both usuli dissidents and juridically-oriented Sufis, such views would not have been popular at the Almoravid court.

An immediate result of the suppression of al-Ghazali’s works was the spread of the usuli dissidence throughout Morocco. The most significant exponent of this movement was the Masmuda Shaykh Sidi al-Mahdi ibn Toumart (d. 524/1130) himself who were to become the founder of Almohad (al-muwahhidun—”unitarian”) movement. The Imam and Shaykh Ibn Toumart was joined to his opposition to the Almoravids by a number of Andalusian and Moroccan Sufis, whose journeys to the Muslim East had brought them into contact with Shafi’i jurists, Ash’ari theologians and other representatives of Sunni internationalism. Among these Sufis were Sidi Qadi Abul Fadl Iyyad (d. 544/1129), Sidi Abul Fadl ibn an-Nahwi (d. 513/1098), and Sidi Abu Abdellah Daqqaq. As had earlier been the case in the days of Sidi Darras ibn Ismail (d. 357/942), scholars from the city of Fez were instrumental in furthering this latest attempt of reform.

The Harzihimi rabita
A major centre of the dissemination of usuli doctrines in Fez was the rabita, Sufi hermitage, of Sidi Abu Mohammed Salih ibn Harzihim (d. after. 526/1111).

The Ibn Harzihim (Harazem) family, who traced their ancestry to Sidna Uthman ibn ‘Affan (may Allah be satisfied with him), the third caliph in Islam, had been prominent in Fasi scholarly circles for more than a century. As the scion of this family of religious notables, Abu Mohammed Salih had the financial means to travel as far away as Jerusalem for education where he studied I’hya’ ‘ulum ad-din under Shaykh al-Ghazali himself and Baghdad where he was initiated into the Sahrawardiya tradition under the order’s founder Sidi Abu Najib as-Sahrawardi (d. 563/1148). Shaykh Sidi Abu Hamid al-Ghazali, on the one hand, took the patched cloak (khirqa) from Sidi Haramayn Juwayni, who had it from Sidi Mohamed Juwayni, from Sidi Abu Talib al-Makki (d. 386/971), from Sidi Abu Mohamed Jariri, from Imam Sidi Abul Qacem al-Junaid (d. 297/882). As for Sidi Abu Najib, he was also connected to Imam al-Junaid through Sidi Omar Bickri, Sidi al-Qadi Wajduddin, Sidi Mohamed Bickri and Sidi Mohammed Dinnuri.

Upon Sidi Abu Mohammed Salih’s death and burial outside Bab al-Futuh in Fez, he was succeeded as head of the Ibn Harzihim rabita by his nephew Sidi Abul Hassan Ali (d. 544/1129), the famous “Sidi ibn Harzihim” of Fez. Shaykh Sidi Ali ibn Harzihim in genealogically connected to Sidna Uthman ibn Affan through his father Sidi Ismail, ibn Mohammed, ibn Abdellah, ibn Harzihim (may Allah be satisfied with him), ibn Zayyan, ibn Yusuf, ibn Sumaran, ibn Hafs, ibn al-Hassan, ibn Mohammed, ibn Abdellah, ibn Omar, ibn Uthman ibn Affan (may Allah be satisfied with him). Despite his uncle’s passionate adherence of al-Ghazali’s teaching, however, the younger ibn Harzihim initially disproved of I’hya’ ‘ulum ad-din and even agreed with its banning, until his opinions were changed by a dream in which the Prophet Sidna Mohammed (peace and blessing be upon him) wiped him for his mistaken beliefs. Henceforward, and especially after he affiliated to the path of al-Ghazali through his disciple Sidi Abu Bakr ibn al-Arabi (d. 543/1128, buried outside Bab al-Mahrouq in Fez), Sidi Ali ibn Harzihim became one of the most outspoken defenders of al-Ghazali in Morocco and devoted the rest of his life to teaching the I’hya’ to his students, who had to copy the full text of the book every year.

Education and personal character
Largely because of his role in disseminating the works of al-Ghazali, Sidi Ali ibn Harzihim was one of the most influential Moroccan Sufis of the formative period. Biographical sources reveal him to have been a highly complex individual whose teaching represented the work of the giant masters of the Maghrib: Sidi Salih ibn Harzihim, Sidi Abu Bakr ibn al-Arabi (d. 543/1128), and Sidi Ali Boughaleb (d. 568/1153, buried inside Bab al-Futuh, Fez). He was an accomplished legal scholar and well-versed in the sciences of hadith and Quranic exegeses and had a fondness for Kitab ar-ri’aya li huquq Allah, al-Muhasibi’s treaties on Sufi psychology and ethics. This work, along with al-Ghazali’s of I’hya’, was a required text for Ibn Harzihim’s disciples. In his personal comportment, he was the quintessential ’abd salih: pious and ascetic, modest in dress, morally virtuous, of an open demeanour, and pleasant in nature. All who met him were moved to affection for him. Upon inheriting a considerable sum of money from his father, he gave all of it to the poor. He also respected learning of all kinds and stove to improve the quality of education in Fez, where he was born, and in Marrakech, where he was eventually exiled.

Moroccan Path of Blame (tariq al-malama)
Despite his reputation as a salih, Ibn Harzihim was also the founder of Moroccan Path of Blame (tariq al-malama). In Ibn Harzihim’s case, however, malamati behaviour did not imply the open contravention of the Shari’a that earned antinomian extremists the censure ulama throughout the Muslim world. What prompted the Almoravid elite to disapprove of him were rather his politically motivated disregard for the prerogatives of rank, his apparent pretentiousness in referring to himself as the Axis of the Maghribis (Qutb al-maghariba), and his outspoken criticism of the Almoravides for their ethnoclassicism and prejudice. Apart from seeing the role of the salih as one of political activism, Ibn Harzihim did little more than heed the advice of Sidi Hamdun al-Qassar Nisaburi (d.271/884), the reputed father of the Malammatiya: “Avoid impressing human beings at all times and avoid seeing their pleasure in any type of characteristic or behaviour. If you do not, you will soon be blamed for what God agency has caused you to possess.”

Exile in Marrakech
Even the forced closing of Ibn Harzihim’s rabita and his exile to Marrakech could not silent this saint’s bitter tongue. The most detailed account of his sojourn in Marrakech appears in at-Tadili’s at-Tashawwuf and forms a postscript to the arrest and execution of the Andalusian Sufi Sidi Abu Hakam ibn Barrajan in 536/1121. No anecdote more clearly illustrates Ibn Harzihim’s opposition to the Almoravid regime and his contempt for its policies. In the following passage, the saint’s success in occupying the moral high ground causes Sultan Ali ibn Yusuf to back down from a confrontation over the burial of Ibn Barrajan (whose recently restored tomb can still be seen in Marrakech). It is easy to imagine how the Sultan equivocal response to Ibn Harzihim’s challenge played into the hands of the opponents of the Almoravids in their ongoing attempt to undermine the legitimacy of Sanhaja rule:

When Abul Hakam ibn Barrajan was ordered to be brought from Cordoba to Marrakech, he was asked about the matters causing his censure and brought them forth, commenting on their implications and differentiating [his beliefs] from those for which he was accused. Abul Hakam said: “By God, I will not live, and the one who brought me here [i.e. the Sultan] will not live after my death!” Then Abul Hakam died [i.e. was executed] and the Sultan commended that he be thrown onto the city garbage heap and that no one make the funeral prayer for him. This command was authorised by the jurists who were their accusers.

A black man who worked for Ali ibn Harzihim and attended his lessons went to [the Shaykh] and told him what the Sultan had ordered concerning Abul Hakam. Then Ibn Harzihim said to him, “If you wish to sell your soul to God, do what I tell you.” “Command what you wish and I will do it,” the man replied. [The Shaykh] said, “Proclaim in the streets and markets of Marrakech: ‘Ibn Harzihim orders you to be present at the funeral of the Shaykh, the legist, the exalted ascetic Abu Hakam ibn Barrajan. May the curse of God be upon him who is able to come and does not!'” The Man did as he was commanded and when [Ibn Harzihim’s challenge] was made know to the Sultan, he said, “He who is aware of Ibn Barrajan’s excellence and is not present will be cursed by God.”

Disciples and followers
At the time of Shaykh Ibn Harzihim’s exile in Marrakech, some of his disciples had already established new rabitas of their own in Fez and beyond. Of these we mention

  • the Shaykh of Shaykhs Sidi Abu Madyan (d. 594/1179) and the Fez figures
  • Sidi Ahmed ibn Ali Barnousi [whose tomb is still visited on Mount Zalagh],
  • Sidi Abu Abdellah Mohammed ibn Yaala Tawdi (d. 580/1165) [buried in Rawdat Sidi Tawdi, Zqaq Labghal]; and
  • Sidi Abu Amr Salaji al-Usuli (d. 564/1149).
    This latter was praised by later generation as “the saviour of the people of Fez from anthropomorphism” (munqidh ahl Fas mina tajsim) and he rose under the Almohads to become the foremost expert on philosophical theology in all of Morocco. His best known work is a creedal manifesto (‘aqida) entitled Al-‘Aqida al-Burhaniyya. This he dedicated to a female Sufi named Lalla Khayruna al-Andalusiyya. Also allied with the Ibn Harzihim rabita of Fez were a heterogeneous group of Sufis from Sijilmasa on the edge of Sahara desert. However, unlike Shaykhs Abul Fadl ibn Ahmed Sijilmasi (d. 542/1127) and Sidi Mohammed ibn Omar al-Asamm, who were freed after imprisonment and exile in Fez, an important advocate of usul during the same period and a representative of Ibn Harzihim’s rabita in the pre-Saharan oases named Sidi Abu Mohammed Salih u-Imlil al-Munshi (The Polemicist) was assassinated by the Almoravids, like Ibn Barrajan, near the caravan centre of Zagora in the Dar’a valley.

    Ref: Article and pictures originally from www.dar-sirr.com

  • عربي

    t.b.d.
     

    Maqam (Pic's from Dar-Sirr)


    Ref: Article and pictures originally from www.dar-sirr.com

    Bio: Sh. Abul Mawahib al-Shadhili

    Bio: Sh. Abul Mawahib al-Shadhili

    Sayyidi Shaykh Abul Mawahib al-Shadhili

    الشيخ مولانا أبو المواهب الشاذلي
    d. 881? H. (after 850) in Cairo

    (more…)

    Bio: Sh. Abul-'Abbas al-Mursi

    Bio: Sh. Abul-‘Abbas al-Mursi

    Sayyidi Shaykh Abul-‘Abbas al-Mursi

    الشيخ أبو العباس المرسي
    d. 686 H. in Alexandria
    qaddasa Allah sirrahu

    .


    He took the noble Shadhili Tariqa from Sayyidi Imam Abul Hasan al-Shadhili.
    He passed the path on to Sayyidi Shaykh Ibn ‘Ata Allah al-Sakandari.
    May Allah be pleased with all of them.

    English

    1. Article translated by Arfan Shah
    2. From Tabaqat al-Shadhiliyya of Kuhin
    3. From Lataif al-Minan of Imam Ibn ‘Ata Allah al-Sakandari


    1. Shaykh Abu’l ‘Abbās al-Mursī
    Article translated by Arfan Shah | marifa.net View PDF

    His full name was Shihāb al-Dīn A$mad ibn ‘Umar ibn ‘Alī al-Khazraji al-Balansi whose noble lineage is traced back to the great companion Sa’ad ibn ‘Ubadā al-’An.arī. He was known by the agnomen Abu’l‘Abbās and by the nickname al-Mursī after the place he was born – Mursia. His grandfather was Qays ibn Sa’ad, the leader of Egypt before our master Imam ‘Alī ibn Abī Tālib in 36H. Our master Abu’l ‘Abbās al-Mursī was born in the city of Mursia in Andalusia in the Islamic year 616H [1219 AD]. His father worked there and sent his son to a teacher to study the Majestic Qur’ān and to understand the commands of the religion. Abu’l‘Abbās memorised the entire Quran in one year and went on to study the principles of Jurisprudence, reading and writing. …



    2. From Kuhin: Tabaqat al-Shadhiliyya

    From: Kuhin: Tabaqat Al-Shadhiliyyah Al-Kubra,
    translated by Ahmad Ali al-Adani as “Biographies of Prominent Shadhilis”

    Sayyiduna Abul Abbas al-Mursi (d. 686/1288)
    He is the imam of the circle of those truly realized, the qutb of the elite, the treasury of saints, and the vanguard of those brought nigh. He was endowed with the pure saintly miracles and resplendently lofty feats. He is the realized exemplar, Sidi Abu’l-Abbas Ahmad al-Mursi al-Ansari al-Shadhili,1 may Allah be pleased with him and benefit us by his knowledges, amin.

    He was one of the greatest knowers of Allah. He was the only one to inherit the [complete] knowledge of al-Shadhili, and the most esteemed disciple to have taken the path from him.

    Al-Mursi did not bequeath any books, saying: ‘The sciences of this group are sciences of realization, and these sciences are not grasped by the intellects of the commonality among creation.’ His own guide, Abul-Hasan al-Shadhili — may his secret be sanctified — would say: ‘My companions are my books’. He also said:

    The true inheritor of Shadhili’s knowledge
    He is a qutb, so recognize him, unmatched and unique.

    Al-Shadhili would exhort Zaki al-Din al-Aswani with the words, ‘O Zaki al-Din, you must stick to Abul-Abbas. By Allah, there is no Friend of Allah save that Allah has manifested him to Abul-Abbas. OZaki, Abul-Abbas is the perfected man!’ Ustadh

    Abul-Abbas would say about himself: ‘By Allah, the saints and the substitutes [abdal] travel around Mount Qaf2 until they meet someone like us. When they meet him, he enriches them.’

    He would teach other sciences and say: ‘We have participated in the disciplines of the jurists, yet they have not participated in what we [the Sufis] are engaged in.’

    He was the pivot of gnoses and secrets, and their illumining sun. Had you heard his speech you would have said, ‘This is the speech of someone whose homeland is nothing but Allah’s invisible reality. He is more knowledgeable about news of the celestials than the news of the terrestials.’

    He would only speak about the Greatest Intellect, the Supreme Name and its four branches, the Names, the Letters, the Circles of Saints, the stations of those endowed with certainty and the possessions of the ones brought near the Throne, the sciences of secrets, the spiritual help of formulas of remembrance, the Day of the Decrees, the matter of self-direction [tadbir], the science of the beginning, the science of volition [mashi’ a], the matter of the divine grasp [qabda] and the men singled out for that, the sciences of segregated devotion [ifrad], and Allah’s acts vis-à-vis His slaves set to occur on the Day of Rising.

    He would say: ‘By Allah, were it not for the weakness of intellects, I would inform you of what is going to take place tomorrow by God’s mercy.’

    He would grab his beard and say, ‘By Allah, if the people of Iraq and the Levant knew what lay beneath these hairs, they would come crawling to it.’

    He would say:
    “For forty years I have not been veiled from the Messenger of Allah ﷺ even for the blinking of an eye, and had that occurred I would not have counted myself from the Muslims.”

    His worldly abstinence [zuhd] reached such an extent that he spent thirty six years in Alexandria without ever seeing the face of its governor or sending him any message. One day, the governor of the city sought to have a meeting with him, but al-Mursi refused, saying, ‘By Allah, I will meet Allah without seeing him.’ It was as he stated. Rulers and kings would come to visit him, but spiritual contraction [qabd] would seize him and he would not find respite while in their company.

    He would say:
    “By Allah, nothing unlawful ever entered my stomach.’ If he happened to stretch a hand towards something of dubious lawfulness, sixty of his veins would throb and his fingers would emit a light.”

    He was gifted the ability to speak in foreign languages and dialects. He would reside in the Muqassam district in Cairo. Every night he would go to Alexandria, listen to the lesson of Abul-Hasan [al-Shadhili], and then return to Cairo.’3 He would say: ‘Allah caused me to witness the angels prostrating to Adam, peace upon him, so I took my share (of knowledge) from that, and so I have declaimed:

    My form melted, while the truthfulness of my annihilation proved sound
    The sun of my heaven was manifest to the secret
    I descended through the worlds. What was folded
    In the Attributes after my attribute was disclosed.

    He has — may Allah have mercy on him — many sayings, which have been presented in Lata’if al-Minan. O Allah, sustain us and our dear ones by his spiritual help [madad], and benefit us by his blessings, Amin.

    His death — may Allah have mercy on him — took place in AH 686. He was buried in his mosque in Alexandria. His tomb is famous among Egyptians, young and old. Both leaders and paupers seek intercession through him. O Allah, benefit us through him, amin.

    Footnotes:

    1 See his biography in al-Aqam (1/186), al-Rihlat al-Warthilaniyya (189), and Tabaqat al-Shadhillyyat al-Kubra by Muhyi al-Din al-Tu`mi.
    2  Qaf is mentioned in the Qur’an. Exegetes have taken the view that it is the mountain that encircles the earth. They say it is made of green chrysolite, and that the green of the sky is from its green. They say that its base is a green rock on top of it and that Mount Qaf is a stem (tributary) of this green rock. The bases of all the mountains derive from the stem of Mount Qaf, being tributaries of it. They mention that between it and the sky is the distance of a man standing (a man’s height), though it is also stated that heaven is resting upon it as a layer. (cf. Yaqut al-Hawami’s Mu’jam al-Buldan).
    3 The distance between the two cities is now 178.62 kilometers, and in his days there were no fast means of transport as we have today.


    3. From Imam Ibn ‘Ata Allah al-Sakandari: Lata’if al-Minan

    t.b.d.

    Svenska


    Sheikh Abul `Abbas al Mursi
    Sammanställt av bmk | Damas Cultural Society © 2007 – Se ursprunglig sida

    Sheikh Abul ´Abbas Shihab al-Din Ahmad ibn `Umar al-Ansari al-Mursi var efterträdare till Imam Abul Hasan al-Shadhili. Trots att han till det yttre inte liknade sin Sheikh, liknande han honom till sitt sätt och till sitt beteende till den grad att folk inte kunde skilja mellan honom och Imam Abul Hasan.

    Sheikh Abul `Abbas al Mursi sade:

    “Imam Abul Hasan sade till mig: ‘Abul `Abbas, jag har tagit dig till min lärjunge endast för att du ska bli jag och jag du.’ ” [1/ p. 116]

    Hans efterträdare var sedan Ibn `Ata Allah al-Sakandari, som skrivit många kända böcker, t.ex. Al-Hikam (Visdomsord). Han var den förste som dokumenterade sina föregångares liv och uttalanden. Nedan några utdrag ur hans bok Lata’if al-Minan.

    Hur Sheikh Abul `Abbas al-Mursi mötte sin Mästare Imam Abul Hasan al-Shadhili

    Shaikh Abu al Abbas berättade för Ibn `Ata Allah, enligt Lata’if al-Minan :
    “När jag var i Tunisien, sedan jag kommit från Murcia – jag var då en ung man – hörde jag talas om Sheikh Abul Hasan al-Shadhili. En man sade till mig: ‘Vill du komma med mig för att träffa honom?’ Jag svarade: ‘När jag sökt Allah’s vägledning i denna sak.’ När jag sov den natten, såg jag mig själv i en vision, där jag steg upp mot en bergstopp. När jag nådde toppen såg jag där en man klädd i en grön burnus. Han satt med en man på sin högra sida och en annan på sin vänstra. Jag såg på honom och han sade: ‘Du har funnit denna tids khalifa.’ Jag vaknade, och sedan jag bett morgonbönen kom mannen som bjudit in mig för att besöka Sheikhen och jag gick med honom. När vi kom in för att träffa Sheikhen, fann jag honom till min förundran sittande på samma bänk som jag sett honom på på bergstoppen. Sheikhen sade till mig: ‘Du har funnit denna tids khalifa. vad heter du?’ Jag nämnde mitt namn och min härstamning för honom, och han sade till mig: ‘Du lyftes upp till mig för tio år sedan’.” [1/ p. 97]

    Abul `Abbas al-Mursi berättar om hur Allah gav Imam Abul Hasan befäl över havet

    Sheikh Abu al Abbas berättade:
    “Jag var med Sheiken på `Idhab-sjön. Vi ansattes av hårda vindar och båten hade fått en läcka. Sheikhen sade då:´’Jag såg himlarna öppna och två änglar som steg ned. En av dem sade: “Moses är mer kunnig än al-Khidr,” medan den andres sade “Al-Khird är mer kunnig än Moses,” ytterligare en ängel nedsteg och sade: “Sannerligen, det al-Khidr vet mer än Moses är inte mer än det härågeln känner till av Solomos kunskap då han sade: ‘Jag har fått reda på sådant du inte fått reda på.” ‘ Jag förstod då att Allah skulle föra oss säkert till vårt mål, eftersom Han gett Moses befäl över havet. ” [1/ p. 100]

    Sheikh Abul `Abbas berättar [för Sheikh Ibn `Ata Allah, i Lataif al-Minan] :
    “Vi var på en resa tillsammans med Sheihen [Abul Hasan] det år han dog. När vi kom till Khanim, sade Sheiken till mig: Jag såg mig själv i en häftig storm på havet. Vinden piskade, vågorna hävde sig, båten sprang läck och vi var nära att dränkas. Jag närmade mig då båtens reling och sade: ´”O hav, om du har befallts att lyssna och lyda mig – all nåd tillhör Allah, den All-Hörande, den All-Vetande. Men om du befallts något annat, så ligger domslutet hos Allah, den Allsmäktige, den Vise ” Jag hörde då havet säga: “Jag lyssnar och jag lyder.” – Sheikhen dog och vi begravde honom i Humaythira i `Idhab-öknen. Efter det begav jag mig på en annan resa. Vi befann oss mitt i en häftig storm, vi var långt ute till havs, Vinden piskade, vågorna hävde sig, båten sprang läck och vi var nära att dränkas. Vid den tiden hade jag glömt Sheikhens ord, men när situationen blev allvarlig mindes jag dem. Jag närmade mig då båtens reling och sade: ´’O hav, om du har befallts att lyssna och lyda Allah’s Vänner – all nåd tillhör Allah, den All-Hörande, den All-Vetande. (Jag sade inte: lyssna och lyda mig, som Sheikhen sagt.) Men om du befallts något annat, så ligger domslutet hos Allah, den Allsmäktige, den Vise.’ Jag hörde då havet säga: ‘Jag lyssnar och jag lyder.’ Havet blev då stilla och den återstående resan var behaglig.” [1/ p. 99]

    ——–
    Referenser & källtexter
    [1] Lata’if al-Minan

    Türkçe

    Şeyh Ebu’l Abbas el-Mursi Hazretleri (-h.686)
    Referans: Tabakat el-Şaziliyye el-Kubra, Muhammed bin Kasım el-Kuhin

    Tahkik ehlinin imamı, ruhlarını saflaştırmışların kutbu, evliyanın hazinesi, Allah’a yakınlaşmış olanların önde gelenlerindendir. Açık kerametlerin ve apaçık ali marifetin sahibi, muhakkik rehber Şeyh Ebu’l Abbas el-Mursî el-Ensârî eş-Şâzîlî Hazretleri, Allah Teala ondan razı olsun ve bizi onun ilmi ile faydalandırsın, Amin.

    O (r.ah) ariflerin büyüklerindendi. Ondan başka Ebu’l Hasan Şazili Hazretleri’nin (r.ah)  ilmini miras alan yoktur. O, Şazili Hazretleri’nden tarikatı alanların en seçkinidir.

    Şeyh, herhangi bir kitap kaleme almamıştır. Derdi ki: “Bu taifenin bilgileri tahkik ilmidir ve avam kişilerin akılları bu bilgileri kavrayamaz.” Aynı şekilde şeyhi Ebu’l Hasan Şazili Hazretleri de (kuddise sırruh): “Benim kitaplarım, ashabımdır.” demiştir.

    Şazili Hazretleri, Şeyh Ebu’l Abbas el-Mursi hakkında şöyle söylemiştir:

    “Gerçekten o Şazili ilminin varisidir

    O kutuptur ki onu iyi tanıyın, O biriciktir”

    Şazili Hazretleri, Şeyh Zekiyyuddin el-Asvani’ye şöyle öğütlemiştir: “Ey Zekiyuddin, Ebu’l Abbas’a sıkıca yapış. Zira Allah’a yemin olsun, Allah’ın hiçbir velisi yoktur ki, Allah mutlaka onu Ebu’l Abbas’a bildirmesin. Ey Zeki, Ebu’l Abbas kamil bir zâttır.”

    Şeyh Ebu’l Abbas Hazretleri kendisi hakkında şöyle derdi: “Allah’a yemin olsun ki, Allah dostları ve abdallar bize benzeyen biri ile karşılaşana dek Kaf Dağı’ndan Kaf Dağı’na yolculuk ederler! Böyle kimse ile karşılaştıklarında, o zat onları manevi hazineleri ile zengin eder.”

    Ebu’l Abbas Hazretleri diğer ilimler konusunda da söz sahibi idi ve şöyle derdi: “Bizler fıkıh alimlerine ilimlerinde ortak olduk; fakat onlar bizim ilmimizde bize ortak olamadılar.”

    O, marifet ve sırlar ilminin dayanağı ve parlayan güneşiydi. Onun konuşmalarını dinlediğinde: “Bu ilmin vatanı Allah’ın gaybi hakikatinden başka bir şey olamaz. Şeyh, göktekilerin haberlerini, yeryüzündekilerin haberlerinden daha iyi biliyor.” derdin.

    Konuştuğu zaman sadece Akl-ı Ekber, İsm-i Azam ve onun dört şubesi, İsimler, Harfler, Evliya Daireleri, yakin sahiplerinin ve arşa yakınlaşanların makamları, sırlar ilmi, zikirlerin manevi yardımı, Hüküm Günü, tedbir mevzusu, başlangıç ilmi, Allah’ın iradesini konu alan ilim, ilahi kabza ve onun ricaline dair mevzular, ifrad ilmi ve kıyamet gününde Allah Teala’nın kullarıyla olacak olan münasebeti hakkında konuşurdu.

    Ve şöyle derdi: “Allah’a yemin ederim ki, akıllar zayıf olmamış olsaydı Allah’ın rahmetiyle yarın nelerin olup meydana geleceğini anlatırdım.”

    Ebu’l Abbas el-Mursi Hazretleri sakalını tutup şöyle buyururdu: “Allah’a yemin olsun, Irak ve Şam alimleri bu sakalın altında ne olduğunu bilmiş olsalardı yüzüstü sürünerek de olsa yanımıza gelirlerdi.”

    Ebu’l Abbas el-Mursi Hazretleri yine şöyle buyurmuşlardır: “Kırk sene boyunca Rasulullah (sallallahu aleyhi ve sellem) ile arama bir an olsun perde girmemiştir. Eğer göz kırpacak kadar Rasulullah’tan ayrılmış olsam, kendimi Müslümanlardan saymazdım.”

    Onun zühdü çok ileri bir düzeye ulaşmıştı, öyle ki otuz altı sene İskenderiye’de yaşadığı halde bir kere olsun şehrin valisinin yüzünü görmedi ve hiç kimseyi de ona göndermedi. Bir gün vali onunla buluşmak istemişti fakat o bunu geri çevirdi. Ve şöyle demişti: “Allah’a yemin olsun onu görmeden Allah ile buluşacağım.” Bu onun makamıydı. Emir ve sultanlar ona ziyaret maksadıyla gelirlerdi ancak onu bir kabz hali bürür ve onların aralarında genişlik bulamazdı.

    Şeyh Hazretleri şöyle söylerdi: “Allah’a yemin olsun ki mideme hiç haram lokma girmedi.” Şüpheli bir şeye elini uzatacak olsa altmış damarı titreyip hareket eder ve parmaklarının arasından ışık parıldardı.

     

    Kendisine pek çok farklı dilde konuşma becerisi verilmişti. Kahire’de Mukassem bölgesinde oturuyordu. Her gece İskenderiye’ye gelir, hocası Şeyh Ebu’l Hasan’ın dersini dinler sonra Kahire’ye geri dönerdi.

    Şeyh şöyle demiştir: “Allah bana Hz. Adem (a.s)’e secde eden melekleri müşahede ettirdi. Ben de o (ilimden) payıma düşeni aldım. Bir de baktım ki şu kasideyi okuyorum:

    “Suretim eridi, fena halimin sıdkı tamam olduğunda

    Semamın güneşi tecelli etti sırlarda

    Alemlere indim ve olundu ifşa

    Saklanmış olan o Sıfatlarda bendekilerden sonra”

     

    Şeyhin buna benzer birçok sözü “Letâifu’l Minen” adlı eserde yer almaktadır.

    Ey Allah’ım, bize ve sevdiklerimize onun mededi ile imdad eyle ve onun bereketi ile bize fayda ver… Amin.

    Şeyh Hazretleri Hicri 686 senesinde vefat etmiştir. İskenderiye’deki camisine defnedilmiştir. Makamı Mısır halkı arasında meşhur olmuştur, büyük-küçük herkes onu bilir ve hükümdarı da fakiri de onunla Allah’a tevessül eder.

    Allah’ım onun yoluyla bize fayda ver. Amin.

    عربي

    1. From Imam al-Sha’rani: Al-Tabaqat al-Kubra (PDF) – View | Downloadsee aso below
    2. From Kuhin: Tabaqat al-Shadhiliyya: View book | Download | Chapter [4]see below
    See also: About the mosque of Sh. Abul ‘Abbas al-Mursi in Alexandria


    1. From Imam al-Sha’rani: Al-Tabaqat al-Kubra

    يقول الإمام عبد الوهاب الشعرانى فى الطبقات الكبرى ج2 ص 11 :
    ( الشيخ سيدى الإمام أحمد أبو العباس المرسى رضى الله عنه )

    كان من أكابر العارفين بالله وكان يقال أنه لم يرث علم الشيخ أبى الحسن الشاذلى رضى الله عنه غيرره وهو أجل من أخذ عنه الطريق رضى الله عنه ولم يضع رضى الله عنه شيأ من الكتب وكان يقول علوم هذه الطائفة علوم تحقيق وعلوم التحقيق لا تحملها عقول عموم الخلق وكذلك شيخه أبو الحسن الذشاذلةى رضى الله عنه لم يضع شئأ وكان يقول كتبى اصحابى ( مات رضى الله عنه سنة ست وثمانين وستمائة ومن كلامه رضى الله عنه جميع الأنبياء عليهم الصلاة والسلام خلقوا من الرحمة ونبينا صلى الله عليه وسلم هو عين الرحمة وكا رضى الله عنه يقول الفقيه هو من أنفقأ الحجاب عن عبينى قلبه وكان رضى الله عنه يقول رجال الليل هم الرجال وكلما أظلم الوقت وقى نور الولى وكان رضى الله عنه يقول ولى الله مع الله وكان رضى الله عنه يقول ان لله تعالى عبادا محق أفعالهم بأفعاله واوصافهم بأوصافه وذاتهم بذاته وحملهم من أسراراه ما يعجر عامة الأولياء عن سماعه وكان يقول رضى الله عنه فى معنى حديث من عرف نفسه عرف ربه ( معناه ) من عرف نفسه بذلها وعجز ما عرف الله بعزة وقدررته قلت وهذا أسلم الأجو والله أعلم وكان يقول رضى الله علنه سمعت الشيخ أبا الحسن رضى الله عنه يقول لو كشف عن نرو المؤمن العاصى يطبق بين المساء والأرض فما ظنك بنور المؤمن المطيع * وكان يقول رضى الله عنه قد يكون الولى مشحونا بالعلوم والمعارف والحقائق لديه مشهودة حتى إذا أعطى العبارة كان الاذن من الله تعالى فى الكلام ويجب أن تفهم ان من أذن له فى التعبير حليت فى مسامع الخلق اشاراته وكان يقول كلام المأذون له يخرج وعليه كسوة وطلاوة وكلام الذى لم يؤذن له يخرج مكسوف الانوار * وقال فى قول بشر الحافى رضى الله عنه انى لاشتهى الشواء منذ أربعين سنة ما صفا لى ثمنه أى لم يأذن لى الحق فى أكله فلو أذن لى صفا لى ثمنه والا فمن أين يأكل فى الاربعين سنة وقال فى قول الجنيد رضى الله عنه أدركت سبعين عارفا كلهم كانوا يعبدون الله تعالى على ظن ووهم حتى أخى أبا يزيد يدلوا أدرك صبيا من صبياننا لاسلم علي يدية معناه أنهم ييقولون ما بعد المقام الذى وصلناه مقام فهذا وهم وظن فان كل مقام فوقه مقام الى ما يتناهى وليس معناه الظن والوهم فى معرفتهم بالله تعالى ومعنى لا سلم على يديه أى لا نقاد له لان الاسلام هو الانقياد وقال فى قوله أبى يزيد رضى الله عنه خضت بحرا وقل الانبياء بساحله معناه أن أبا يزيد رضى الله تعالى عنه يشكو ضعفه وعجزه عن اللحوق بالانبياء عليهم الصلاة والسلام وذلك لان الانبياء عليهم الصلاة والسلام خاضوا بحر التوحيد ووقفوا على الجانب الآخر على ساحل الفرق يدعون الخلق الى الخوض أى فلو كنت كامى لوقفت حيث وقفوا قال ابن عطاء الله رضى الله عنه وهذا الذى فسر به الشيخ كلام أبى يزيد رضى الله عنه هو اللائق بمقام أبى يزيد وقد كان يقول دميع ما أخذ الاولياء بالنسبة لما أخذ الانبياء عليهم الصلاة والسلام كزق ملىء عسلا ثم رشحت منه رشاحة فما فى باطن الزق للآنبياء عليهم الصلاة والسلام وتلك الرشاحة للأولياء رضى الله تعالى عنهم



    2. From Kuhin: Tabaqat al-Shadhiliyya

    [4] سيدي أبو العباس المرسي([1])
    (…-686)

    إمام دائرة المحققين، قطب الأصفياء، وسكردان([2]) الأولياء، أحدُ صدور المقرّبين، صاحبُ الكرامات الظاهرة، والمآثر العالية الزاهرة، القدوة المحقِّقُ سيدي أبو العباس أحمد المُرسي الأنصاري الشاذلي رضي الله عنه ونفعنا بعلومه آمين.

    كان رضى الله عنه من أكابر العارفين، لم يرثْ علمَ الشاذلي رضى الله عنه غيرُه، وهو أجلُّ من أخذ عنه الطريق، ولم يضع رضى الله عنه كتبًا. وكان يقول: علومُ هذه الطائفة علومُ تحقيق، وعلومُ التَّحقيق لا تسعها عقول عموم الخلق. وكذلك شيخُه أبو الحسن الشاذلي قدّس سرُّه، كان يقول: كُتبي أَصحابي.

    وقال في حقِّه:

    ووارثُ علم الشَّاذليِّ حقيقةً * وذلك قطبٌ فاعلموه وأوحدُ

    وكان رضى الله عنه يُوصي الأستاذ زكيِّ الدين الأسواني، ويقول له: يا زكي الدين، عليك بأبي العباس، فوالله ما من وليٍّ إلا وقد أظهره الله عليه، يا زكيُّ، أبو العباس هو الرجل الكامل.

    وكان الأستاذُ أبو العباس يقول عن نفسه: واللهِ، ما سار الأولياءُ والأبدال من قاف إلى قاف حتى يلقوا واحدًا مثلنا، فإذا لَقوه كان يغنيهم.

    وكان رضى الله عنه يتحدَّثُ في سائر العلوم، ويقول: شاركنا الفقهاء فيما هم فيه، ولم يُشاركونا فيما نحن فيه.

    وكان في المعارف والأسرار قطبَ رحاها، وشمس ضحاها، تقول إذا سمعت كلامه، هذا كلام مَنْ ليس وطنه إلا غيب الله، هو بأخبار أهل السماء أعلمُ منه بأخبار أهل الأرض.

    وكان لا يتحدَّثُ إلا في العقل الأكبر، والاسم الأعظم، وشعبه الأربع، والأسماء، والحروف، ودوائر الأولياء، ومقامات الموقنين والأملاك والمقربين من العرش، وعلوم الأسرار، وإمداد الأذكار، ويوم المقادير، وشأن التدبير، وعلم البدء، وعلم المشيئة، وشأن القبضة، ورجال القبضة، وعلوم الإفراد، وما سيكون يوم القيامة من أفعال الله مع عباده.

    وكان يقول: واللهِ، لولا ضعفُ العقول لأخبرت بما يكون غدًا من رحمة الله.

    وكان يُمسك بلحيته ويقول: لو علم علماءُ العراق والشام ما تحت هذه الشعرات، لأتوها ولو سعيًا على وجوههم.

    وكان يقول لي: أربعون سنة ما حُجبتُ عن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم طرفةَ عين، ولو حُجبت طرفةَ عين ما عددت نفسي من المسلمين.

    وبلغ رضى الله عنه من زهده أنه مكثَ بالإسكندرية ستًا وثلاثين سنةً ما رأى وجهَ مُتولّيها ولا أرسلَ إليه، وطلبه المتولي يومًا للاجتماع به، فأبى، وقال: والله، إني ألقى الله ولا أراه. فكان الأمر كذلك، وكانت تأتيه الأمراء والملوك لتزوره، فكان يغلبُ عليه القبضُ، ولا ينبسط في مجلسهم.
    وكان رضى الله عنه يقول: والله ما دخلَ بطني حرامٌ قط. وكان له ستون عرقًا تضرب إذا مدَّ يده إلى شبهة، وكان النور يتلألأ في أصابعه.

    وأُعطي رضى الله عنه النُّطقَ بسائر اللغات والألسن.

    وكان ساكنًا خط المقسم بالقاهرة، فكان كلَّ ليلةٍ يأتي الإسكندرية، فيسمعُ ميعاد الأستاذ أبي الحسن، ثم يرجع إلى القاهرة.

    وكان رحمه الله يقول: أطلعني الله على الملائكة ساجدةً لآدم — فأخذت بقسطي من ذلك، فإذا أنا أقول:

    ذابَ رسمي وصحَّ صدقُ فنائي * وتجلَّتْ للسرِّ شمسُ سمائي

    وتنزَّلت في العوالم أُبدي * ما انطوى في الصفاتِ بعد صفائي

    وله رحمه الله كلامٌ كثير من هذا القبيل مبسوط في «لطائف المنن» اللهم مدَّنا وأحبتنا بمدده، وانفعنا ببركاته آمين.

    وكانت وفاته رحمه الله سنة ست وثمانين وست مئة، ودفن بمسجده بالإسكندرية، ومقامه رحمه الله مشهورٌ بين أهل مصر بأسرها، يعرفُهُ الكبير والصغير، ويتوسَّلُ به إلى الله الأميرُ والفقير، اللهم انفعنا به آمين.

    ([1]) أبو العباس المرسي صحب الشيخ أبا الحسن الشاذلي، وكان قدم من الأندلس من مرسية وقبره بالإسكندرية مشهور، توفي بالإسكندرية سنة 686هـ.
    ([2]) السُكُرْدان: شبه خزانة يحفظ فيها المشروب والمأكول.

    Maqam

    مسجد أبو العباس المرسى
    شيخ الإسكندرية الجليل

    أبو العباس المرسى هو الأمام شهاب الدين أبو العباس احمد بن عمر بن علي الخزرجي الأنصاري المرسى البلنسي يتصل نسبه بالصحابي الجليل سعد بن عبادة الأنصاري (رضي الله عنه) سيد الخزرج و صاحب سقيفة بن ساعدة التي تمت فيها البيعة لأبي بكر الصديق بالخلافة ..و كان جده الأعلى قيس بن سعد أميرا علي مصر من قبل الإمام علي كرم الله وجهه عام 36هـ.(656م).

    و لقد ولد أبو العباس المرسى بمدينة مرسيه سنة 616هـ.(1219م) و نشأ بها و هي احدي مدن الأندلس و إليها نسب فقيل المرسى

    و لما بلغ سن التعليم بعثه أبوه إلي المعلم ليحفظ القرءان الكريم و يتعلم القراءة و الكتابة و الخط و الحساب. و حفظ القرءان في عام واحد و كان والده عمر بن علي من تجار مرسيه فلما استوت معارف أبي العباس و ظهرت عليه علائم النجابة ألحقه والده بأعماله في التجارة و صار يبعثه مع أخيه الأكبر أبو عبد الله فتدرب علي شؤون الأخذ و العطاء و طرق المعاملات و استفاد من معاملات الناس و أخلاقهم .

    و في عام 640هـ. (1242م) كانت له مع القدر حكاية عظيمة و ذلك حين صحبه و الده مع أخيه و أمه عند ذهابه إلي الحج فركبوا البحر عن طريق الجزائر حتى إذا قاربوا الشاطيء هبت عليهم ريح عاصفة غرقت السفينة غير أن عناية الله تعالي أدركت أبا العباس و أخاه فنجاهما الله من الغرق … و قصدا تونس وأقاما فيها و اتجه أخوه محمد إلي التجارة و اتجه أبو العباس إلي تعليم الصبيان الخط و الحساب و القراءة و حفظ القرءان الكريم .

    و كان لأبي العباس في تونس مع القدر حكاية أخري حددت مستقبله و أثرت علي اتجاهه فيما بعد ذلك انه تصادف وجود أبي الحسن الشاذلي علي مقربة منه في تونس و يروي أبو العباس نفسه عن لقاءه بأستاذه الشيخ أبي الحسن الشاذلي فيقول:

    ” لما نزلت بتونس و كنت أتيت من مرسيه بالأندلس و أنا إذ ذاك شاب سمعت عن الشيخ أبي الحسن الشاذلي و عن علمه و زهده و ورعه فذهبت إليه و تعرفت عليه فأحببته ورافقته ”

    ولازم أبو العباس شيخه أبا الحسن الشاذلي من يومها ملازمه تامة و صار لا يفارقه في سفر ولا في حضر، ورأي الشيخ الشاذلي في أبي العباس طيب النفس و طهارة القلب و الاستعداد الطيب للإقبال علي الله فغمره بعنايته و اخذ في تربيته ليكون خليفة له من بعده و قال له يوما يا أبا العباس ما صحبتك إلا أن تكون أنت أنا و أنا أنت , و قد تزوج أبو العباس من ابنة شيخه الشاذلي و أنجب منها محمد و احمد وبهجه التي تزوجها الشيخ ياقوت العرش.

    أما أبو الحسن الشاذلي فهو تقي الدين أبو الحسن علي بن عبد الجبار الشريف الإدريسي مؤسس الطريقة الشاذلية و أستاذ أبي العباس فينتهي نسبه إلي الأدارسه الحسينيين سلاطين المغرب الأقصى

    و في عام 642هـ. 1244م. خرج أبو الحسن الشاذلي إلي الحج و سافر إلي مصر عبر الإسكندرية و كان معه جماعة من العلماء و الصالحين و علي رأسهم الشيخ أبو العباس المرسى و أخوه أبو عبد الله جمال الدين محمد و أبو العزائم ماضي.

    وقد حج الشيخ أبو الحسن الشاذلي و عاد إلي تونس و أقام بها و لحق به أبو العباس المرسى ثم وفدوا جميعا إلي مصر للإقامة الدائمة بها و اتخذ من الإسكندرية مقاما له و لأصحابه
    و لما قدموا إلي الإسكندرية نزلوا عند عامود السواري و كان ذلك في عهد الملك الصالح نجم الدين أيوب

    ( في عصر الدولة الأيوبية)

    و لما استقروا بالإسكندرية اتخذ الشاذلي دارا في كوم الدكة نزل بها هو و أصحابه و علي رأسهم أبو العباس و بدأوا يدعون إلي الله في كل مكان حتى قصدهم العلماء و الفضلاء و لازم مجالسهم الطلاب و المريدون و ذاع صيتهم في الديار المصرية

    و قد اختار الشيخ أبو الحسن الشاذلي جامع العطارين لإلقاء دروسه فيه و عقد حلقات الوعظ و الإرشاد و فيه وأقام الشيخ أبو العباس المرسى خليفة له و أذن له في إلقاء الدروس و إرشاد المريدين و تعليم الطلاب و مناظرة العلماء و تلقين مبادئ و آداب السلوك.

    و قد أقام أبو العباس المرسى رضي الله عنه 43 عاما بالإسكندرية ينشر فيها العلم و يهذب فيها النفوس و يربي المريدين و يضرب المثل بورعه و تقواه…

    و قد استأذن أبو العباس شيخه الشاذلي في القيام بأمر الدعوة في القاهرة و اتخذ من جامع أولاد عنان مدرسة لبث تعاليمه و مبادئه بين الطلاب و المريدين و اتخذ هذا المسجد مأوي له و كان يذهب كل ليلة إلي الإسكندرية ليلتقي بشيخه أبي الحسن ثم يعود إلي القاهرة و لم يستمر طويلا إذ عاد و استقر بالإسكندرية .

    و في عام 656هـ. (1258م.) اعتزم الشيخ أبو الحسن الشاذلي الحج فصحب معه جماعة من إخوانه و علي رأسهم أبو العباس المرسى و أبو العزائم ماضي و في الطريق مرض مرضا شديدا فمات رضي الله عنه و دفن بحميثرة من صحراء عذاب و هي في الجنوب من أسوان علي ساحل البحر الأحمر.

    و لما أدي الشيخ أبو العباس فريضة الحج بعد وفاة شيخه عاد إلي الإسكندرية فتصدر مجالسه وأخذ شانه في الارتفاع و ذاع صيته فأمه الطلاب و المريدون من جميع البلاد و رحل إليه الزوار و ذوو الحاجات من جميع الأقطار و توافد عليه العلماء و الأمراء و الأغنياء و الفقراء.

    و كان إذا جاء الصيف رحل إلي القاهرة و نزل بجامع الحاكم و صار ينتقل بينه و بين جامع عمرو بالفسطاط ليلقي دروسه و مواعظه و كان أكثر من يحضر دروسه من العلماء خصوصا عند شرحه لرسالة الأمام القشيري .

    و كان رضي الله عنه علي الطريقة المثلي من الاستقامة و الزهد و الورع و التقوى و كان حاد الذهن قوي الفطنة نافذ الفراسة سريع الخاطر زكي الفؤاد مستنير البصيرة حسن الطباع..

    و قد أخذ المرسى من كل فن بنصيب وافر و أتقن علوما كثيرة و كان فقيها و أديبا و عالما بأمور الحياة.

    و قد ظل الشيخ أبو العباس المرسى يدعو إلي الله ملتزما طريق التقوى و الصلاح ناشرا للعلوم و المعارف بين الخلق و مهذبا لنفوس الطلاب و المريدين حتى وفاته في الخامس و العشرين من ذي القعدة 685هـ. (1287م.) و دفن في قبره المعروف خارج باب البحر بالإسكندرية .

    و لم يترك أبو العباس المرسى شيئا من آثاره المكتوبة فلم يؤلف كتابا و لم يقيد درسا و لكنه ترك من التلاميذ الكثيرين فقد تخرج علي يديه في علم التصوف و آداب السلوك و مكارم الأخلاق خلق الكثيرون و تلاميذ نجباء منهم الأمام البوصيري و ابن عطاء الله السكندري و ياقوت العرش الذي تزوج ابنته و ابن الحاجب و ابن اللبان و ابن أبي شامة و غيرهم
    ومن أذكاره رضي الله عنه.

    – يا الله يا نور يا حق يا مبين احي قلبي بنورك و عرفني الطريق إليك
    – يا جامع الناس ليوم لا ريب فيه اجمع بيني و بين طاعتك علي بساط محبتك و فرق بيني و بين هم الدنيا و الآخرة و املأ قلبي بمحبتك و خشع قلبي بسلطان عظمتك و لا تكلني إلي نفسي طرفة عين.
    – اللهم كن بنا رؤوفا و علينا عطوفا وخذ بأيدينا إليك اخذ الكرام عليك , اللهم قومنا إذا اعوججنا , و أعنا إذا استقمنا و خذ بأيدينا إليك إذا عثرنا , وكن لنا حيث كنا
    و من اقواله رضي الله عنه:

    ” الأنبياء إلي أممهم عطية و نبينا محمد هدية و فرق بين العطية و الهدية لأن العطية للمحتاجين و الهدية للمحبوبين قال رسول الله صلي الله عليه و سلم إنما أنا رحمة مهداه.”

    و قال رضي الله عنه في قول رسول الله عليه الصلاة و السلام
    ( أنا سيد ولد ادم و لا فخر) أي لا افتخر بالسيادة وإنما افتخر بالعبودية لله سبحانه و تعالي.

    و قال رضي الله عنه في شرحه لحديث الرسول صلي الله عليه وسلم
    ” سبعة يظلهم الله في ظله يوم لا ظل إلا ظله ”
    ” الإمام العادل و رجل قلبه معلق بالمساجد أي رجل قلبه معلق بالعرش فان العرش مسجد لقلوب المؤمنين , و رجل ذكر الله خاليا ففاضت عيناه أي خاليا من النفس و الهوى ، و رجل تصدق بصدقه فأخفاها أي أخفاها عن النفس و الهوى

    و قال رضي الله عنه في قول النبي صلي الله عليه وسلم ” السلطان ظل الله في أرضه” هذا إن كان عادلا و أما إذا كان جائرا فهو ظل الهوى و النفس.

    و قد ظل قبر أبي العباس المرسى قائما عند الميناء الشرقية بالإسكندرية بلا بناء حتى كان عام 706هـ.(1307م) فزاره الشيخ زين الدين القطان كبير تجار الإسكندرية و بني عليه ضريحا و قبة و انشأ له مسجدا حسنا و جعل له منارة مربعة الشكل و أوقف عليه بعض أمواله و أقام له إماما و خطيبا و خدما و كان القبر يقصد للزيارة من العامة و الخاصة.

    و في سنة 882هـ. 1477م. كان المسجد قد أهمل فأعاد بناءه الأمير قجماش الأسحاقي الظاهري أيام ولايته علي الإسكندرية في عصر الملك الأشرف قايتباي و بني لنفسه قبرا بجوار أبي العباس و دفن فيه سنة 892هـ.

    و في عام 1005هـ.(1596م.)جدد بناءه الشيخ أبو العباس النسفي الخزرجى .

    و في عام 1179هـ-1775م و فد الشيخ أبو الحسن علي بن علي المغربي إلي الإسكندرية وزار ضريح أبي العباس المرسى فرأي ضيقه فجدد فيه كما جدد المقصورة و القبة و وسع في المسجد .

    و في عام 1280هـ.(1863م.) لما أصاب المسجد التهدم و صارت حالته سيئة قام أحمد بك الدخاخني شيخ طائفة البناءين بالإسكندرية بترميمه و تجديده و أوقف عليه وقفا و اخذ نظار و قفه فيما بعد في توسعته شيئا فشيئا .

    و ظل المسجد كذلك حتى أمر الملك فؤاد الأول بإنشاء ميدان فسيح يطلق عليه ميدان المساجد علي إن يضم مسجدا كبيرا لأبي العباس المرسى و مسجدا للإمام البوصيري و الشيخ ياقوت العرش

    و مازالت هذه المساجد شامخة تشق مآذنها عنان السماء يتوسطها مسجد العارف بالله الشيخ أبي العباس المرسى احد أعلام التصوف في الوطن العربي و شيخ الإسكندرية الجليل الذي يطل بتاريخه المشرق علي شاطئ البحر مستقبلا و مودعا لكل زائر من زوار الإسكندرية التي تجمع بين عبق التاريخ و سحر المكان.

    Location

    Bio: Sh. Abul-Najib al-Suhrawardi

    Bio: Sh. Abul-Najib al-Suhrawardi

    Abul-Najib Diya’ul-Din al-Suhrawardi

    Shaykh Abul-Najib ´Abd al-Qahir (or ´Abd al-Qadir) Diya’ul-Din (and Najib al-Din) al-Suhrawardi
    الشيخ أبو النجيب عبد القادر السهروردي الملقب بضياء الدين، وبنجيب الدين
    b. 490 in Suhraward – d. 563 H. in Baghdad (1097 – 1168 CE)
    qaddasa Allah sirrahu

    Author of Adab al-Muridin.
    He is the uncle of Shaykh Shihab al-Din ´Umar al-Suhrawardi (author of ´Awarif al-Ma´arif).
    هو عبد القاهر بن عبد الله بن محمد البكري الصديقي، أبو النجيب السهروردي.
    ولد بسهرورد ، وسكن بغداد وبها وفاته. من آثاره «آداب المريدين» و«شرح الأسماء الحسنى» و«غريب المصابيح».

    English

    Abul Najib was a great scholar and Shaykh, whose lineage goes back to Sayyiduna Abu Bakr al-Siddiq (may Allah be pleased with him).

    He took the Sufi Path from his uncle Wajih al-Din Abu Hafs Umar al-Qadi (b. 455 – d. 532 H. in Baghdad), who was the muqaddam of a Zawiya known as Sa´adat al-Khadim (“The bliss of the servant”) in Baghdad. His silsila goes back to Imam Al-Junayd, and so does the chain of Imam Ahmad al-Ghazali.

    Many Sufi turuq branched off from him. The greatest Shaykhs kept his company, most famous amongst them: his nefew Shihab al-Din ´Umar al-Suhrawardi (author of ´Awarif al-Ma´arif).

    Amongst his writings is the book Adab al-Muridin, to which Mulla ´Ali al-Qari later wrote a commentary.

    عربي

    From alashraf.montadamoslim.com
    هو العارف بالله الشيخ عبد القاهر بن عبد الله بن محمد بن عبد الله عموية بن سعد البكري ، ولد في صفر سنة 490 هـ ، وتوفي في جمادى الآخرة سنة 563 هـ ودفن في رباط بناه في خربة على دجلة كان يأوي إليها . كان ءاية في العلم والورع والإرشاد ، وله مؤلفات كثيرة منها :

    (( ءاداب المريدين )) ـ شرحه الشيخ علي القارئ شرحاً جيداً بعد أن تصوف في ءاخر عمره ـ .

    ويتفرع منه كثير من طرق الصوفية ، مثل الكبروية والمولية والخلوتية والجلوتية والسهروردية وغيرها كما يظهر من (( تبيان وسائل الحقائق في بيان سلاسل الطرائق )) للشيخ كمال الدين الحريري المتوفى سنة 1299 هـ ـ وهو مخطوط في ثلاث مجلدات ـ .

    أخذ أبو النجيب التصوف عن عمه وجيه الدين أبي حفص عمر القاضي ، وعن الشيخ أحمد الغزالي .

    أما عمه فكان مقدمَ الصوفية في الرباط المعروف بسعادة الخادم ببغداد ، ولد سنة 455 هـ ، وتوفي في ربيع الأول سنة 532 هـ ، ودفن عند قبر رُوَيم بالشونيزية رحمهما الله تعالى .

    وهو أخذ عن والده نجيب الدين محمد ولعله توفي في حدود سنة 475 هـ .

    وهو أخذ عن أبيه عبد الله عموية بن سعد البكري ، وتكون وفاته سنة 425 هـ تقريباً .

    وهو أخذ عن أحمد الأسود الدينوري الذي ذكره القشيري في الرسالة بعد تراجم قدماء الصوفية ، في طبقة من أدركهم وعاصرهم من أمثال أبي عبد الرحمن السلمي المتوفى سنة 412 هـ ، وكان ميلاد القشيري سنة 376 هـ فيكون أحمد الأسود معمَّراً عاش إلى حدود سنة 380 هـ ، لأن شيخه ممشاد عَلُو الدينوري توفي سنة 299 هـ بعد وفاة سيد الطائفة الجنيد رضي الله عنهم أجمعين .

    وأما أحمد الغزالي فقد أخذ عن أبي بكر النساج عن أبي القاسم علي الكركاني عن أبي عثمان المغربي عن أبي علي الكاتب عن أبي علي الروذباري عن سيد الطائفة عن خاله سري السقطي عن معروف الكرخي عن داود الطائي عن حبيب العجمي عن الحسن البصري عن علي كرم الله وجهه عن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم .

    وتراجمهم معروفة أمدنا الله تعالى بمددهم أجمعين .

    ومشاهير أصحاب أبي النجيب هم ابن أخيه صاحب العوارف شهاب الدين عمر السهروردي ، وعمار بن ياسر البتليسي ، وقطب الدين محمد بن محمد الأبهري

    وأما ( الطريقة ) الكبروية المنسوبة إلى أبي الجناب نجم الدين أحمد بن عمر الطامة الكبرى الخيوقي الخوارزمي ، فإنه أخذ عن عمار بن ياسر البتليسي عن أبي النجيب .

    وأما ( الطريقة ) المولوية المنسوبة إلى مولانا جلال الدين البكري الرومي فإنه أخذ عن برهان الدين المحقق الترمذي عن سلطان العلماء محمد بهاء الدين بن الحسين البكري البلخي ـ والد الجلال الرومي ـ عن نجم الدين الكبرى عن عمار بن ياسر عن أبي النجيب .

    وأما ( الطريقة ) الخلوتية المنسوبة إلى الشيخ محمد بن نور الخلوتي الخوارزمي فإنه أخذ عن الشيخ إبراهيم الزاهد الكيلاني عن جمال الدين التبريزي عن ركن الدين أبي الغنائم محمد بن الفضل السنجاني عن قطب الدين الأبهري عن أبي النجيب السهروردي .

    وأما ( الطريقة ) الجلوتية المنسوبة إلى الحاج بيرام الجلوتي الأنقروي : فإنه أخذ عن حامد الأقسرائي عن إبراهيم الأردبيلي عن صفي الدين أبي إسحق الأردبيلي عن إبراهيم الزاهد الكيلاني بسنده السابق .

    وصاحب ” روح البيان ” أخذ الطريقة الجلوتية عن السيد عثمان الفضلي وهو عن عبد الله الواعظ ذاكر زادة عن أحمد الخطيب دزدار زادة عن الشيخ محمود الهدائي الجلوتي عن محمد محي الدين أفتادة عن الشيخ خضر درة المقعد عن الشيخ نعمان الأنقروي المعروف بالحاج بيرام الولي بسنده السابق .

    و ( الطريقة ) السُهْرَوَردية تنسب إلى الشهاب صاحب العوارف ، ومنها تتفرع طرق كثيرة أسانيدها في ” السمط المجيد ” و ” تبيان وسائل الحقائق ” و ” حديقة الأولياء ” و ” السلسبيل المعين ” وغيرها من كتب القوم .

    وترجمة أبي النجيب في غاية من الشهرة في كتب الطبقات والتراجم قدس الله سره

    From Sha'rani's Tabaqat

    From At-Tabaqat al-Kubra of Imam al-Sha’rani – View PDF | Download
    ومنهم الشيخ أبو النجيب عبد القادر السهروردي

    رضي الله تعالى عنه ويلقب بضياء الدين، وبنجيب الدين، ونسبه ينتهي إلى أبي بكر الصديق رضي الله عنه، وكان رضي الله عنه يتطيلس، ويلبس لباس العلماء، ويركب البغلة، وترفع الغاشية بين يديه، انعقد عليه إجماع المشايخ، والعلماء بالاحترام وأوقع الله عز وجل له القبول التام في الصدور، والمهابة الوافرة في القلوب، وتخرج بصحبته جماعة من الأكابر مثل الشيخ شهاب الدين السهروردي والشيخ عبد الله بن مسعود الرومي وغيرهما، واشتهر ذكره في الآفاق، وقصد من كل قطر.

    ومن كلامه رضي الله عنه: الأحوال معاملات القلوب، وهي ما يحل بها من صفاء الأكدار، وفوائد الحضور، ومعاني المشاهدة، وكان رضي الله عنه يقول: أول التصوف علم وأوسطه عمل، وآخره موهبة فالعلم يكشف عن المراد، والعمل يعين على الطلب، والموهبة تبلغ غاية الأمل، وأهل التصوف على ثلاث طبقات مريد طالب، ومتوسط طائر، ومنته واصل فالمريد صاحب وقت، والمتوسط صاحب حال والمنتهي صاحب يقين، وكان رضي الله عنه يقول: أفضل الأشياء عندهم عد الأنفاس. فمقام المريد المجاهدات، والمكابدات وتجرع المرارات ومجانية الحظوظ، وكل ما للنفس فيه منفعة. ومقام المتوسط ركوب الأهوال في طلب المراد، ومراعاة الصدق في الأحوال، واستعمال الأدب في المقامات، وهو مطالب بآداب المنازل، وهو صاحب تلوين لأنه يرتقي من حال إلى حال، وهو في الزيادة. ومقام المنتهي الصحو، والثبات، وإجابة الحق من حيث دعاه قد جاوز المقامات، وهو في محل التمكين لا تغيره الأحوال، ولا تؤثر فيه الأهوال قد استوى في حالة الشدة، والرخاء، والمنع، والعطاء، والجفاء، والوفاء أكله كجوعه، ونومه كسهره، وقد فنيت حظوظه، وبقيت حقوقه ظاهرة مع الخلق وباطنه مع الحق، وكل ذلك منقول من أحوال النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم.

    وكان إذا جلس فقير في خلوة يدخل عليه في كل يوم يتفقد أحواله، ويقول له يرد عليه الليلة كذا، ويكشف لك عن كذا، وتنال حال كذا وسيأتيك شخص في صورة كذا، ويقول لك كذا فاحذره فإنه شيطان فيقع للفقير جميع ما أخبره به الشيخ. سكن بغداد إلى أن مات بها سنة ثلاث، وستين وخمسمائة ودفن بمدرسته على شاطئ دجلة، وقبره بها ظاهر يزار رضي الله عنه.

    Burial Place

    t.b.d.

    More

    Bio: Sh. Ahmad al-Badawi

    Bio: Sh. Ahmad al-Badawi

    Sh. Ahmad al-Badawi

    سيدي الشيخ أحمد ابدوي
    d. 675 H. in Tanta, Egypt
    radiya Allah anhu

    (more…)

    Bio: Sh. Ahmad al-Rifa´i

    Bio: Sh. Ahmad al-Rifa´i

    Sayyidi Shaykh Ahmad al-Rifa´i

    b. 512 – d. 578 H. in Umm ´Abida (a village in Bata’ih)
    qaddasa Allah sirrahu

    .


    One of the greatest Sufi Masters – may Allah be pleased with him.

    English

    t.b.d.

    عربي

    Article in At-Tabaqat al-Kubra of Imam al-Sha’rani (PDF) – View | Downloadsee also below

    Summary notes from Imam Sha´rani’s Tabaqat

    ” رحلة في كتاب طبقات الشعراني”
    أحمد بن أبي الحسين الرفاعي
  • كان يسمع حديثه البعيد مثل القريب حتى إن أهل القرى التي حول أم عبيدة كانوا يجلسون على سطوحهم يسمعون صوته ويعرفون جميع ما يتحدث به.
  • كان الأطرش والأصم إذا حضروا يفتح الله أسماعهم لكلامه.
  • كانت أشياخ الطريق يحضرونه ويسمعون كلامه وكان أحدهم يبسط حجره فإذا فرغ ضموا حجورهم إلى صدورهم وقصوا الحديث إذا رجعوا على أصحابهم على جليته.
  • كان إذا جلس على جسمه بعوضة لا يطيرها ولا يمكن أحداً يطيرها ويقول: دعوها تشرب من هذا الدم الذي قسمه الحق تعالى لها.
  • كان إذا نام على كمه هرة وجاء وقت الصلاة يقطع كمه من تحتها، ولا يوقظها فإذا جاء من الصلاة أخذ كمه وخاطه ببعضه.
  • كان كلفه الله بالنظر في أمر الدواب والحيوانات.
  • كان يبتدئ من لقيه بالسلام حتى الأنعام والكلاب.
  • كان إذا رأى خنزيراً يقول له: أنعم صباحاً فقيل له في ذلك فقال أعود نفسي الجميل.
  • كان إذا تجلى الحق تعالى عليه بالتعظيم يذوب حتى يكون بقعة ماء ثم يتداركه اللطف فيصير يجمد شيئاً فشيئاً حتى يرد إلى جسمه المعتاد ويقول: لولا لطف الله تعالى بي ما رجعت إليكم.
  • Burial Place

    t.b.d.

    More

    Bio: Sh. Ahmad al-Tabrizi al-Hanafi

    Bio: Sh. Ahmad al-Tabrizi al-Hanafi

    Ahmad al-Tabrizi al-Hanafi

    d. 735 in Damascus, Kafar Susa
    أحمد بن عبد الكريم بن عبد الصمد التبريزي الحنفي
    radiya Allah anhu

    Great Hanafi scholar, who used to witness (i.e. veryfy legal writings) in front of al-Madrasa al-Masmariyya in Qaymariya. Died in Kafar Susa and was buried there. [ZaSh p. 41]

    Damas Cultural Society © 2007

    Bio: Sh. Ahmad b. Badr al-Din al-Hanafi

    Bio: Sh. Ahmad b. Badr al-Din al-Hanafi

    Shaykh Ahmad b. Badr al-Din al-Hanafi

    d. 934
    أحمد بن بدر الدين الحنفي
    radiya Allah anhu


    Buried in the Hamriyyah graveyard
    – بمحلة الشويكة – [ZaSh p. 41]

    Reference: Damas Cultural Society © 2007

    Bio: Sh. Ahmad Habbal

    Bio: Sh. Ahmad Habbal

    Shaykh Ahmad al-Rifa´i al-Habbal al-Dimashqi

    الشيخ أحمد الرفاعي الحبال
    d. 1430 H. (2009 CE) in Damascus

    Sayyid Shaykh Ahmad al-Habbal al-Rifai was one of the Abdal and a protector Saint of Damascus. He was a student of Shaykh Badr al-Din al-Hasani, and a servant and companion of Shaykh Sharif al-Yaqoubi. – He was a businessman, he made and sold Ropes. A few days before he passed away he donated half a Million Syrian Pounds to the people of Gaza He passed away in 2009 at the age of 110 and was buried in Damascus.

    English

    1. A Tribute to Shaykh Ahmad Habbal | Shaykh Muhammad al-Yaqoubi
    Sacred Knowledge Podcast (m4a)

     
    2. Notes from Sh. Muhammad al-Yaqoubi’s obituary in Damascus
    Sheikh Muhammad al-Yaqoubi’s obituary in Jami´al-Hasan in Damascus on the day of the passing of Sheikh Ahmad Habbal
    Notes taken and translated by bmk

    “Who has not accompanied the awlia, does not know their value”


    Sheikh Ahmad al-Habbal al-Rifa’i passed away to today, Tuesday, 1st of Safar 1430 Hijri (corresponding to January 27, 2009), at an age of nearly 110 years. His lineage goes back to the Prophet ﷺ. The uncle of his father (Sheikh Salih) was Sheikh Sa’id Habbal, Imam of the Umayya mosque, and he was said to be the Qutb of his time.

    Sheikh Ahmad Habbal was a student and close accompanion to Sheikh Badr al-Din al-Hasani, and had an immense love for him. After the passing of Sheikh Badr al-Din (in 1354 H.) he accomapanied and served Sheikh Sharif al-Yaqoubi, the paternal uncle of Sheikh Ibrahim al-Yaqoubi, until he passed away (in 1362).

    He was unique in Sham – yes, on the entire earth – in righteousness, taqwa, wara’, zuhd, worships, following the sunna and love for the Prophet ﷺ. He carried on the majlis of dhikr and salawat after Sheikh ‘Arif ‘Uthman (one of the great awlia of Sham), which were held every day after fajr salat in different mosques in Damascus, and in which the fuqara used to attend.

    It has been reported by tawatur (i.e. by so many people, that it is not reasonable to assume that they are all wrong), that the Prophet ﷺ was heard (in dreams) saying: “Sheikh Ahmad Habbal is my representative in Sham”, “Ask Sheikh Ahmad Habbal”, “Refer to Sheikh Ahmad Habbal”.

    Such visions are not relied upon in matters of fiqh, but they are accepted as proof of a person’s rank.

    “The souls of the dead are connected to the living” – this is mentioned in “Kitab al-Ruh” of Ibn al-Qayyim, the disciple of Ibn Taymiyya, and he gives examples from the sahaba and the tabi’in and the salaf that it was the habit of the salaf to rely on visions seen by several people independently. An example is seeking Laylat al-Qadr in the last ten days of Ramadan.

    Therefore, if the awlia in a certain place have been informed in their dreams that a person has attained a special rank, and these reports are so many that they reach the degree of tawatur, it is accepted as a proof. Such was the case of Sheikh Ahmad Habbal.

    (Sheikh Ahmad Habbal took hadith from Sheikh Badr al-Din al-Hasani, and he kept his close company, and took from his states.) Malik ibn Anas did not relate hadith except to somone in which he saw a strong attachment to the Prophet ﷺ. One of his students was Ayyub ibn Ayyub al-Sahiyani – he used to tremble and his skin contracted, each time he heard the mention of the Prophet ﷺ. (This was the state of Sheikh Ahmad Habbal, every time the name of the Prophet ﷺ was mentioned.)

    Sheikh Ahmad Habbal was of those whose du’a was answered. His last days coincided with the war in Ghazza, and he was continuously doing du’a against the Israelis and Americans – it was as if he was fighting side by side with the mujahidin.

    People of knowledge are many in Sham (wal hamduli Allah), i.e. people who are knowledgeable in Fiqh, ‘Aqida, Qira’a, Arabic language and eloquence – but the people of Wilaya (sainthood) are few.

    Tomorrow, his janaza will be held in the Umawi mosque after Zhuhr salat, and it is a duty on every person i Sham to attend.

    One of the Abdal

    Sheikh Ahmad Habbal was one of the forty Abdal, of whom it is mentioned in a sahih hadith:

    “The Abdal of my ummah are forty, and they are in Sham. By them (people) will be given rizq, and by them they will be given spport/victory.”- Imam al-Suyuti authored a Risala on the hadith of the Abdal.

    The Prophet ﷺ also said: “The destruction of Dimashq will take place forty years after the destruction of the world” – due to the baraka of the du’a of the Prophet ﷺ, and the presence of the Sahaba and Ahl al-Bayt.

    In another hadith, reported by Sayyidatuna Aisha (may Allah be pleased with her), the Prophet ﷺ said: “Allah does not take the knowledge away by tearing it out from the breasts of the ‘Ulama, but by taking their souls (i.e. when they die), until only ignorants remain, whom people take as their leaders. They will give fatwa without knowledge, being misguided and misguiding (others).” This hadith is agreed upon.

    Sheikh Ahmad Habbal is one of those (‘ulama whose soul has been taken).

    Sham is protected by The Awlia

    We are seeing war and killings in Jordan, Iraq, Palestine – but Sham is protected.

    (The awlia protect the land by their du’a, by their closeness to the Prophet ﷺ, and by lifting the tribulations from the common people. This was the case with Sheikh Ahmad Habbal, and therefore every single person in Sham is endebted to him.)

    The love for the Prophet ﷺ has always been present in Sham. People do mawlids, adorn the streets, the shops, the home to celebrate him ﷺ. However there was a time when this habit decayed. Sheikh Muhammad ibn Ja’far al-Kettani and Sheikh Badr al-Din al-Hasani revived the love for the Prophet ﷺ at that time. Everyone in Sham owes a favor to Sheikh Muhammad ibn Ja’far al-Kettani for bringing back the habit of celebrating and honoring him ﷺ.

    (Sheikh Ahmad Habbal was upholding the meetings of salawat at fajr time, thereby protecting the people of Sham, while people were unaware, sleeping in their beds.)

    The people of Tasawwuf are the people of dhikr, and those who do not accept an atrocity, without trying to change it. The wali is the one who, when you see him, you are reminded of Allah. Visiting Sheikh Ahmad Habbal was like going to sit in front of the Angels.

    Accompanyng Sheikh Badr al-Din al-Hasani

    Common people who kept company with Sheikh Badr al-Din ended up being ‘ulama. He was of those who educate people by his state (hal) – not by his words (maqal). In those times, the study sessions were long, like two hours, and the sessions of reminder and preaching short, like ten minutes (– nowadays the proportions are the inverse). There was no need to speak much to remind people of Allah. A wali changes people’s hearts just by a few words – or even without any words at all.

    Sheikh Badr al-Din al-Hasani was al-muhaddith al-akbar, not only of Sham – but of the world. (There is not a Sheikh of hadith in al-Azhar today, who is not student of a student of Sheikh Badr al-Din al-Hasani.) The ‘ulama of al-Azhar from his generation took from him, and from them took all others after them. Like (Sheikh Hakim al-Mundhiri), Sheikh Mahmud Muti’i, who became the mufti of Egypt, or Sheikh Muti’ Buq’i, who was a student of Sheikh Badr al-Din before he became a teacher at al-Azhar, and from him Doctor Yusuf al-Qaradawi took the knowledge of hadith. There is not a country on earth, even as far as China, that is not endebted to Sheikh Badr al-Din al-Hasani.

    Sheikh Ahmad Habbal was the last of those who knew the states of Sheikh Badr al-Din al-Hasani.

    Who does not keep company of the awlia does not know their states.

    Sheikh Muhammad al-Yaqoubi kept the company of his father, Sheikh Ibrahim al-Yaqoubi, for twenty years, from childhood until he was a grown man, in every public or private moment, in every majlis, in every meeting with ‘ulama and awlia. He was with him every miniute, his father supervised all his movements and looked into all his states, and instructed him in the sciences and in dhikr.

    This is how Sheikh Ahmad Habbal kept the company of Sheikh Badr al-Din al-Hasani.

    “If it were not for my Guide (murabbi), I would not know my Lord (Rabbi)”

    The loss of great Awlia

    The past year has been called the year of affliction, due to the death of many awlia. We have seen the passing of:

    – Sheikh Hasan Habannaka al-Midani (who passed away last year), he was the Sheikh of Sham in Shafi’i fiqh, and Arabic language
    – Sheikh Murshid ‘Abidin, the brother of Sheikh Abul Yusr ‘Abidin, a Hanafi faqih, and one of the oldest ‘ulama of Sham, who passed away last year at the age of 100 years.
    – Sheikh Muhammad Sukkar, Sheikh of the variants of Quran recition.
    – Mustafa al-Khann, scholar of usul al-fiqh and Arabic language, one of the gratest students of Sheikh Hasan Habannaka, and teacher of Doctor al-Buti
    – ‘Abd al-‘Aziz al-Rafa’i, of the people of zuhd
    – Sheikh Mustafa Turkmani, the successor of Sheikh ‘Abd al-Rahman al-Shaghouri
    – Sheikh ‘Abd Allah al-Rabih, from amongst the mujahidin, who passed away in Makka and was buried in al-Ma’alla (the burial place of Sayyidatuna Khadija, radia Allah ‘anha)

    All these have passed away during a time span of one and half years.

    Sheikh Muhammad al-Makki al-Kettani and Sheikh Abul Yusr ‘Abidin believed that Allah lifts away the trials from Sham by the presence of Sheikh Ahmad Habbal.

    Accompanying Sheikh Sharif al-Yaqoubi

    Sheikh Ahmad Habbal told Sheikh Muhammad al-Yaqoubi about the rain prayer (salat al-istisqa) on mount Qasiun. People did not perform the rain prayer in the Umawi mosque or in any place in the city, but they climbed up the mountain to perform it there – as has been the habit ever since the time of Sayyiduna Mu’awiyya (radya Alllah ‘anhu). Sheikh Ahmad Habbal related how he went up in the company of Sheikh Sharif al-Yaqoubi (and other ‘ulama of Damascus, amongst them) Sheikh Amin al-Swayd (one of the students from the company of Sheikh Badr al-Din al-Hasani), and they stayed for three days, making du’a for rain to come down. After the three days, Sheikh Sharif said: you may descend if you wish, i will not descend until the rain comes. So he did, and within a short time the rain came down.

    Sheikh Ahmad Habbal also informed Sheikh Muhammad that the the burial procession of Sheikh Sharif was the largest seen in Sham after that of Sheikh Badr al-Din al-Hasan – and he (Sheikh Ahmad) was present on both occasions.

    It is stated in the book “Al-Ibriz” that when tribulations descend from heaven, they first hit the awlia, according to their ranks: the highest wali will be struck by the heaviest blow, then it goes to the one next to him in rank, and he carries it, and so on, until the lowest awlia receive the last trials. It is in this way that the awlia protect the common people from tribulations, by taking them upon themselves. This is one of the secrets of the awlia. As it is stated in the hadith about the Abdal: “By them people are given rizq, and by them they are given protection/victory.”

    Until the last moment of his life, Sheikh Ahmad Habbal did not cease making du’a for the Muslim. During Sheikh Muhammad’s visit to him, which may have lasted for half an our, he heard him doing du’a for the people of Ghazza and the Muslims in general over thirty times.

    All or us need to attend his janaza, and dedicate recitals for him – maybe we will attain his shafa’a on the Day of Rising.

    عربي

    Khutba of Shaykh Muhammad al-Yaqoubi Friday, Jan 30, 2009 in Jami´al-Hasan in Damascus
    View PDF | Download | Audo


    Sh. Muhammad al-Yaqoubi speaking about Sh. Ahmad Habbal
    in his dars on the Risala Qushayriyya in Damscus
    From naseemalsham.com (attribution missing)


    بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
    بركة الشام العالم الرباني الشيخ
    أحمد الرفاعي الشهير بالحبال
    ترجمة فضيلة الشيخ محمد اليعقوبي مقتطفة من درس الرسالة القشيرية

    الحمد لله رب العالمين، وصلى الله وسلم وبارك على سيدنا ومولانا محمد خاتم النبيين وإمام المرسلين وعلى آله وصحبه أجمعين، اللهم افتح علينا فتوح العارفين، ووفقنا توفيق الصالحين، وانفعنا اللهم بالقرآن والذكر الحكيم، اللهم علمنا ما ينفعنا، وانفعنا بما علمتنا، وزدنا علماً وعملاً متقبلاً برحمتك يا أرحم الراحمين، اللهم لا سهل إلا ما جعلته سهلاً وأنت يا حي يا قيوم تجعل الحزن إذا شئت سهلاَ سهلاً، اللهم أعذنا من شرور أنفسنا ومن سيئات أعمالنا وأصلح لنا شأننا كله، لا إله إلا أنت نستغفرك ونتوب إليك، وصلى الله على سيدنا محمد وعلى آله وصحبه وسلم.

    أما بعد:

    …فالسعيد من صحب أهل الخير.. السعيد من صحب أهل الطاعة.. أهل الإيمان.. أهل التقوى.. أهل الاستقامة.. أهل الذكر.. أهل المحبة..

    نشأة الشيخ أحمد الحبال:

    الشيخ أحمد الحبال ربما تفرد بكونه من العباد الزهاد في هذا الوقت، العبادة والزهد والمداومة على الذكر والمحبة للنبي صلى الله عليه وسلم أمور امتاز بها الشيخ أحمد الرفاعي الحبال. من أين جاءت هذه الأمور؟ جاءته هكذا؟ تلقطها من الكتب؟ تلقفها من السطور؟ لا.. الشيخ أحمد الحبال هو ابن الشيخ صالح الحبال الشيخ صالح الحبال كان من أهل الزهد والورع والعبادة وأكل الحلال والمداومة على الطاعة وحضور الجمع والجماعات مع المسلمين والإكثار من حج النافلة والده الشيخ صالح حج نحواً من ثلاثين حجة والده الشيخ صالح ما عرف أنه ترك الصلاة جماعة طيلة عمره حتى أيام الثورة السورية أيام الحرب والجهاد ما ترك صلاة الجماعة ما ترك والده صلاة الجماعة طيلة عمره كان يأكل من كسب يده كان يشتغل بذكر الله تعالى ويملأ وقته بتلاوة القرآن وتوفي من قريب فوق الأربعين سنة بقليل قريب من خمسين سنة من الآن توفي سنة إحدى وستين ميلادية.

    الشيخ صالح الحبال لازم عمه الشيخ سعيد الحبال، الشيخ سعيد الحبال كان قطب الشام كان إمام الشافعية في الجامع الأموي وكان قطب الشام في الولاية وكان يشار إليه أنه القطب الغوث، أي: رئيس الأولياء في بلاد الشام، الشيخ سعيد الحبال هذا الرجل كراماته يتحدث الناس فيها إلى هذه الأيام، إلى الآن مازال هناك من المعمرين من أهل التقوى من يروي كرامات الشيخ سعيد الحبال في تقواه وورعه ومواظبته على الصدق والإخلاص لله تبارك وتعالى.

    الشيخ صالح الحبال لازم الشيخ عبد الرزاق الطرابلسي الشهير بـ (غلَّا الحليب) شيخ الطريقة النقشبندية، بعض الناس يظن أن الشيخ أحمد الحبال رفاعي، هو رفاعي النسب ولكن الطريقة التي كانت في أهل بيته أصلاً هي الطريقة النقشبندية طريقة والده كانت الطريقة النقشبندية الشيخ صالح الحبال والده كان نقشبندي الطريقة أخذها عن الشيخ عبد الرزاق غلا الحليب وهذا الرجل قل من يعرفه، الشيخ عبد الرزاق غلا الحليب كان معتزلاً عن الناس في جامع سنان باشا (السنانية) وكان من الأقطاب الكبار والأولياء العظام والعارفين الذين لم يكن لهم نظير كان يتبرك به أهل عصره الشيخ صالح الحبال لازم الشيخ عبد الرزاق غلا الحليب، سمي غلا الحليب لأنه كان يغلي الحليب ويبيعه ويتقوت منه لازمه وأخذ عنه الطريقة النقشبندية وكان ملازماً لأذكاره وأوراده بعيداً عن الشهرة بعيداً عن رسوم العلماء كالتلاميذ والتصدر وما إلى ذلك.

    فالشيخ أحمد غرسة ونبتة في ذلك البستان في ذلك البيت الصالح بيت التقوى وبيت الورع بيت الزهد بيت الجهاد والمجاهدة، يروى عن والد الشيخ صالح الحبال أنه ما أكل في غير بيته طعاماً عند أحد قط، ما أكل في غير بيته طعاماً لأحد قط، ما كان يأكل إلا من كسب يده، حتى التمرات التي كان يفطر عليها، الشيخ صالح الحبال كان دائم صيام الاثنين والخميس طيلة عمره وكان يفطر على تمرات يأتي بهن في جيبه من كسب يده يعني يأكل الحلال الخالص لانتشار الشبه في الرزق بين الناس فما يدرى الحلال من غيره، نحن الآن ربما نترخص ونتوسع في تناول الطعام في بيوت الناس لكن الجيل الذي قبلنا ما كان هكذا، والدي رحمه الله ما كان يأكل عند أحد من الناس لا يعرفه ولو فرشت له الأرض ذهباً، لو فرشت له الأرض ذهباً ليأكل عند أحد لا يعرفه لا يأكل، لا يذهب إلا إلى بيت إخوانه من أهل الصدق وأكل الحلال والورع نعم يأكل عند الخاصة من إخوانه، وهذا من كمال الاقتداء بالنبي عليه الصلاة والسلام كمال الاقتداء أن يأكل عند من يغلب على ظنه أن ماله حلال، لكن في شدة التورع كحال الشيخ صالح الحبال أيضاً خير حتى يكون قدوة للبقية حتى يكون قدوة للبقية من الناس فينظر الناس في أحوالهم كيف هي، الواحد منا يأكل الطعام ويأتي بالمال من الشرق والغرب ولا يسأل مصدر المال من أين.

    فالشيخ أحمد رحمه الله تعالى غرسة نبتت في تلك الرياض الزاهرة رياض التقوى والورع وأكل الحلال والذكر والجهاد والمجاهدة غرسة غرسها والده رحمه الله وأنا قلت في خطبة الجمعة كلاماً قد رويته من قبل عبد الله بن عمر رضي الله عنه كان يقول لابنه سالم: أنا أزيد في صلاتي من أجلك وروينا لكم قديماً قصة إمام الحرمين الجويني كان أبوه من أهل التقوى والورع وكان عالماً جليلاً وكان يشتغل بنسخ الكتب ويأكل من كسب يمينه حتى جمع مقداراً من المال فاشترى جارية ذات دين وخلق فأعتقها وتزوجها وصار ينفق عليها من كسب يمينه المال الحلال وأمرها أن تحفظ البيت من أي مال يدخل إليه فحملت بإمام الحرمين الجويني ثم وضعت فأوصاها أن تحفظ ذلك الرضيع وفي مرة من المرات جاء في المساء فسألها عن الأحوال وإذا بجارة لها قد جاءت وكانت أم الرضيع قد انشغلت بأشغال البيت وولدها يبكي فأرضعته الجارة، [من الأحكام الشرعية لا يجوز للمرأة أن ترضع ولد غيرها إلا بإذن الزوج ولا يجوز للمرأة أيضاً أن تسترضع لولدها إلا بإذن الزوج، لأن اللبن حق الزوج كما يقول الفقهاء فالمرضع لا يجوز لها أن ترضع أولاد غيرها إلا بإذن زوجها والمرأة أيضاً لا يجوز لها أن تسترضع امرأة غيرها لأولادها إلا بإذن زوجها هي] فالشاهد هذه المرأة أرضعت ذلك الرضيع فلما جاء والد الإمام الجويني ودرى بالخبر جعل يدخل إصبعه في فم الرضيع حتى قاء الرضيع ذلك اللبن يقول إمام الحرمين الجويني: بقي أثر تلك الرضعة فتوراً يعرض له عند المناظرة!! مع أنها رضعة لم تتم، فانظروا إلى أثر الحلال في تنشئة القلوب الحلال لا يربي الأجسام فقط لكن يؤثر في القلوب.

    بعض الصالحين كان يقول: ما أكل في الغفلة استعمل في الغفلة وما أكل في الحضور استعمل في الحضور ما معنى ذلك؟ يعني الطعام الذي تأكله هذا لو كان حلالاً الطعام الذي تأكله إذا ضمنا أنه حلال بعد ذلك إذا أكلته في حال الغفلة عن الله تبارك وتعالى وفرح بالطعام بالشراب وتأكل وتنظر إلى التلفاز تأكل وأنت تغتاب وتنم هذا ما أكل في الغفلة استعمل في الغفلة وما أكل بحضور مع الله عز وجل بالمراقبة لله عز وجل أثناء الطعام استعمل في الحضور، يقول الإمام الغزالي في بعض نصائحه: (من أراد أن يحفظ الله جوارحه فليسم الله عند كل لقمة) هذا ما فيه بدعة وإنما فيه زيادة في السنة وحرص، التسمية في أول الطعام لمن لا ينسى الله تعالى في آخره أصحاب النبي عليه الصلاة والسلام والسلف الصالح كان إذا سمى الله تعالى في أول الطعام لا ينسى الله عز وجل ولا يغفل عنه إلى آخر الطعام أما الآن بين اللقمة واللقمة تعرض للإنسان ربما مائة فكرة فينسى الحق سبحانه وتعالى وينسى واجب الشكر لله سبحانه وينسى المنعم وينسى..، نقول نعم هذا ينبغي أن يجدد التسمية بين اللقمة واللقمة، حتى يظهر أثر ذلك في الطعام الذي يأكله وليكون استعماله في الطاعة.

    لذلك عندما نتحدث عن مثل الشيخ أحمد الحبال رحمه الله لا ينبغي أن نتحدث عن الشيخ أحمد الحبال ونعظم الشيخ أحمد الحبال دون النظر إلى نشأة الشيخ أحمد الحبال ومن سقى تلك الغرسة ومن روى تلك النبتة ومن تعاهدها وهو أبوه رحمه الله تعالى ومشايخه بعد ذلك ، الآن نحن بدأنا فقط بالكلام عن الأب، الناس يتحدثون عن الشيخ أحمد الحبال وصحبته للشيخ بدر الدين الحسني وينسون أن الشيخ أحمد الحبال ابن أبيه الشيخ الصالح، والشيخ صالح أخذ عن عم أبيه الشيخ سعيد الحبال، وهكذا.. فهم أهل بيت فيهم النسب الشريف للإمام السيد أحمد الرفاعي رحمه الله تعالى ورضي عنه وهو النسب الممتد إلى النبي عليه الصلاة والسلام المتصل به صلى الله عليه وسلم، وفيهم نسب الروح وهو نسب الطريق، نسب من عدة طرق هذا من الطريقة النقشبندية وهذا من الطريقة الرفاعية وكل واحد من أجداده كان سالكاً في بعض الطرق والده كان نقشبندي الطريقة.

    فهو من أهل بيت فيه الورع والصلاح والتقوى والزهد والعبادة والمجاهدة وهذا قليل في عصرنا، عندنا في هذا العصر علماء، عندنا خطباء، عندنا فقهاء، في بلادنا قراء، في بلادنا محدثون، في بلادنا فصحاء، عندنا دعاة.. لكن العباد قليلون وهذا من علامات الساعة مما أخبر به النبي عليه الصلاة والسلام بقوله: (أن يكثر الخطباء وأن يقل الفقهاء) المراد بالفقهاء في كلام النبي عليه الصلاة والسلام الفقهاء الذين يعرفون الحلال والحرام ويطبقونه، فالفقه هنا فقه النفس، وإلا فبفضل الله عز وجل الخطباء عندنا كثر وطلاب العلم كثر والحمد لله وبخاصة في الشام لكن في الشام وخارج الشام الخطباء أكثر من الفقهاء وهذا بلاء نستعيذ بالله عز وجل منه ونسأل الله أن يحفظنا من أن يكون لساننا أفصح من عملنا، وهذا الكلام للإمام إبراهيم بن أدهم (لقد أعربنا في القول فلم نلحن ولحنا في العمل فلم نعرب).

    فلا يجوز أن ننسى نشأة الشيخ أحمد الحبال رحمه الله وبمن تأثر ولذلك تقول لي أريد لأولادي أن يكونوا صالحين، أقول لك كن أنت من الصالحين، فإذا فاتك ذلك وتقدم بك العمر فابعث أولادك إلى أهل الصلاح والتقوى، من كلام السادة الصوفية: ما أفلح من أفلح إلا بصحبة من أفلح فالشيخ أحمد الحبال ما أفلح إلا بالنشأة الطيبة إلا بهذه الغرسة الكريمة التي غرسها والدها رحمه الله تعالى.

    الشيخ أحمد الحبال عرف عنه حب الحج إلى بيت الله الكريم وزيارة نبيه عليه أفضل الصلاة وأتم التسليم ممن أخذ هذا؟ أخذه من أبيه لا من الشيخ بدر الدين الحسني ولا من الشيخ شريف اليعقوبي أخذه من أبيه ثم من الشيخ عارف عثمان الشيخ عارف عثمان حج ثلاثين حجة، وأظن أن الشيخ أحمد الحبال – فيما سمعت- حج خمسين مرة أو أزيد من خمسين مرة!.. لكن النشأة.. إذا كان أبوه ما كان يأكل إلا من طعامه ومن كسب يده.. قال وما عرف عنه أنه أكل عند أحد من الناس قط، الشيخ أحمد الحبال ما كان يأكل إلا من كسب يده، نعم كان يجبر خاطر الضعفاء والمساكين فيجيب الدعوات لكن لا يأكل إلا القليل من الطعام وفي ذلك أيضاً اتباع لسنة النبي عليه الصلاة والسلام لأن النبي عليه الصلاة والسلام كان يجيب دعوة العبد ويجيب الدعوة إلى الكراع كما قال عليه الصلاة والسلام: (لو دعيت إلى كراع لأجبت)[1] فهذا من أخلاق الشيخ أحمد رحمه الله تعالى أخذ هذه السنن عن كبار العلماء والأولياء ممن اجتمع به.

    فأعظم الناس أثراً في الشيخ أحمد هو والده والناس يغفلون ذكره الآن الشيخ صالح الحبال والعهد به قريب وفاته سنة 1961 وقد سمعنا ثناء مشايخنا عليه وكان والدي رحمه الله تعالى يثني عليه وكان مثال الزهد عابداً زاهداً ورعاً تقياً هذا قل نظيره، وهذا حال الشيخ أحمد لذلك نشأ الشيخ أحمد وتخلق بأخلاق أبيه فما بالكم إذا زاد على ذلك النشأة في بيت المحدث الأكبر الشيخ بدر الدين الحسني وصحبة العارف بالله الشهير الشيخ شريف اليعقوبي؟! وصحبة العارف بالله الشهير الشيخ عارف عثمان؟!. هؤلاء هم أبلغ الناس أثراً في حياة الشيخ أحمد، إذا أردنا أن ننظر في المواد التي خرجت الشيخ أحمد الحبال حتى يمكن لنا أن نأتي بمواد أخرى ربما نخرج شيخ أحمد آخر في هذا العصر نقول: هاتوا مثل الشيخ بدر الدين والشيخ عارف عثمان حتى يخرج مثل الشيخ أحمد الحبال، وأصعب من ذلك هاتوا أب مثل الشيخ صالح الحبال، لذلك الذي لا يعرف هذا التاريخ يظن أن الأمر هين، مات الشيخ أحمد ويأتي مثله، إن شاء الله يأتي من هو أعظم منه لكن الأمر صعب أيها الإخوة الأمر صعب لأن كيمياء القلوب الآن صارت من المستحيلات كيمياء القلوب التي تحول قلوب الناس من حجر صلب إلى ذهب ناصع مشرق تحول القلب المظلم إلى قلب نير كيمياء القلوب التي تسقيها على مدى طويل، وكلما امتدت الغراس في الأرض كلما طال النبت.. سافرنا في بعض البلاد ورأينا من النخيل ما يمتد طوله ربما ثلاثين متراً -والله أعلم- وتهب الأعاصير، وأبنية أحياناً تسقط، والنخل يهتز مع الأعاصير يميناً ويساراً ولا يسقط!! لأن جذوره متينة في الأرض.

    فإذا أردت أن تنشأ إنساناً على التقوى فهات أباً من أهل التقوى، هات شيخاً يصحبه من صغره حتى يكون من أهل التقوى، إذا أردت أن تنشأ إنساناً على محبة النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم هات أباً يزرع فيه محبة النبي عليه الصلاة والسلام منذ الصبا، أو هات شيخاً.. إذا كان الأب مقصراً يدفع ابنه إلى شيخ يصحبه من صغره ومن صباه يكون الشيخ من أهل محبة النبي عليه الصلاة والسلام، أقول: هذه الكيمياء لا بد أن تنتج ولا بد أن تعمل، أما أن تقول: أريد شيئاً من لا شيء!.. نعم فضل الله عز وجل واسع لكن الله رتب العطاء على الأسباب ومن أسباب الولاية صحبة الأولياء ومن أسباب الفلاح صحبة أهل الفلاح ومن أسباب العلم صحبة أهل العلم.

    أولئك الذين خرجوا الشيخ أحمد الحبال:

    الشيخ بدر الدين، وما أدراك ما الشيخ بدر الدين؟! آية من الآيات وحجة من الله تبارك وتعالى على أهل عصره إلى يوم القيامة، الشيخ بدر الدين إذا تركنا جانب العلم والحفظ والرواية والمعرفة بعلوم الفقه والحديث والتفسير والمنطق واللغة العربية إذا تركنا العلوم التي سلم له فيها كبار علماء عصره منذ شبابه، [الشيخ بدر الدين نبغ منذ شبابه وسلم له أهل عصره الرتبة العالية في العلم الظاهر] إذا تركنا ذلك وأخذنا جانب الورع والزهد أخدنا جانب الصمت أخذنا جانب تعظيم النبي عليه الصلاة والسلام جانب محبة النبي عليه الصلاة والسلام نرى جوانب عديدة كل منها يصنع رجلاً فكيف إذا اجتمعت في رجل واحد ماذا تصنع؟!.. تصنع أمة.. إذا رأينا الآن إنساناً يتبع السنة فقط أو إنساناً يحب تلاوة القرآن الكريم ويواظب على تلاوة القرآن نعظمه أشد التعظيم، فإذا اجتمعت هذه كلها في رجل تخرج منه أمة.. الشيخ بدر الدين كان أمة في رجل، فما بالك بمن كانت أنظار الشيخ بدر الدين عليه.

    الشيخ سليم الحمامي أحد المعمرين الصلحاء في الشام الآن ممن تظن فيه الولاية وأنه من الأبدال ولا نزكي على الله تبارك وتعالى أحداً، يقول: الشيخ بدر الدين رحمه الله سأله بعض تلاميذه الدعاء وهو الشيخ عبد الكريم الآوي قال له: يا سيدي ادع لنا، فماذا قال له؟ قال له: (غفر الله لكم ولمن رآكم ولمن رأيتموه) دعوة ولي، دعوة عالم، دعوة قطب، دعوة إنسان له عند الله تبارك وتعالى منزلة يتكلم من بساط الدلال على الحق سبحانه وتعالى، قال: كان من الحاضرين لهذه الدعوة الشيخ عبد القادر المبارك والشيخ محمود العطار وكان ربما أصغر الحاضرين سناً الشيخ سليم الحمامي.. انظروا حال الشيخ بدر الدين.. يقولون: سر فتوح الشيخ بدر الدين كان الصلاة على النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم، وقد أجمع كل من سمعناه يتحدث عن الشيخ بدر الدين [وقد أدركت بفضل الله تعالى حوالي ثلاثين من تلاميذ الشيخ بدر الدين من العلماء سوى العامة] كل منهم كان يقول: الشيخ بدر الدين ما كان يتكلم، حتى إذا سئل يقول: يابا هات الكتاب.. ماكان يتكلم، كلماته كانت معدودة، كان يغلب عليه الاشتغال بالصلاة على النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم، فإذا سئل عن مسألة كان يشير إلى الكتاب يقول: هات الكتاب.. (يؤتى بالكتاب).. افتح الكتاب، يدع الطالب بين يديه يستخرج الجواب من الكتاب فيقرأ النص بين يديه، لذلك كلماته كانت معدودة، وروي لنا الكثير من كلامه لأنه كان قليل الكلام، وهذا أصلاً من شمائل المصطفى عليه الصلاة والسلام: كان يتكلم بكلام لو أراد العاد أن يعده لعده – تقول السيدة عائشة – ما كان يسرد الحديث سردكم هذا، هذه هي أحوال الشيخ بدر الدين.

    أما أحوال الشيخ شريف اليعقوبي فحدث ولا حرج عن تعظيمه للجناب النبوي الشريف حدث ولا حرج عن اتباعه للسنة.. يقولون: في الشام ثلاث جنائز كانت أكبر الجنائز في القرن الماضي أعظم جنازة كانت جنازة الشيخ بدر الدين الحسني، الجنازة الثانية كانت جنازة الشيخ شريف اليعقوبي، الجنازة الثالثة جنازة الشيخ علي الدقر، وتواتر هذا الكلام عمن حضر تلك الجنائز وعمن عرف علماء العصر في ذلك الزمان، لما توفي الشيخ شريف اليعقوبي أغلقت دمشق الأبواب، وخرج الناس جميعاً في تشييعه.

    الشيخ أحمد الحبال لازم الشيخ شريف اليعقوبي اثنتي عشرة سنة ولازمه ملازمة خدمة، فإذا الخادم صار ولياً فما بالك بتلاميذ الولي، وقد ذكرت لكم سابقاً كلاماً رواه والدي عن الشيخ محمد المبارك عن الشيخ محمد الطيب يقول: المغاربة ينالون الولاية بالمجاهدات والمشارقة ينالون الولاية بالخدمة، وأنا أقول هذا مثال الشيخ أحمد الحبال، دخل على الشيخ بدر الدين من باب الخدمة دخل على الشيخ شريف اليعقوبي من باب الخدمة، حتى كان للشيخ شريف بنت، وعمرت زمناً، فكان يطرق بابها ويأتي لها بما تحتاج إليه من الأمور، هي بنت عم أبي، الشيخ شريف عم الوالد رحمه الله، والوالد والشيخ أحمد ترافقا ونشأت بينهما الصلة من زمن الشيخ شريف اليعقوبي، فالوالد رحمه الله تلميذ عمه يلازمه ويقرأ عليه ويقرأ على غيره من الشيوخ بإشارة أبيه وبإشارة عمه.

    الشيخ شريف كان له خادمان، أحدهما يخدمه في أموره في بيته وهو الشيخ أحمد الحبال، والثاني يتولى أموره في التجارة وهو الشيخ سعيد الأحمر رحمه الله وكلاهما صارا من الأولياء الكبار، وكلاهما كان يروي لنا عشرات الكرامات من كرامات الشيخ شريف اليعقوبي، حال الشيخ شريف كان حالاً عظيماً جداً في الولاية والمعرفة والصدق مع الله تبارك وتعالى لم يكن له نظير بين أولياء عصره.

    ثم زد على ذلك صحبة الشيخ عارف عثمان، والشيخ عارف عثمان من محبته للنبي عليه الصلاة والسلام رأى النبي عليه الصلاة والسلام تفل في يده في الرؤيا، الشيخ عارف عثمان عمر قريب المائة، من الأولياء الكبار وممن أخذ عن الشيخ يوسف النبهاني والشيخ محمد بن جعفر الكتاني وعنهما أخذ التعلق بالجناب النبوي الشريف، الشيخ يوسف النبهاني آية العصر في محبة النبي عليه الصلاة والسلام نذر كتبه ومؤلفاته لنشر سيرة المصطفى عليه الصلاة والسلام والتعريف به وحث الناس على محبته علم من الأعلام، والسيد محمد بن جعفر الكتاني أحيا الله تعالى به هذه البلاد من باب التعلق بالنبي عليه الصلاة والسلام وتعظيم آل البيت وتعظيم النبي عليه الصلاة والسلام، وكان السيد محمد بن جعفر الكتاني إذا ذكر عنده النبي عليه الصلاة والسلام كان يهتز طرباً، كان ترى في وجهه الخشية والهيبة والتعظيم للنبي عليه الصلاة والسلام، ورأينا الوالد رحمه الله كان إذا ذُكِر: (عن النبي عليه الصلاة والسلام) أو (قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم).. كان يمسح على صدره أو وجهه، هذا كان حال من تعلق بالجناب النبوي الشريف، كلما زادت المعرفة كلما زادت الخشية في حق الله تعالى، وكلما زادت المعرفة كلما زاد التعظيم والمحبة للجناب النبوي الشريف.

    الشيخ أحمد الحبال ما كان يفترعن الصلاة على النبي عليه الصلاة والسلام بعض الناس كان يجهل عظيم تعلق الشيخ أحمد الحبال بالجناب النبوي الشريف إلى أن رؤيت عدة مرائي: نائب المصطفى عليه الصلاة والسلام في الشام الشيخ أحمد الحبال، من أين جاء هذا؟ هذا له أسباب الأدب التعظيم العرفة وصحبة أولئك القوم.

    الشيخ شريف اليعقوبي ما كان يدع أحداً يدخن في مجلسه [وكان الدخان في أول أمره قبل أن يعرف أحلال هو أم حرام، في ذلك الوقت كان الناس يجتهدون في الكلام عن الدخان، وكان بعض المفتين يفتي بجواز الدخان وحله بل كان بعض المفتين والعلماء يشرب الدخان] الشيخ شريف اليعقوبي رحمه الله ما كان يدع أحداً يشرب الدخان في حضرته على الإطلاق، الأجداد كانوا يحرصون على أن يكون كل مجلس يجلسونه فيه ذكر للنبي عليه الصلاة والسلام وذكر النبي عليه الصلاة والسلام ينبغي أن تصحبه رائحة طيبة فكانوا يبخرون المجالس، كانوا يحبون العود وأمثال ذلك من أنواع العطور التي تطيب به المجالس، لأنه عند ذكر النبي عليه الصلاة والسلام ينبغي التعظيم، ومن جملة أسباب التعظيم الرائحة الطيبة.

    حج الشيخ شريف اليعقوبي لما حج بالقطار بالسكة الحديدية الحجازية أول ما أنشئت، وكان يخدمه في تلك الحجة الشيخ أحمد الحبال رحمه الله، وجرت في تلك الحجة كرامات متعددة ذكرها ووثقها الشيخ محمود ياسين في كتابه (الرحلة إلى المدينة المنورة) طبعة دار الفكر يقول: اختلف الناس يوماً من الأيام وهم في المدينة المنورة بدار أحد الأشراف في حكم الدخان فالتفتوا إلى الشيخ شريف يسألونه ما حكم الدخان ماذا تقول في الدخان؟ فقال: ما الكتاب الذي في أيديكم؟ قالوا: كتاب (الشفا بتعريف حقوق المصطفى) للقاضي عياض قال: افتحوا الكتاب إلى أي موضع شئتم تجدون دليلاً على تحريم الدخان! ففتحوا الكتاب فأول ما خرج في أعلى الصفحة حديث العرباض بن سارية رضي الله تعالى عنه: وعظنا رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم موعظة بليغة فقلنا كأنها موعظة مودع.. فكان مما قال صلى الله عليه وسلم في هذا الحديث: وإياكم ومحدثات الأمور فإن كل محدثة بدعة وكل بدعة ضلالة وكل ضلالة في النار، فقال: ألا يكفيكم هذا دليلاً؟ يعني إذا لم يكن الدخان بدعة فأي شيء بدعة؟ إذا لم يكن الدخان محدثاُ ضاراً فأي شيء محدث؟.

    نرجع إلى الكلام عن تعلق الشيخ أحمد الحبال بالنبي عليه الصلاة والسلام من أين جاء؟ جاء ممن صحبهم من المشايخ، وكان الشيخ أحمد الحبال لا يفتأ يذكر مشايخه حتى قبيل وفاته حدثني ابنه الكبير قال: من عشرين سنة ونحن مع الوالد وهو لا يفتر عن ذكر أل اليعقوبي وذكر الشيخ شريف اليعقوبي، وقال: أحببناكم لمحبته لكم. انظروا الوفاء للشيوخ، حتى في آخر مرة زرناه فيها وكانت في أيام عيد الفطر ورغم ذلك لما عرف من الزائرين: محمد اليعقوبي بدأ الكلام عن الشيخ شريف اليعقوبي.

    وكان تعلقه بالشيخ بدر الدين تعلق الروح بالجسد بل أشد من تعلق الروح بالجسد لأن الروح قد تنزع من الجسد ويبقى الجسد حياً وذلك في التجريد الروحي، محبة مشايخه كانت مشتبكة في قلبه كاشتباك الماء بالعود الأخضر، وكان أعظم الناس أثراً فيه الشيخ بدر الدين الحسني، هو النور الذي كان يرى فيه، وسر الحياة الذي يسري فيه، ثم الشيخ شريف اليعقوبي ثم الشيخ عارف عثمان..

    الشيخ عارف عثمان هو الذي أسس مجالس الصلاة على النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم وأوصى أن يخلفه الشيخ سعيد البرهاني ثم الشيخ سعيد أوصى أن يخلفه الشيخ أحمد الحبال، الشيخ أحمد والشيخ سعيد كانا رفيقين، لذلك أقول: الشيخ أحمد الحبال ليس ملكاً لجماعة هناك من يصور مثلاً أن الشيخ أحمد الحبال من جماعة فلان أو من جماعة فلان.

    الدروس العظيمة في حياة الشيخ أحمد الحبال وفي وفاته:

    أولاً: إذا أردنا أن نقول هو من جماعة من؟ نقول هو من جماعة الشيخ بدر الدين الحسني، وهل للشيخ بدر الدين جماعة؟ جماعته أهل الشام وصل إلى درجة لم يبق في الشام أحد إلا وقد قرأ عليه ولم يبق أحد إلا وهو من تلاميذه أو من تلاميذ تلاميذه أو من تلاميذ تلاميذ تلاميذه، هذا تحقق لجماعة كبار قديماً منهم الحافظ المنذري زكي الدين عبد العظيم المنذري هذا عمر في مصر ومات أقرانه ومات تلاميذ أقرانه فما بقي له ابن عم في العلم وما بقي إلا تلاميذه و تلاميذ تلاميذه. هذا تحقق لشيخ الإسلام زكريا بن محمد الأنصاري من تلاميذ الحافظ ابن حجر وغيره، هذا أيضاً عمر نحو مائة سنة وما بقي في مصر أحد إلا وهو من تلاميذ تلاميذه، الشيخ بدر الدين عمر ثمانية وثمانين سنة ما بقي أحد في الشام إلا وهو من تلاميذه أو من تلاميذ تلاميذه ومن لم يكن من تلاميذه أصلاً كالشيخ أمين سويد انضوى تحت لوائه وحضر دروسه وصار من تلاميذه، وكذلك الشيخ شريف اليعقوبي، حتى من كان من علماء عصره أسن منه كان أسن منه بنحو عشر سنوات انضووا تحت لواء الشيخ بدر الدين واتخذوه شيخاً لهم وكانوا لا يصدرون إلا عن أمره وإشارته ويعظمونه ويقدمونه ويتتلمذون عليه هذا أدب الشيوخ وأدب الأولياء الكبار.. الآن، إذا كان الشيخ عمره ثلاثين سنة والتلميذ عمره عشرين سنة فالتلميذ يتتلمذ على الشيخ ويقرأ عليه، فإذا تقدمت بهما العمر وصار التلميذ عمره خمسين والشيخ عمره ستين صار يعد نفسه من أقرانه!!.. قديماً كان الكبير يتتلمذ على الصغير، يعني ابن الخمسين كان يتتلمذ على ابن الثلاثين ولا يستحيي.

    والآية الأخرى في الشيخ أحمد الحبال ما رأيتموه من خروج دمشق في تشييعه، مع أنه لم تكن له جماعة، الشيخ أحمد الحبال لم تكن له جماعة.. الآن الذين يربون الجماعات ويقولون للطالب ابق عندنا ولا تخرج لتحضر عند غيرنا ومن خرج يحضر عند غيرنا طرد من عندنا وأمثال ذلك.. ويتمسكون بطلابهم كتمسكهم بأرواحهم، ماهذا؟!.. قديماً كان المشايخ يقولون: هذا الخير الذي عندنا إن أحببت أن تحضر عندنا فأهلاً وسهلاً وإن وجدت عند غيرنا أفضل منه فحيهلا.. نعم من أراد أن يأخذ الأوراد لابد له أن يلتزم بآداب معينة للسلوك على المشايخ، لكن حتى هذه الآداب لا تدعوهم إلى هجران بقية المشايخ أو الانتقاص من أقدراهم وحقوقهم أو الامتناع عن التبرك بأهل العصر.. حدثني الأخ أبو الغيث ابن الشيخ عبد الرحمن الشاغوري قال: جاء مرة اثنان من الطلبة لزياة الشيخ عبد الرحمن فالأخ أبو الغيث من باب الحرص أخرج ورقة الورد وأعطاها لهما، وكان الشيخ عبد الرحمن في آخر عمره يبايع شفاهاً دون المصافحة ووضع اليد على اليد وهذا جائز، فأخرج ورقة الورد وأعطاها للاثنين كي يبايعوا الشيخ لأخذ الطريق، فقبل واحد منهما، وامتنع الآخر وقال: أنا أخذت الطريق على فلان وأوصاني أن لا أبايع أحداً بعده. وفلان الذي سماه هو من تلاميذ الشيخ!! قال أوصاه شيخه أن لا يبايع أحداً وقال له متى بايعت الشيخ لا يجوز لك أن تأخذ الطريق من أحد غيره إطلاقاً ولا يجوز أن تصحب غيره ولا أن تتبرك بغيره ولا ولا ولا.. حتى منعه من التبرك بشيخ شيخه!!.. والآن من صافح الشيخ عبد الرحمن مرة ربما يبقى ذلك فخراً له إلى يوم القيامة، الآن الذي اجتمع بالشيخ بدر الدين مرة واحدة يفتخر بذلك في هذا العصر.

    فانظروا إلى أين يقود التعصب للجماعات والتنظيمات والتكثر من الأعداد و و .. الشيخ أحمد الحبال كان لا يهمه كل ذلك، فماذا كانت النتيجة؟.. خرجت دمشق كلها في جنازته بفضل الله تبارك وتعالى، هذا درس للمشايخ قبل أن يكون درساً للعامة، هو درس للمشايخ في أصول التربية، كانت هناك كتب تقرأ لم تعد تقرأ الآن، ككتب الإمام الشعراني، الإمام الشعراني رحمه الله وضع آداباً للطريق أخذها من مشايخه أخذها بالألفاظ والرواية والتخلق والمشاهدة ودوَّنها ورُزق الحظ والسعد في التدوين والتصنيف، فدون المصنفات وألف المؤلفات النفيسة، ووضع قواعد للسلوك والطريق والآداب، هذا التعصب الموجود الآن بين الجماعات هذا كله ليس من آداب التصوف ولا من آداب العلم ولا من آداب الدعوة إلى الله تبارك وتعالى.

    من هذا الباب أقول: الشيخ أحمد الحبال كان ظاهرة تكاد تكون فريدة في عصرنا، ونحن لما نتحدث عن جانب عاميته في أنه كان من العامة وخدام العلماء فصار بعد ذلك من الأولياء، أقول هذا يفتح باب الأمل لكل واحد منا أن يكون من الأولياء، لكن السر كما قلت: الصحبة، هذا هو السر، وبه نختم إن شاء الله، والحمد لله رب العالمين….

    Relation to Yaqoubi Family

    Ijaza to Sh. Muhammad al-Yaqoubi

    Shaykh Ahmad Habbal’s Ijaza to Shaykh Muhammad al-Yaqoubi
    From : seekerofthesacredknowledge

    All praise is due to Allah, Lord of the Worlds. May the salat and salutations [of Allah] be upon our liege-lord, Muhammad, as well as upon his family and companions, together.

    As for that which proceeds:

    Allah has most certainly favoured the ‘people of the prophetic household’ – the Ahl al-Bayt – with a pure attribution to the greatest of beloveds, salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa alihi wa sallam; in the same way, he has chosen the elite from amongst the scholars, in order that they may be inheritors of the Messenger [salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa alihi wa sallam], in terms of guidance and spiritual training. From amongst those who have joined between these two factors (lineage and knowledge) are our son, sayyidi ash-Shaykh al-Muhaddith, the great scholar, as-Sayyid Muhammad al-Ya’qubi, may Allah bless him. He has sought knowledge from his father, and travelled [the path] at his hands, until be became one of the people of knowledge, legal verdicts, spiritual training and guidance. We are witness to his aptitude in tasawwuf and knowledge, as well as his scrupulousness, uprightness and integrity. His father – the great scholar and knower of Allah, the spiritual upbringer and Shaykh, Ibrahim al-Ya’qubi [may Allah have mercy on him] – has authorised him, and so have others. We authorise him in that which his father authorised him, and we counsel Muslims in general and students in specific in the East and West to keep his [spiritual] company, and to take from him. We advise him to have taqwa of Allah, and to make dua for us as well as [the rest of] Muslims, privately. Our last call is ‘all praise belongs to Allah, Lord of the Worlds’.

    Photos

    Bio: Sh. Ahmad ibn  Ajiba

    Bio: Sh. Ahmad ibn Ajiba

    Sayyidi Shaykh Ahmad ibn Ajiba al-Hasani

    سيدي الشيخ أحمد ابن عجيبة الحسني
    d. 1224 H. (1809 CE) East of Tetuan

    (more…)

    Bio: Sh. Ahmad ibn ‘Uqbah al-Hadrami

    Bio: Sh. Ahmad ibn ‘Uqbah al-Hadrami

    Sayyidi Abu’l-´Abbas Ahmad b.´Uqba al-Hadrami

    الشيخ أحمد بن عُقبَة الحضرمي
    b 857 – d. 895 H. (1489 CE) in Cairo

    His Shaykh in the Shadhili Path was Sayyidi Sh. Yahya al-Qadiri (from the Wafa’i Masters).
    He passed on the Tariqa to Sayyidi Sh. Ahmad Zarruq.
    – may Allah sanctify their secrets
     

    English

    Sidi Abu’l-‘Abbas al-Hadrami
    (d. 895/1489)
    From: Kuhin: Tabaqat Al-Shadhiliyyah Al-Kubra, translated by Ahmad Ali al-Adani as “Biographies of Prominent Shadhilis”

    He is the proof of gnostics, the shaykh of those who have arrived, the imam of instruction, and the mentor of worshippers and ascetics. He is the qutb and ghawth who was endowed with the faculty of disposal in matters, the member of the supreme circle, the imam of imams, and the succour of this Community. He is the great saint and renowned luminary, Sidi Taj ad-Din Abu’l-´Abbas Ahmad b. ´Uqba al-Hadrami al-Yamani al-Wafa’i, may Allah Most High purify his lofty secret.

    He conjoined between law and ultimate reality, and was a person of tremendous spiritual unveiling [kashf]. Magnificent wonders and splendid norm-breaking occurances came to pass for him. He was from the folk of the impregnable secret and the ghawth of his age, disposing over all existent.

    His birth took place in the land of Hadramawt. He moved to Cairo in Egypt and took it up as his place of residence. He acquired knowledge of the Sufi path and received the lights of ultimate reality from his guide and mentor Sidi Mawlay al-Sharif Abu al-Siyadat Yahya al-Qadiri b. Wafa b. Sayyidi Shihab al-Din Ahmad b. Wafa, the son of the great qutb Sidi Abu’l-Tadani Muhammad Wafa.

    Sayyidi Yahya, the noble scion [sharif] was from those regaled with divine bounty in abundance, and enjoyed acceptance by the elite and the commonality, clearly articulating and making plain what lay in the loci of intellection and comprehension. He was endowed with a Muhammadi station. Sayyidi Yahya — may Allah be pleased with him and may He please him — passed away on Wednesday, 8 Rabi’ II 857 H., and was buried next to his brother in the section reserved for his ancestors, our masters Banu al-Wafa. O Allah, benefit us by them and make us actualize the truth by following them submissively.

    After Sidi Abu’l-´Abbas had taken the path from his spiritual guide, a mystical illumination was granted to him. As a result, people approached him and sought blessing by sitting in his presence. His followers multiplied and his benefit spread.

    He was wont to attend the circles of knowledge of scholars, and they, in turn, attended his, until he became the peerless savant of his age, in knowledge and action, and in Word and spiritual state alike.

    What occured to his disciple, Sidi Ahmad Zarruq, is an example of the momentuous events and intuitions that transpired fort he shaykh. It took place when Sidi Ahmad Zarruq arrived from Morocco. Our master Abu’l-‘Abbas said to his students, ‘Let us go to Bulaq [1] to meet your Moroccan brother’, to which they then set out and arrived at marina. There, they saw Ustadh Ahmad Zarruq alighting from the boat he had travelled on, and who then met with our master Abu’l-‘Abbas. He informed the latter of what had occured to him in the company pf ‘Abdullah al-Makki. [2] Our master Abu’l-‘Abbas said to him: ‘What you received from him was fine; there is no harm in that.’ He then took Sidi Ahmad Zarruq with him to Cairo, instructed him in knowledge of Sufi covenants and litanies, and entered him into the solitary retreat [khalwa]. Sidi Ahmad remained therein for a number of days until our master Abu’l-‘Abbas, while sitting in a circle of instruction with his disciples, stretched our his hand and screamed. He then instructed his students, saying, ‘Go to your Moroccan brother, since the blind serpent has caused the solitary retreat to crush down on him.’ (He said this is a reference to ‘Abdullah al-Makki, who was a blind man.) His students hastened to the place our master Zarruq’s retreat, and found the debris [of the building] upon him. They took him out safely from under the building, with nothing harmful befalling him by the permission of Allah Most High. The hand of our master Abu’l-‘Abbas, however, broke in the process. He said to Zarruq, ‘Allah rescued you from this blind bane, and he no longer has any authority ober you.’ Our master ‘Abdullah al-Makki had in fact stretched out his hand to dispose of our master Ahamad Zarruq from the city of Fez, out of his jealous attachment [ghayra] to him, and consequently wrecked the solitary retreat for him. Allah, however, delivered him through the blessing of our liege Abu’l-‘Abbas, and guarded him from his former guide.

    Many other saintly miracles and astonishing spiritual unveilings sprung forth from him.

    Our master Abu’l-´Abbas al-Hadrami – may Allah be well satisfied with him – died in Cairo sometime after AH 800, and was laid to rest in the greater Shadhili graveyard. O Allah, support us and our dear ones by his spiritual sustentation and benefit us through him and his secrets, amin.


    Footnotes:

    [1] It is an area in Cairo, still known in our days by that name. It appears from the context of the speech that in that age it was regarded as being situated somewhere outside the city of Cairo itself as it was then known and understood.
    [2] He was the one responsible for overseeing and guiding Zarruq’s incipient steps in Sufism, back in Morocco. In other narrations of this story, which have slight variances, his former guide is called Muhammad al-Zaytuni. See Muhammad bin ‘Askar’s Dawrat al-Nashir.

    عربي

    1. From Kuhin: Tabaqat al-Shadhiliyya
    2. From msobieh.com

    1. From Kuhin: Tabaqat al-Shadhiliyya View book | Download | Read chapter [31] online

    [31] سيدي أبو العباس الحضرمي (…- 857)

    حجة العارفين، وشيخ الواصلين، إمام الإرشاد، وشيخ العباد والزهاد، القطب الغوث، المتصرف صاحب الدائرة الكبرى، إمام الأئمة، وغوث الأمة، الولي الكبير، والعلم الشهير سيدي تاج الدين أبو العباس أحمد بن عقبة الحضرمي اليمني الشاذلي الوفائي قدّس سره العالي.

    كان رضى الله عنه جامعًا بين الشريعة والحقيقة، وكان من أهل الكشف الكبير، وله وقائع عظيمة، وخوارق عادات جسيمة، وكان من أهل السر المصون، وكان في زمنه غوثًا متصرفًا في جميع الموجودات.
    مولده رضى الله عنه ببلاد حضرموت، وقدم مصر، فاستوطنها، وأخذ الطريقة، وتلقى أنوار الحقيقة عن شيخه ومربيه سيدي ومولاي الشريف أبو السيادات يحيى القادري بن وفا ابن سيدي شهاب الدين أحمد بن وفا بن القطب الكبير سيدي أبي التداني محمد وفا رضى الله عنه. وكان الشريف سيدي يحيى من ذوي الفضل الكبير، وكان له القبول الحسن عند الخاص والعام، معربًا عما في الأفهام، محمدي المقام.

    وتوفي رضي الله عنه وأرضاه يوم الأربعاء ثامن ربيع الآخر سنة سبع وخمسين وثمان مئة، ودفن بمشهد أسلافه ساداتنا بني الوفا، بجانب أخيه، اللهم انفعنا بهم، وحققنا بالتبعية لهم.

    وبعد أخذ سيدي أبو العباس رضى الله عنه الطريقة على شيخه المذكور فتح عليه، فأقبلت الناس إليه، وتبركوا بالجلوس بين يديه، وكثرت أتباعه وعم انتفاعه.

    وكان يحضر مجالس العلماء، وتحضر العلماء مجلسه، حتى صار أوحد زمانه علمًا وعملًا، وحالًا ومقالًا.

    ومن وقائعه العظيمة واقعته وكشفه في الواقعة التي حصلت لتلميذه سيدنا أحمد زروق رضى الله عنه، وذلك أن سيدنا أحمد زروق لما قدم من المغرب الأقصى، قال سيدنا أبو العباس لتلامذته: انزلوا بنا إلى بولاق؛ لملاقاة أخيكم المغربي. فنزلوا إلى بولاق، فأتوا إلى موضع مرسى المراكب، وإذا بسيدنا الأستاذ أحمد زروق نازلٌ من المركب، فاجتمع بمولانا أبي العباس، وأخبره بما وقع له مع مولانا عبد الله المكي، وما جرى له معه، فقال له سيدنا أبو العباس: لا بأس عليك منه، وأخذه معه إلى القاهرة، ولقنه العهود والأوراد، وأدخله الخلوة، فمكث أيامًا في الخلوة، وإذا بسيدنا أبو العباس كان جالسًا في حلقة من أصحابه، فمد يده، وصاح، وقال لتلامذته: امشوا لأخيكم المغربي؛ فإن الحية العمياء قد هدت عليه الخلوة، وقد كان مولانا عبد الله المكي هذا ضريرًا، فمشوا إلى الخلوة التي كان فيها مولانا زروق، فوجدوها مطبوقة عليه، فأخرجوه من تحت البناء سالمًا ما أصابه شيء بإذن الله تعالى، ويد مولانا أبي العباس قد انكسرت، فقال له: قد نجاك الله من هذه الآفة العمياء، ولم يبق له عليك تسلط، وقد كان مولانا أبو عبد الله المكي مد يده ليتصرف في مولانا زروق من مدينة فاس غيرةً منه، فهدم عليه الخلوة، فنجاه الله ببركة سيدنا أبي العباس، وحفظه منه.

    وله كرامات رضى الله عنه كثيرة، ومكاشفات عجيبة.

    توفي مولانا أبو العباس الحضرمي رضى الله عنه بمصر بعد الثمان مئة، ودفن بالقرافة الشاذلية الكبرى. اللهم أمدنا وأحبتنا بمدده، وانفعنا به وبأسراره. آمين.



    2. From msobieh.com

    سيدى أبو العباس الحضرمى
    ( … – 857 )

    فى زيارة لمقابر المماليك بصحراء العباسية عثرت على مدفن صغير داخل مسجد وخانقاه ومدرسة السلطان برقون
    وهو على يسار صحن المسجد من الداخل تجد قبتين كبيرة القبة التى على اليسار وفيها ثلاثة رجال أحدهما السلطان برقوق
    وولدية ثم علىة اليسار للداخل الى هذا القبر تجد قبر صغير وهو قبر سيدى أبو العباس الحضرمى رضى الله عنه
    والذى ذكره جدى النسابة حسن قاسم فى كتابه

    حجة العارفين ، وشيخ الواصلين ، إمام الإرشاد ، وشيخ العباد ، والزهاد ن القطب الغوث ، المتصوف صاحب الدائرة الكبرى ، إمام الأئمة وغوث الأمة ، الولى الكبير ، والعلم الشهير ، سيدى تاج الدين أبو العباس أحمد بن عقبة الحضرمى اليمنى الشاذلى الوفائى قدس الله سره العالى .

    كان رضى الله عنه جامعا بين الشريعة والحقيقة وكان من اهل الكشف الكبير ، وله وقائع عظيمة ، وخوارق عادات جسيمة ، وكان من أهل السر المصون وكان فى زمنه غوثا متصوفا فى جميع الموجودات .

    مولده : رضى الله عنه ببلاد حضرموت ، وقدم مصر ، فاستوطنها ، وأخذ الطريقة ، وتلقى أنوار الحقيقة عن شيخه ومربيه سيدى ومولاى الشريف أبو السيادات يحيى القادرى بن وفا بن سيدى شهاب الدين أحمد بن وفا بن القطب الكبير سيدى أبى التدانى محمد وفا رضى الله عنهم وكان الشريف سيدى يحيى من ذوى الفضل الكبير ، وكان له القبول الحسن عند الخاص والعام ، معربا عما فى الافهام ، محمدى المقام .

    توفى رضى الله عنه وارضاه يوم الأربعاء ثامن ربيع الآخر سنة سبع وخمسين وثمان مئة ودفن بمشهد أسلافه ساداتنا بنى الوفا بجانب أخيه ، اللم انفعنا بهم وحققنا بالتبعية لهم .

    وبعد أخذ سيدى أبوالعباس رضى الله عنه الطريقة على شيخه المذكور فتح عليه ، فأقبلت الناس إليه ، وتبركوا بالجلوس بين يدية ، وكثرت أتباعه وعم انتفاعه .
    وكان يحضر مجالس العلماء ، وتحضر العلماء مجلسه حتى صار أوحد زمانه علما وعملا وحالا ومقالا .

    ومن وقائعه العظيمة واقعته وكشفه فى الواقعة التى حصلت لتلميذه سيدنا أحمد زروق رضى الله عنه وذلك أن سيدنا أحمد زروق لما قدم من المغرب الأقصى ، قال سيدنا ابو العباس لتلاميذته : أنزلوا بنا إلى بولاق ، لملاقاة أخيكم المغربى ، فنزلوا إلى بولاق ، فأتوا إلى موضع مرسى المراكب ، وإذا بسيدنا الأستاذ أحمد زروق نازل من المركب ، فاجتمع بمولانا أبى العباس وأخبره بما وقع له مع مولانا عبد الله المكى ، ما جرى له معه ، فقال له سيدنا أبو العباس ك لا بأس عليك منه ، واخذه معه إلى القاهرة ، ولقنه العهود والأوراد ، وأدخله الخلوة فمكث أياما فى الخلوة وإذا بسيدنا أبو العباس كان جالسا فى حلقة من أصحابه فمد يده ، وصاح ، وقال لتلامذته : أمشوا لأخيكم المغربى ، فإن الحية العمياء قد هدت عليه الخلوة ، وقد كان مولانا عبد الله ا لمالكى هذا ضريرا ، فمشوا الى الخلوة التى كان فيها مولانا زروق ، فوجدوها مطبوقة عليه ، فأخرجوه من تحت البناء ، سالما ما أصابه شىء بإذن الله تعالى ، ويد مولانا أبى العباس قد انكسرت ، فقال له : قد نجاك الله من هذه الآفة العمياء ، ولم يبق له عليك تسلط وقد كان مولانا أبو عبد الله المكى مد يده لتصبرف فى مولانا زروق من مدينة فاس غيرة منه ، فهدم عليه الخلوة ، فنجاه الله ببركة سيدنا أبو العباس وحفظه الله .
    وله كرامات رضى الله عنه كثيرة ومكاشفات عديبة

    توفى رضى الله عنه مولانا أبو العباس الحضرمى بمصر بعد الثمان مئة ودفن بالقرافة الشاذلية الكبرى ، الله أمدنا وأحبنا بمدده ، وانفعنال به وبأسراره ، آمين يارب العالمين

    Photos

    Ziyarat znk 2023

    Map

    Book

    Manaqib
    Manaqib
     
    الأصول البديعة والجوامع الرفيعة
    تأليف أبي العباس أحمد بن زروق الفاسي المتوفى سنة 899هـ؛
    تحقيق محمد عبد القادر نصار.

    Book by Imam Ahmad Zarruq: Manaqib al-Hadrami
    about his Shaikh, Sayyidi Ahmad b. ‘Uqbah al-Hadrami
    Series: السلسلة الزروقية؛ 4.
    Publisher: القاهرة: دارة الكرز، 2008
    Edition: ط1.
    Description: 95ص؛ 24×17سم.
    ISBN: 978-977-462-016-4.
    Ref: Bookinfo | Darat al-Karaz, Twitter

    Bio: Sh. Badr al-Din al-Hasani

    Bio: Sh. Badr al-Din al-Hasani

    Shaykh Badr al-Din al-Hasani

    محدث الشام الأكبرالشيخ محمد بدر الدين بن يوسف الحسني المغربي الاصل الدمشقي
    b. 1267 – d. 1354 H in Damascus (1850-1935 CE)
    qaddasa Allah sirrahu

    .


    “The muhaddith of Sham” – one of the last great memorisers of hadith. This Hanafi master had a photographic memory and used it to his utmost ability. He lived a life of ascetic worship and teaching, with a handful of students receiving his full devotion.
     

    Bio English

    “The greatest muhaddith” – All scholars and shaikhs of Syria accepted him as their teacher, and those living in Damascus used to attend his daily lessons. He had a photographic memory. Knew by heart all the hadeeths of Bukhaari, Muslim, and the remainder of the six most famous books of Hadeeth, including the biography of all narrators of all chains of every hadeeth, their dates of birth and decease, and their status of authenticity. Also, he used to explain the Qur’aan by heart from al Baydaawi’s Tafseer (explanation of the Qur’aan). His ijaazah was especially besought by Hadeeth scholars for being the closest one of his age to the Prophet Salla’l Laahu `Alaihi Wa Sallam (counting the number of men in the chain). Doctors and engineers who attended his classes used to say: We exhausted our life learning our profession, and he knows it more than us. He was also instrumental in the organization of the revolution against the French occupation.

    One of the great scholars, Badruddin Al-Hasani (who was a master of hadith), from the city of Damascus, who died in this age, at every ‘Eid, he would go out, and he would give his students charity from his own pocket, and there were places, particularly in the colonialism era, where there were a lot of women that were impoverished and forced into prostitution to support themselves, and he would tell his student to give those prostitutes charity, and he would say to them, “Tell them that Badruddin Al-Hasani asked you to make du’ah (supplication) for him.” And those women would weep when they heard that: “Who are we to make du’ah for Badruddin Al-Hasani?.” There were people who repented because of that act.

    The following are quoted from Al Durar Al Lu’lu’iyyah by Shaikh Mahmood al Rankoosi (pp. 9, 13, 28) who was his special student for the last twelve years of his life:
    “He knew Saheeh Muslim and Bukhaari by heart, including individual chains of narrators and their biographies. It is not improbable that he also knew by heart their commentaries from “Fath Al Baari”, al `Ayni and al Nawawi.

    Egypt’s Mufti Shaikh Muhammad Bakheet said: “If he was with us in Egypt, (out of respect) scholars would carry him over their shoulders.”

    Shaikh Muhammad al Qaayaati said:”He is among the rarities of this age… We were present one night when he was reciting Saheeh Al Bukhaari. He recited more than one hour, discussing topics and explaining Hadeeth by heart.”

    The great Hadeeth scholar Abdu’l Waasi` al Yamaani said: “I have heard teachers and preachers in numerous countries but I have never seen anybody similar to him concerning his expertise in all Sciences.”

    A scholar from India said in a long biography: “He is the Qutb -pivot, pillar- of our time and the Mujaddid -renovator of religion- of our age.”

    Shaikhu’l Islam in Istanbul, Musa Kaazim Afandi said: “He is the Qutb of the Muslim world.”

    Al Sayyid al Kabeer al Kittaani al Maghribi said: “There has been no one comparable to him since five hundred years.”

    Experts in engineering and mathematics would often attend his lessons and concede his superiority in these sciences saying: “We spent all our life learning but did not reach his level.”

    عربي

    هو الشريف الشيخ ولي الله تعالى محمد بدر الدين ابن الشيخ يوسف الحسني المغربي الاصل الدمشقي محدث الديار الشامية. ولد بدمشق سنة 1267 هـ = 1850 وأخذ علومه عن والده وخاله الشيخ صالح الكزبري وغيرهما ثم رحل إلى مصر فأخذ عن جملة من علمائها. عرف بالزهد والورع والذكر اشغل وقته بالتدريس والعبادة والتأليف، توفي بدمشق سنة 1354 هـ = 1935.

    Portraits


    Sheikh Badru al-Din al-Hasani in the center of the picture, using his particular turban, with Sheikh `Ayun Suwayd

     

    Burial Place

    Buried outside the Maqbara Bab Saghir. A modern mosque with an institute is erected next to his grave. With him is buried his son Sheikh Yusuf al-Hasani (d. 1279 H), who succeded him as a head of Dar al-Hadith.


    Tomb of Sheikh Badru al-Din al-Hasani
    Photo: JK/Ziarat 2006

    Ref's

    Al-Muhaddith
    – Depending on Allah, Zaytuna Institute Paper
    Dar al-Hadith
    – Hanbali Text Society
    – Damas Cultural Society 2006

    © Damas Cultural Society 2006
     

    Bio: Sh. Dawud ibn Makhila (al-Bakhili)

    Bio: Sh. Dawud ibn Makhila (al-Bakhili)

    Sayyidi Shaykh Dawud b. Makhila (al-Bakhili) al-Shadhili

    (الباخلي) الشيخ داود بن ماخلا
    d. 732/735 H. (1331 CE) in Alexandria

    .


     
    He is Sidi Sharaf al-Din Abu Sulayman Dawud b. Makhila al-Iskandari al-Shadhili, also known as al-Bakhili. He took the Shadhili silsila from Sayyidi Shaykh IbnʿAṭā’ Allāh As-Sakandarī, and passed it on to Sayyidi Shaykh Muhammad Wafa.

    English

    Sayyidi Dawud b. Makhila (Al-Bakhili) (d. 732/1331)
    From: Kuhin: Tabaqat Al-Shadhiliyyah Al-Kubra, translated by Ahmad Ali al-Adani as “Biographies of Prominent Shadhilis”

    He is the succour of the elect, the qutb of saints, the great imam, and the illustrious scholar. He is the spiritual guide who trained novices and guided wayfarers to the Presence of the Divine. He is Sidi Sharaf al-Din Abu Sulayman Dawud b. Makhila al-Iskandari al-Shadhili, also known as al-Bakhili. [1]

    He was a scholar steeped in knowledge and was among those with far-reaching impact on matters. He had the upper hand when it came to disposal of affairs in creation.

    Despite being unlettered, he possessed mastery in both the outward and inward sciences. He authored extraordinary books, elucidating Sufi states, secrets, sciences and stations. They include ‘Uyun al-Haqa’iq and al-Latifat al-Mardiyya fi Sharh al-Du’a’ al-Shadhiliyya. He also wrote a commentary on Imam al-Shadhili’s Hizb al-Barr (also known as Al-Hizb al-Kabir – The Grand Invocation), and Hizb al-Bahr.

    At the beginning of his affair, he was a police officer who served at the governor’s residence in Alexandria. Sitting opposite the governor, the shaykh would share a gesture with him so he may infer the accused’s guilt or innocence. If he hinted that the accused was innocent, the governor would acquit him and pardon him, but if he hinted the opposite, the governor would exact retaliation against the accused and treat him accordingly.

    He was an ascetic who applied scrupulousness in matters of the din. Saints blossomed in his courtyard the way crops sprout forth from the earth. It should suffice us as an indicator to his virtues that his student was Sidi Muhammad Wafa al-Shadhili. Had nothing else been recorded in his favour, this would have been enough.

    He died in Alexandria in about AH 730 [2] His mausoleum attracts visitors. The daily prayers take place in his mosque.

    0 Allah, benefit us by love for him, and make us tread his spiritual path, amin.


    Footnotes:
    [1] See his biography in al-A’lam (2/333) and in Tabaqat al-Shadhiliyyat al-Kubra by Muhyi al-Din (p. 146).
    [2] In al-A’am (2/333) and Kashf (p. 661), the year of his death is given as AH 732.

    عربي

    1. From Imam al-Sha’rani: Al-Tabaqat al-Kubra (PDF) – View | Download
    2. From Kuhin: Tabaqat al-Shadhiliyya: View book | Download | Chapter [28] (see below)
    3. From youm7.com
    [28] الإمام الكبير سيدي داود بن ماخلا([1])
    (…- حوالي 735)

    غوثُ الأصفياء، وقطبُ الأولياء، الإمام الكبير، والعالم الشهير المُسلِّكُ مُرّبي المريدين، وموصلُ السالكين سيدي شرف الدين أبو سليمان داود بن ماخلا الإسكندري الشاذلي رضى الله عنه.
    كان من العلماء الراسخين المتمكنين، ومن أصحاب الدوائر الكُبرى، له اليد العليا في التصريف.

    وكان جامعًا بين علمي الظاهر والباطن، مع أنه كان أُمِّيًّا، وله مؤلفات عجيبة شرحَ فيها أحوالَ القوم، وتكلَّمَ على أسرارهم وعلومهم ومنازلاتهم منها كتاب «عيون الحقائق» ومنها كتاب «اللطيفة المرضية في شرح دعاء الشاذلية»، وله شرح على «حزب البر» وآخر على «حزب البحر».

    وكان رضى الله عنه في بدايته شرطيًّا ببيت الوالي بالإسكندرية، وكان يجلسُ تجاه الوالي، وبينهما إشارةٌ يفهمُ منها وقوع المُتَّهم أو براءته، فإن أشارَ إليه أن المُتَّهمَ برئٌ برَّأَهُ، وعفا عنه، وإن أشار له غير ذلك اقتصَّ منه، وعامله بما يستحقُّه.

    وكان رضى الله عنه زاهدًا ورعًا، وكانت الأولياء تنبتُ بساحته كما تُنبتُ الأرض الزَّرعَ، ويكفينا في مناقبه أنَّ تلميذه سيدي محمد وفا الشاذلي، ولو لم يكن له غيرُ ذلك لكفى.

    توفي رضى الله عنه بالإسكندرية عام نيِّفٍ وثلاثين وسبع مئة، وله مقامٌ يُزار، ومسجدٌ كبيرٌ تُقام فيه الشعائر. اللهم انفعنا بمحبته، واسلك بنا على طريقه. آمين.

    ([1]) داود بن عمر بن إبراهيم الشاذلي المالكي، أبو سليمان الإسكندري: من فقهاء المالكية، متصوف وفاته بالإسكندرية سنة 732هـ من كتبه «كشف البلاغة» و «شرح الجمل» للزجاجي، و «مختصر التلقين» [«الأعلام» (2/333)].


    From youm7.com

    الشيخ داود ماخلا … تزوج ابنة سيدى ياقوت العرش حفيدة سيدى المرسى أبو العباس، وعاش فى الإسكندرية حتى توفى سنة 733ه‍، ودفن فى هذا المكان الموجود به مسجده وتحتفل الطرق الصوفية فى 21 رمضان بمناسبة افتتاح مسجده الذى أعيد بناؤه سنة 1978 .

    Photos

    Ref: youm7.com

    Video

    Youtube: Open

    Books

    Sh. Dawud b. Makhila: “Al-Latifatu al-Mardiyya fi du’a al-Shadhiliyya
    اللطيفة المرضية بشرح دعاء الشاذلية
    شرح سيدي داود بن ماخلا على حزب البحر للإمام أبي الحسن الشاذلي رضي الله عنهما.
    وهذا الشرح اعتد به الإمام السيوطي ونقله عنه وأثنى عليه وعلى مؤلفه في رسالته في الاقتباس المثبتة بمجموع فتاواه المسمى الحاوي في الفتاوي.

    For sale at abjjad.com

    book-cover
    اللطيفة المرضية بشرح دعاء الشاذلية
    لعل هذا الكتاب هو أول الشروح المؤلفة على حزب البحر للإمام أبى الحسن الشاذلى فلا يعلم شرح سابق عليه . وهو أوسع هذه الشروح وأطولها من حيث النفس العلمى . ومؤلفه هو رابع خلفاء سيدى أبى الحسن الشاذلى إذ تلقى الطريق عن الإمام العارف ابن عطاء الله السكندرى كما أنه شيخ العارف الكبير السيد محمد وفا شيخ البيت الوفائى الشهير .

    وقد وصفه الإمام الشعرانى فى ترجمته بالعارف الكبير وهو جدير بهذا الوصف , كما يعلم من كتابه الفريد عيون الحقائق الذى سبق لنا نشره محققا لأول مرة . وقد احتوى هذا الشرح الجامع على تحقيقات علمية نادرة تشهد لمؤلفه برسوخ القدم فى العلم والمعرفة الصوفية.

    نشر سنة 2015

    Alternative edition: abjjad.com

    book-cover
    تراث شرح الأوراد الصوفية والتعليق عليها تراث في غاية الخصب والثراء، وهو كغيره من مناحي الثقافة الإسلامية الأصلية مبعث فخر للأمة المحمدية، يشهد بما في هذا الدين المشرف من حق وحقيقة ومشارع مفتوحة علي الرحمة الإلهية الإختصاصية التي لا تتيسر إلا لمن نظر الله سبحانه بعين الرضا والقبول والعناية والشمول.

    ومن بواكير هذه الشروح هذا الشرح المنير لحزب البحر الشهير، بل لعله أبكرها علي الإطلاق، هذا الشرح المنيف علي حزب سيدي أبي الحسن الشاذلي المعروف بحزب البحر، فلا يحضرني في هذا المقام أي شرح لورد من الأوراد الصوفية سابق علي هذا الشرح.

    وريادة هذا الشرح المبارك لا تقتصر علي سبقه الزماني، بل تمتد إلي سماته كتأليف من حيث عمق المعالجة للقضايا التي يطرحها نسق الحزب أو يوردها عليه المعترضون. وقد أبان فيه العلامة اللغوي النحوي الفقيه المالكي الصوفي الشاذلي الأستاذ الكبير سيدي داود بن باخلا عن نفس طويل ونظر عميق في تناول قضيتين مهمتين في الحزب مما قد يعترض به علي الحزب وقائله، وهما: قضية الاقتباس في القرآن، وقضية سؤال العصمة.
    وقد جاءت معالجة سيدي داود قدس الله سره للقضيتين من الدقة العلمية والتوسع في التحري وتلمس الأدلة بحيث إن إماماً جامعاً مثل الإمام جلال الدين السيوطي يعتمد علي كلام الإمام في فتواه في المسألة في كتابه المعروف “الحاوي للفتاوي”


    Sh. Dawud b. Makhila: “‘Uyun al-Haqa’iq“”
    عيون الحقائق

    For sale at : abjjad.com

    book-cover
    (وهو مجموعة من الأقوال الحكمية في أصول تزكية وتحلية القلب)
    تأليف داود بن عمر بن إبراهيم الباخلي الشاذلي/داود بن ماخلا (تأليف) عاصم إبراهيم الكيالي (تحقيق)

    Map

    Bio: Sh. Ibn Abi Jamra

    Bio: Sh. Ibn Abi Jamra

    Sh. `Abd Allah ibn Sa`d Ibn Abi Jamra

    سيدي الشيخ أحمد ابدوي
    d. 675 H. in Cairo, Egypt
    radiya Allah anhu

    (more…)

    Bio: Sh. Ibn `Ata Allah al-Sakandari

    Bio: Sh. Ibn `Ata Allah al-Sakandari

    Sayyidi Shaykh Ahmad Ahmad Ibn `Ata Allah as-Sakandari

    الشيخ أحمد ابن عَطاء اللهِ السَّكَنْدَري
    d. 709 H. in Cairo
    qaddasa Allah sirrahu

    .

    He was the student and successor of Abu al-`Abbas al-Mursi, i.e the second khalifa after Imam Abu al-Hasan al-Shadhili. – His successor in the The Shadhili Tariqa was Sh. Dawud al-Bakhili. – May Allah be pleased with them all.

    Sh. Ibn ´Ata Allah was one of the great sufi imams, known as a muhaddith and Maliki jurist. He was the first to spread the Shadhili teachings in writing, and he authored many famous books such as the Hikam (Aphorisms), Taj al’Arus (Refinement of the soul) and many others.

    Bio - English

    Brief Biography
    Biography from ‘The Key To Salvation’


    Brief Biography

    Ibn Ata’ Allah al-Iskandari was born in the middle of the 7th century AH/13th century CE and grew up in Alexandria during the Mamluk era. Although not much is known about his life, he had the best teachers in all branches of traditional sciences and became known as a great master of Islamic law of the Maliki School. His lifetime witnessed the great flourishing of several Sufi brotherhoods, including the Shadhiliyya, the Mawlawiyya, the Chishtiyya and the Ahmadiyya. His father was a student of Imam al-Shadhili, though it is unlikely he ever met him. Initially Ibn Ata’Allah was not so drawn to the Sufi path, preferring to concentrate his energies on jurisprudence. Yet, in spite of his early antipathies, he did become a disciple of Shaykh Abu ‘l-Abbas al-Mursi, (d. 686/1288). As his most important and principal work, the Hikam, attests, he had become a Sufi master in his own right, and was already a shaykh when al-Mursi died. He became the third great master of the Shadhiliyya order, which grew from Morocco and spread throughout North Africa and beyond. With his career as a scholar in Cairo under the Mamluks in full flourish, he died at around 60 years of age in 709 AH/ 1309 CE and was buried there in the Qarafa cemetery.



    Biographical sketch of Ibn `Ata Allah al-Sakandari taken from the introduction to Ann Koury Danner’s translation of ‘The Key To Salvation’

    Taj ad-Din Abu’l-Fadl Ahmad b.Muhammad b. Abd al-Karim b. Ata’illah as Sakandari, al-Judhami ash-Shadhili, known simply as Ibn Ata’illah as-Sakandari, was born in Alexandria, Egypt, as his family tree (nisbah) indicates, about the middle of the seventh [AH] /thirteenth [CE] century. His family were renowned Maliki scholars from the Banu Judham tribe, originally from Arabia. His grandfather, Abd al-Karim (d. 612 AH/1216 AD) had distinguished himself as an expert in Fiqh, usul (principles of jurisprudence), and Arabic, having studied under the famous Abu’l-Hasan al-Abyari. He had written several books, among which were al-Bayin wa’t-Taqrib fi Sharh at-Tahdhib, Mukhtasar at-Tahdhib, and Mukhtasar al-Mufassal, and had been very hostile to Sufism.

    On the other hand, Ibn Ata’illah’s father Muhammad (death date unknown) seems to have been of a different mind and although a Faqih (scholar), he was also the disciple of the great Sufi Shaykh Abu’l-Hasan ash-Shadhili (593-656AH/1197-1258AD), the founder of the Shadhili Sufi order.

    As a youth, Ibn Ata’illah received a traditional Islamic education in such disciplines as Qur’anic recitation, Hadith (Prophetic tradition), Tafsir (Qur’anic commentary), grammar, usul, philosophy, belles-lettres, and Fiqh (jurisprudence) under some of the best and most illustrious teachers of Alexandria, in addition no doubt, to the instruction given him by his own family.

    Ironically, in spite of his father’s attachment to the Shadhili master Abu’l-Hasan, Ibn Ata’illah was initially rather hostile to Sufism much like his grandfather, as he himself admits in his book Lata’if al-Minan, but not for any definite reason. In fact, what precipitated his meeting with Shaykh Abu’l-Abbas al-Mursi, the successor of Shaykh Abu’l-Hasan was an argument with one of al-Mursi’s disciples. Consequently, Ibn Ata’illah decided to see for himself who this man was after all, ‘a man of Truth has certain signs that cannot be hidden’. He found him holding forth on such lofty spiritual matters that he was dazzled. Ibn Ata’illah states that at that moment GOD removed whatever objections he previously had. Something had obviously touched his heart and mind, so he went home to be alone and reflect.

    That was apparently the turning point for him, for shortly thereafter Ibn Ata’illah returned to visit Shaykh Abu’l-Abbas al-Mursi who received him so warmly that he was embarrassed and humbled. Ibn Ata’illah states, ‘The first thing that I said to him was “O Master, by GOD, I love you”. Then he answered, “May GOD love you as you love me”. Then Ibn Ata’illah told him of various worries and sadness he had, so the Shaykh told him: There are four states of the servant, not five: blessings, trials, obedience, and disobedience. If you are blessed, then what GOD requires of you is thankfulness. If you are tried, then what GOD requires of you is patience. If you are obedient, then what GOD requires of you is the witnessing of His blessings upon you. If you are disobedient, then what GOD requires of you is asking forgiveness.

    After leaving Shaykh al-Mursi, he mentions that he felt that his worries and his sadness were like a garment that had been removed. From that time in 674 AH/ 1276 AD when Ibn Ata’illah was initiated into the Shadhili order until the death of Shaykh al-Mursi twelve years later, he became his devoted disciple and says that in all those years he never heard his Shaykh say anything that contradicted the Shari’a.

    What spiritual fruits he must have received cannot be known, but his development into a Sufi master capable of guiding and teaching others took place within the lifetime of his Shaykh, i.e., well within e twelve-year period before 686 AH/1288 AD. His discipline and progress in the path coupled with his great learning made him renowned as a religious authority.

    Ibn Ata’illah’s virtue, majestic presence, eloquence, and spiritual insights were such that he had many followers. He even performed miracles, some of which have been recorded, such as speaking from his grave to one Kamal ad-Din b. al-Hamam who had gone to the Shaykh’s tomb to recite Surat Hud. As a result, Ibn al-Hamam was counselled to be buried there. Another miracle attributed to Shaykh Ibn Ata’illah is his having been seen in Mecca at three different places by one of his disciples who had gone on Pilgrimage. When the latter returned, he asked if the Shaykh had left the country in his absence and was told no. Then he went to see him and Ibn Ata’illah asked him, ‘Whom did you see on this trip of yours?’ The disciple answered, ‘O Master, I saw you’. So he smiled and said, ‘The realized sage fills the universe. If he summoned the Qutb (Spiritual Pole), verily he would answer.’

    Still another miracle recorded is the story of three men on their way to attend Shaykh Ibn Ata’illah’s public lecture (majlis). One said, ‘If I were free from the family, I would become an ascetic’; the second one said, ‘I pray and fast but I do not see a speck of benefit’; and the third said, ‘Indeed, my prayers do not please me so how can they please my Lord?’ After arriving, they heard Ibn Ata’illah discourse and in their presence he said, ‘There are among people those who say…’ and he repeated their words exactly.

    Ibn Ata’illah taught at both the al-Azhar Mosque and the Mansuriyyah Madrasah in Cairo as well as privately to his disciples. However, it is not known where his Zawiyah was located.

    Shaykh Ibn ‘Ata’ Allah died at around sixty years of age in the middle of Jumada II 709 AH/November 1309 AD. As befitting an eminent and learned teacher, he died in the Mansuriyyah Madrasah. His funeral procession was witnessed by hundreds of people and he was buried in the Qarafah Cemetery in Cairo in what is today called the City of the Dead, at the foot of Jabal al-Muqattam. His tomb became famous as the site of homage, visitation, prayer, and miraculous occurrences. To this day this is still the case.

    This pious and extraordinary contemplative figure left behind a spiritual legacy no less impressive than those of his own beloved Shaykh, and the eminent founder Shaykh Abu’l-Hasan ash-Shadhili. All the biographers refer to Ibn ‘Ata’ Allah with illustrious titles and reverence and mention how marvellously he spoke and how uplifting his words were. In spite of the fact that he followed the Maliki madhbab, the Shafi’is laid claim to him, most probably because some of his earlier teachers had been Shafi’i scholars, not to mention some of his students.

    Hence, his disciples could only be all the more devoted in their attachment to and love for him. Of the untold numbers of followers that Shaykh Ibn Ata’ Allah had, both in Cairo, Alexandria, and elsewhere, only very few names are known. That is, doubtless, due to the fact that the Shadhilis did not advocate withdrawing from the world or wearing special clothing to distinguish themselves. They were ‘in the world but not of the world’, so to speak.

    Español

    Uno de los grandes imams sufies, también conocido por ser muhaddiz, imam y jurista Maliki, Abu al-Fadl Ibn `Ata Allah al-Iskandari (d. 709) es el autor de al-Hikam (Aforismos), Miftah al-falah (La llave del éxito), al-Qasd al-mujarrad fi ma`rifat al-ism al-mufrad (El objetivo puro del conocimiento del Nombre Único), Taÿ al-`arus al-hawi li tadzhib al-nufus (Lo mejor al respecto de la corrección de las almas), `Unwan al-tawfiq fi adab al-tariq (El signo del éxito relacionado con la disciplina del camino), el libro biográfico Lata’if fi manaqib Abi al-`Abbas al-Mursi wa shayjihi Abi al-Hasan (Las sutiles gracias en las vidas santas de Abu al-‘Abbas al-Mursi y su maestro Abu al-Hasan al-Shadzili), y otros. Fue discípulo de Abu al-`Abbas al-Mursi (d. 686) y el segundo sucesor del fundador Sufi, el Imam Abu al-Hasan al-Shadzili.

    عربي

    t.b.d.

    Video

    Youtube: Open

    Books

    He authored many books among them:

    Al-Hikam – The Aphorisms – الحكم العطائية على لسان أهل الطريقة – on this site

    Lata’if al-Minan – لطائف المنن – on this site
    Lata’if fi manaqib Abi al-`Abbas al-Mursi wa shaykhihi Abi al-Hasan (translated as “The subtle blessings in the saintly lives of Abu al-`Abbas al-Mursi and his master Abu al-Hasan al-Shadhili”)

    Kitab al-Tanwiron this site

    Taj al-‘Arus – تاج العروس – Arabic – on this site
    Taj al-`arus al-hawi li tadhhib al-nufus (“The bride’s crown containing the discipline of souls”)

    Miftah al-Falah – مفتاح الفلاح – The key to success – on this site

    Al Qasd al-Mujarrad – القصد المجرد في الاسم المفرد – Arabic Maktaba Madbuli
    Al-Qasd al-mujarrad fi ma`rifat al-ism al-mufrad (“The pure goal concerning knowledge of the Unique Name”)

    ‘Unwan al-Tawfiq – عنوان التوفيق في آداب الطريق – Arabic View PDF
    `Unwan al-tawfiq fi adab al-tariq (“The sign of success concerning the discipline of the path”)

    ● and many others.

    Burial Place

    Ibn `Ata Allah is buried in the Qarafah Cemetery in Cairo.

    Refs

    © Damas Cultural Society 2007 — Latest update: 2009-05-04
    Original site: damas-original.nur.nu
    Categories: 🞄 🞄 Mediatype: 🞄 🞄 Tags: 🞄 Post type: page 🞄 🞄

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