Archives: Books

Article | The Spiritual Guide

Article | The Spiritual Guide

The Importance of the Spiritual Guide (Murshid)

Translated & adapted by Waseem Ahmed
From Al-Mawsū’ah al-Yūsufiyyah by Shaykh Yusuf Khattar


Bio: ‘Amr ibn al-‘As | عمرو بن العاص

Bio: 'Amr ibn al-'As  | عمرو بن العاص

‘Amr ibn al-‘As

عمرو بن العاص
b. in Makka – d. 43 H. in Cairo, Egypt
radiya Allah anhu


Bio: Abu al-Bayan

Bio: Abu al-Bayan

Abu al-Bayan

أبو البيان نبأ بن محمد بن محفوظ القرشي الدمشقي
d. 551 H. in Damascus
radiya Allah anhu

Nabâ ibn Muhammad ibn Mahfûzh al-Qurashi al-Dimashqi
Scholar of language and fiqh, murshid. He used to study shafi`i fiqh together with Sheikh Rislan in a mosque in the grand suq near Bab Sharqi.

Buried in Bab al-Saghir.

References: Ziarat al-Sham

© Damas Cultural Society 2007 — Latest update:
Original site:

Bio: Abu al-Ma`ali al-Nisaburi

Bio: Abu al-Ma`ali al-Nisaburi

Abu al-Ma`ali al-Nisaburi

أبو المعالي النيسابوري
d. 578
radiya Allah anhu

أبو المعالي نسعود بن محمد بن مسعود النيسابوري
orator, preacher, shafi`i scholar, lived in damascus, buried in the sufi graveyard

References: [Ziarat al-Sham p.334-5] – Damas Cultural Society © 2007

Bio: Abu Ayyub al Ansari

Bio: Abu Ayyub al Ansari

Abu Ayyub al Ansari

أبو أيوب الأنصاري
d.54 H. (674 CE) in Constantinopel (Istanbul)
Sahabi - radiya Allah anhu


Bio: Abu Nu’aym Al-Asbahani

Bio: Abu Nu'aym Al-Asbahani

Abu Nu`aym Al-Asbahani

أبو نعيم الأصبهاني
b. 336 – d. 430
radiya Allah anhu


Bio: Abu Shayba al Khudri

Bio: Abu Shayba al Khudri

Abu Shayba al Khudri

أبو شيبة الخدري
d. 49 H. in Istanbul, Turkey (670 CE) sahabi
radiya Allah anhu


Bio: Al-Harith al-Muhasibi

Bio: Al-Harith al-Muhasibi

Al-Harith al-Muhasibi

أبو عبد الله الحارث بن أسد البغدادي المحاسبي
b. 165 H. in Basrah – d. 243 H. in Baghdad
may Allah be pleased with him


Bio: Al-Layth ibn Sa’d | الإمام الليث بن سعد

Bio: Al-Layth ibn Sa'd | الإمام الليث بن سعد

Imam Al-Layth ibn Sa'd

الإمام الليث بن سعد
b. 94 - d. 175 H. in Cairo
tabi'i, Shaykh of the Imams Bukhari and Muslim may Allah be pleased with him

السلام عليك يا إمام الليث يا إمام مع الأئمة الأربة يا فقيه الأمة عامة وفقيه مصر خاصة يا إمام المحدثين رحمة الله وبركاته عليك
Peace be upon you O Imam Al-Layth, o Imam at the rank of the four Imams, o scholar of fiqh of the Ummah in general and of Egypt in particular, o Imam of the hadith narrators, may Allah have mercy on you bless you!



Al-Layth ibn Saʿd ibn ʿAbd al-Raḥmān al-Fahmī al-Qalqashandī (Arabic: الليث بن سعد بن عبد الرحمن الفهمي القلقشندي) was the chief representative, imam, and eponym of the Laythi school of Islamic Jurisprudence. He was regarded as the main representative of an Egyptian tradition of law. Imam al-Shafi’i used to say that he was more learned in fiqh than Imam Malik, however his students did not write down his teachings.

When Imam al-Shafi’i came to Egypt and visited Imam al-Layth’s grave, he said, “Your eminence is from Allah O Imam! You attained four characteristics—knowledge, [good] deeds, asceticism, and generosity—no scholar has attained all four of them.”

It is confirmed that Imams al-Layth and Malik were contemporaries and that they both devoted themselves to studying hadiths and jurisprudence; they were almost equal in scholarship. They exchanged letters whose subject matter focused on hadiths, jurisprudence, and edicts. Malik’s letter to al-Layth on jurisprudence is well known and al-Layth replied with a longer letter. Imam Malik’s letter is the epitome of scholarly dialogue between two of the great jurists and scholars of the Islamic community.

The letter shows that these two great jurists considered the opinions of the people during the time of Abu Bakr, Umar, and Uthman, may Allah be pleased with them, tantamount to consensus and must not be contended. Moreover, it demonstrates that it is not possible for those who come after them to change or alter what these Companions agreed upon.


wiki (1)
wiki (2)
شيخ الاسلام الامام الحافظ العالم ابو الحارث الليث بن سعد بن عبد الرحمن الفهمي القلقشندى (94 هـ/713 م – 175 هـ/791 م) كان فقيه و محدث و امام اهل مصر فى زمانه, و صاحب واحد من المذاهب الاسلاميه المندثره, اتولد فى قريه قلقشنده فى مصر, و اسرته اصلها فارسى من اصبهان.

كان واحد من اشهر الفقهاء فى زمانه, فاق فى علمه و فقهه امام المدينه المنوره مالك بن انس, بس تلامذته ما دونوش علمه و فقهه و لا نشروه زى تلامذة الامام مالك, و كان الامام الشافعى بيقول: «الليث افقه من مالك الا ان اصحابه لم يقوموا به». كان عنده من العلم و الفقه الشرعى اللى خلا متولى مصر و قاضيها و ناظرها يرجع لرايه و مشورته. اتعرف بانه كان كتير الاتصال بمجالس العلم, قال ابن بكير: «سمعت الليث يقول: سمعت بمكه سنه 3 عشره ومائه من الزهري وانا ابن عشرين سنه».


Photos taken by Bruce Allardice 2021-2022 (flickr)

Google map pictures


Bio: Dihya al-Kalbi

Bio: Dihya al-Kalbi

Dihya al-Kalbi

(sahabi d. 45 H. in Damascus)
radiya Allah anhu

He was one of the Companions of the Prophet (s), whose form Jibril (s) would adopt when he appeared as a person, and who carried the Prophet’s letter to the Roman emperor.

Burial Place

Buried in the graveyard of Mezzah


Ziarat al-Sham

© Damas Cultural Society 2007 — Latest update: 2009-03-22
Original site:

Bio: Habib ibn al-`Ajami

Bio: Habib ibn al-`Ajami

Sayyidi Habib ibn Mohammad al-‘Ajami

d. in Baghdad

Habib ibn Mohammad al-‘Ajami al-Basri, a Persian settled at Basra, was a noted hadith narrator who transmitted from al-Hasan al-Basri, Ibn Sirrin, and other authorities. His conversion from a life of ease and self-indulgence was brought about by al-Hasan’s eloquence; he was a frequent attendant at his lectures, and became one of his closest associates.


Bio: Imam Ahmad Raza Khan

Bio: Imam Ahmad Raza Khan

Imam Ahmad Raza Khan

d. 1340 H. (1921 CE.) in Bareilly, India

Imam Ahmad Raza Khan
By Mohammad Monawwar Ateeq

Imam Ahmad Raza Khan (d.1921), conventionally known as a leader of the twentieth century Ahl-e Sunnat wa Jama’at tradition (people of the Sunna and the majority) to its followers and to others as the Barewli Movement, was an alim and sufi in British India. He was born a year before the civil and military revolt of 1857 and was traditionally educated by his father, Mufti Naqi Ali Khan (d.1880) at home in Bareilly, under whom he completed the Dars-e Nizami syllabus studying a range of twenty-one Islamic sciences by the age of thirteen. He studied with other teachers too and traces intellectual links to the three centers of Islamic learning in India; Lakhnouw, Khayrabad and Dehli.1 In his licenses and Isnad certificates to the scholars of Makkah and Madinah in 1905, he put on record to have pursued an extensive spectrum of twenty eight sciences alone. He authored works in more or less everything he studied2 some of which received compliments from leading Sunni scholars of Hijaz, Yemen, Syria and Egypt.

Imam Ahmad Raza occupied most of his time in writing responses to people seeking guidance in religious, social, moral and political affairs which absorbed him to the very end of his life producing a bulky fatawa compendium in the Hanafi Law, now fully edited and indexed in thirty-three over sized volumes.4 He was an authoritative author, gifted scholar of classical Islamic sciences both the rational (ma’qulat) and transmitted sciences (manqulat) offering original contributions in nearly every field he studied, phenomenal Arabist, distinguished Mufti, a genius in the pantheon of great thinkers and recognized as a maker of the Muslim world5. He never wavered from supporting the Sunni doctrines and remained mindful of the positions of his elders as he was not just a scholar of Law but also a committed student of a Sufi father and devout murid of the Barakatiyya Sayyids of Marahra, who followed the Qadiri path.

Bio: Imam al-Awza´i

Bio: Imam al-Awza´i

`Abd al-Rahman ibn `Amr ibn Yuhmad Abu `Amr al-Awza`i

الإمام عبد الرحمن الأوزاعي
b. 88 – d. 158 H. in Beirut, Libanon (707 – 744 CE) tabi´i
radiya Allah anhu

Tabi´i, faqih and muhaddith of Sham



By Dr. G.F. Haddad

`Abd al-Rahman ibn `Amr ibn Yuhmad Abu `Amr al-Awza`i (88-158), Shaykh al-Islam, the Wise Scholar of the People of Sham, one of the mujtahid imams of the Salaf along with the Four Imams, Sufyan al-Thawri, al-Tabari, Dawud al-Zahiri and others, the first – with Ibn Jurayj and Abu Hanifa – to compile the Sunna of the Prophet — Allah bless and greet him — and the Companions under fiqh subheadings. Born orphaned and poor in Ba`labak and raised in al-Kark in the Bekaa valley, he came to live in the area known as – and populated by – “the variegated tribes” (al-Awza`) in Damascus then moved to Beirut where he remained garrisoned until his death, his fame having spread to the entire Islamic world of his time. One of those who combined assiduous worship with science and the affirmation of truth, he is considered a Proof in himself (hujja) as a narrator, known for his superlative understanding of the Law, great erudition, and piety. Al-Shafi`i said: “I never saw a man whose fiqh resembled his hadith more than al-Awza`i.”1

He narrated from a host of Tabi`in, among them `Ata’ ibn Abi Rabah, Abu Ja`far al-Baqir, `Amr ibn Shu`ayb, Makhul – whom he surpassed in knowledge, – Qatada, Rabi`a ibn Yazid al-Qasir, Bilal ibn Sa`d, al-Zuhri, Yahya ibn Abi Kathir – his first shaykh,- `Abd al-Rahman ibn al-Qasim, `Ata’ al-Khurasani, `Ikrima, `Alqama, Ibn al-Munkadir, al-Walid ibn Hisham, Muhammad ibn Sirin, Nafi` – Ibn `Umar’s freedman – and many others. From him narrated his two shaykhs al-Zuhri and Yahya ibn Abi Kathir, Shu`ba, al-Thawri, Malik, Sa`id ibn `Abd al-`Aziz, Isma`il ibn `Ayyash, Baqiyya, Yahya al-Qattan, and many others.

Al-`Abbas ibn al-Walid said: I never saw my father admire anything in the world as much as he admired al-Awza`i. He used to exclaim about him: “Glory to You! You do what You wish.” O my son! Kings are powerless to discipline themselves and their own children the way that al-Awza`i disciplined himself. I never in my life heard him say an excellent word except the listener was bound to observe that it applied to him. Nor did I ever see him laugh without restraint. Whenever he addressed the subject of our return to our Maker, I would say to myself: I wonder, is there one heart in this gathering that is not weeping?

Al-Hiql said: “Al-Awza`i gave replies covering about seventy thousand issues.” `Abd al-Rahman ibn Mahdi said: “The People (al-nas) in their time were four: Hammad ibn Zayd in al-Basra, al-Thawri in al-Kufa, Malik in al-Hijaz, and al-Awza`i in al-Sham.”2 Isma`il ibn `Ayyash said: “I heard people say, in the year 140, that in our day the wise scholar of the Umma is al-Awza`i.” When the latter came to Mecca, Sufyan al-Thawri walked ahead of him shouting: “Open the way for the Shaykh!” Malik compared the two saying: “One of them [Sufyan] is more knowledgeable than the other, but is not fit to be the Imam [i.e. the Caliph], while the other [al-Awza`i] is.” This was also the opinion of al-Fazari, `Ali ibn Bakkar, and Ibn al-Mubarak.

He was fearless in telling the truth to princes. After massacring the Banu Umayya, the harsh king `Abd Allah ibn `Ali – al-Saffah’s uncle – summoned him and asked him in front of his court: “What is your opinion of what we have done?” Al-Awza`i related: “I thought to myself and decided to tell him the truth, bracing for certain death. I narrated to him the hadith: `Actions are only according to intentions.’3 He said: `What do you say about our killing the people of that dynasty?’ I narrated to him the hadith: `Killing a Muslim is forbidden except in three cases: adultery after marriage, apostasy after Islam, and unlawful manslaughter.’4 He continued: `Tell me about the caliphate, is it not our inheritance as stipulated by the Prophet — Allah bless and greet him?’ I replied: `Had this been the case, `Ali – Allah be well-pleased with him – would have never left anyone come before him.’ He said: `But what do we say about the treasury of the Banu Umayya?’ I replied: `If they were licit to them, they are illicit to you, and if they were illicit to them, they are even more illicit to you.'”

Al-Awza`i did not rise from his place of morning prayer until sunrise, and the sun did not pass the zenith except he was seen standing in prayer. Al-Walid ibn Mazyad said: “No-one surpassed him in intensity of worship.”Among his sayings:

* Marwan al-Tatari said that al-Awza`i said: “Whoever stands in prayer at night at length, Allah shall make the station of the Day of Resurrection easy for him.”

* Al-Walid ibn Muslim and `Abd Allah ibn al-Mubarak related that al-Awza`i said: “This science was noble, men would transmit it to one another, but when it spread to books, those other than its rightful custodians became involved with it.”5

* “Whoever holds on to the rare and unusual positions of the scholars has left Islam.” This is similar to Ibn `Abd al-Salam’s saying: “There is no good in one who over-maneuvers (yatahayyal) so as to impose his doctrine despite its weakness and the fact that his evidence is far removed from the truth – whether he interprets the Sunna, or the Consensus, or the Book – standing on bases that are neither right nor true, through corrupt figurative interpretations and rare responses.”6

* “The Book stands in greater need to the Sunna than the Sunna to the Book.” Ibn `Abd al-Barr said: “That is because the Sunna expounds the meaning of the Book (and not vice versa).”7

* Al-Walid ibn Mazyad said that al-Awza`i, asked about humility (khushu`) in prayer, replied: “Downcast gaze, lowering the wing of submission, and softness of heart which is sorrow and dread.” He also said: “I saw al-Awza`i, he was like a blind man due to his humility.”

* Al-Walid heard al-Awza`i define the naïve (al-ablah) as “he who is in blind ignorance of evil but acutely discerning of goodness.”

* “Whoever remembers death much, a little suffices him for livelihood; and whoever realizes that his utterances are counted as deeds, his speech becomes spare.”

* `Abd Allah ibn Ahmad narrated from al-Hasan ibn `Abd al-`Aziz from `Amr ibn Abi Salama al-Tinnisi that al-Awza`i said: “I saw myself as if carried up by two angels who camped me in front of the Lord of Power and Might. He said to me: `Are you my servant `Abd al-Rahman who commands good deeds?’ I replied: `By Your Power and Might! You know best.’ Then they descended again and brought me back where I first was.”

Among al-Awza`i’s notable rulings is that the thigh is part of a man’s legal nakedness in the mosque, but not in the bath.8

Muhammad ibn `Abd al-Rahman al-Sulami said: “I saw al-Awza`i, he was of above-average build, slim, somewhat swarthy, and he used henna.” He used to wear a round turban without a hanging extremity (`adhaba). Al-Dhahabi said: “In addition to his brilliance in the science and his foremost rank in works, he was also a master in the art of writing letters.” Four communities attended his funeral in Beirut: the Muslims carried his bier, followed by the Jews, the Christians, and the Copts. Yazid ibn Madh`ur said: “I saw al-Awza`i in my sleep and asked him: `Show me a level by which to draw near to Allah.’ He replied: `I did not see a level higher than that of the wise scholars of knowledge (al-`ulama’), and, after it, that of the grief-stricken (al-mahzunin).'” SAN 7:86-104 #1049.

1 A reference to al-Awza`i’s faithful application of his knowledge in his life.

2 This is a notable example of the use of al-nas to mean the major ulamas.

3 Narrated from `Umar by Bukhari and Muslim.

4 Narrated from Ibn Mas`ud by Bukhari, Muslim, and in the Four Sunan; from `Uthman by al-Tirmidhi (hasan), al-Nasa’i, Ibn Majah, Ahmad, al-Hakim (4:350), al-Shafi`i in his Musnad, al-Bazzar in his Musnad; and from `A’isha by Abu Dawud. See al-Bayhaqi’s Kitab al-Murtadd in Ma`rifa al-Sunan (12:237-258).

5 This statement refers to the books which are passed on for circulation as in modern times, not to those used by the early narrators as mnemonic records when narrating. It is established that early hadith narrators did not narrate except from record, as demonstrated by M.M. Azami and others. ‘Abd Allah ibn Ahmad ibn Hanbal said: “I never saw my father narrate except from a book, save less than a hundred hadiths.” In al-Dhahabi, Siyar A`lam al-Nubala’ (9:457). The best source on the proof-texts for this fact is al-Khatib al-Baghdadi’s book Taqyid al-‘Ilm (“The Tethering of Knowledge”). This title is taken from Anas’s saying: “Tether knowledge with writing” (qayyidu al-‘ilma bi al-kitab). Anas also said: “We would not consider as knowledge the knowledge of those who did not write down their knowledge.” Taqyid (p. 96-97). See also al-Hakim al-Tirmidhi’s chapter entitled “Writing is the means to tether knowledge and preserve it from oblivion” in his Nawadir al-Usul (p. 39-41).

6 Ibn `Abd al-Salam, Al-Qawa`id al-Sughra (p. 144).

7 Narrated by al-Darimi and others and cited by Ibn `Abd al-Barr in Jami` Bayan al-`Ilm (2:1193-1194 #2351). and al-Shatibi in al-Muwafaqat (Salafiyya ed. 1343 4:10).

8 The rulings of the Four Schools agree that the definition of “nakedness” (`awra) for a man is all that is above the knees and below the navel front and back whether in public or private. Among the proofs for this is the Prophet’s — Allah bless and greet him — saying: “The [man’s] thigh is nakedness.” Narrated from Jarhad al-Aslami, `Ali, and Muhammad ibn Jahsh – with three sound chains according to al-Arna’ut – by Abu Dawud, Ibn Majah, Ahmad, Malik, al-Hakim (4:180-181), Abu Ya`la in his Musnad (#331), al-Tahawi in Sharh Mushkil al-Athar (4:401-406 #1697, #1699, #1700, #1704), al-Baghawi in Sharh al-Sunna (9:21-22), Ibn Hibban in his Sahih (4:609-611), and others. Al-Tahawi said in Sharh Ma`ani al-Athar (1:474): “Mass-narrated, sound reports from the Prophet — Allah bless and greet him — have reached us that the thigh is nakedness.” Al-Kattani cited it in Nazm al-Mutanathir.

Copyright As-Sunna Foundation of America




From wiki
الإمام عبد الرحمن الأوزاعي

الإمام الحافظ إمام بيروت وسائر الشَّام والمغرب والأندلُس أبو عمرو عبدُ الرحمٰن بن عمرو بن يُحمد الأوزاعي، فقيه ومُحدّث وأحد تابعي التابعين وإمام أهل الشام في زمانه. أُضيف إلى ألقابه لقب إمام العيش المُشترك في لُبنان في العصر الحديث، لِما مثَّلته مواقفه في عصره من تسامح مع المسيحيين واليهود من أهل الشَّام، ولُقِّب بِشفيع النصارى لِموقفه الحازم في مُواجهة والي الشَّام والخليفة العبَّاسي أبو جعفر المنصور، اللذان عزما على إجلاء أهالي جبل لبنان المسيحيين بعد أن ثارت جماعة منهم وتمرَّدت على العبَّاسيين وشقَّت عصا الطاعة، فرفض الأوزاعي إجلاء هؤلاء كُلُّهم طالما أنَّ فئةً منهم فقط كانت من ثارت، ووقف بوجه الخِلافة بِعناد مُذكرًا أهل السُلطة بالعدل بين الناس وأنَّ خطأ فئة لا يستوجب مُعاقبة الجماعة، فأُبطل هذا القرار، وسلم أهالي جبل لُبنان من تعسُّف السُلطة، وحفظوا لِلأوزاعي جميله.[1]

على الأرجح وُلد الأوزاعي في بعلبك، وعاش فترة من صباه في قرية الكرك البقاعيَّة يتيمًا فقيرًا، ثُمَّ انتقل مع أُمِّه إلى بيروت. وكان قبل ذلك قد عاش مع عائلته في دمشق، وتنقَّل بين حلب وحماة وقنسرين وسواها. أُطلق عليه اسم «الأوزاعي» نسبةً إلى «الأوزاع» وهي قبيلة يمنيَّة حميريَّة من بطن ذي الكلاع من قحطان. نزل أفرادٌ منها في دمشق قرب باب الفراديس، وقد أُطلق على المنطقة التي نزلوا فيها اسم قرية «الأوزاع». لم يذكر المُؤرخون والفُقهاء والعُلماء شيئًا عن والد الإمام الأوزاعي باستثناء ما أشار إليه الإمام نفسه، ولا عن والدته أو أخواله، غير أنَّهم أشاروا إلى أنَّ كان له عمٌّ واحد، والثَّابت أنَّهُ تزوَّج أكثر من مرَّة، ورُزق بِثلاث بنات وصبيٍّ واحد، وكان له حفيدين من بناته بِحسب الظاهر.[2]

عاش الأوزاعي في عهدين سياسيين هامين، فشهد نهاية الدولة الأموية وقيام الدولة العباسية، وعاصر من الخُلفاء: الوليد بن عبد الملك، وسليمان بن عبد الملك، وعمر بن عبد العزيز، ويزيد بن عبد الملك، وهشام بن عبد الملك، والوليد بن يزيد، ويزيد بن الوليد، وإبراهيم بن الوليد، ومروان بن محمد، وأبو العباس السفاح، وأبو جعفر المنصور. وكانت الفترة التي عاشها الإمام الأوزاعي تزخر بِالعلم والعُلماء والفُقهاء والقُرَّاء والمُحدثين، ومن أبرز عُلماء تلك الفترة الأئمَّة: مالك بن أنس، وجعفر الصادق، وسفيان الثوري، والحسن البصري، ومحمد بن سيرين، وأبو حنيفة النعمان، والليث بن سعد، وسواهم. وكان الأوزاعي من المُتفوقين علميًّا وفقهيًّا وجُرأةً على الكثير من عُلماء عصره، وقد أفتى وهو في الثالثة عشرة من عمره في مسائل فقهيَّة، بينما أفتى وهو في السابعة عشرة من عمره في مسائل عقائديَّة. وكان الأوزاعي مؤمنًا أشد الإيمان بالقاعدة الإسلامية «الرحلة في طلب العلم»، لذا تنقل في مُدن الشَّام وفي اليمامة والبصرة والمدينة المنورة وبيت المقدس، وحجَّ أكثر من مرة، لِذلك فقد تعمَّق في العُلوم الدينيَّة والشرعيَّة بِشكلٍ لافتٍ لِلنظر. أمَّا فيما يختص بالقضاء فقد رفض الأوزاعي منصب القضاء في العصرين الأُموي والعبَّاسي، فلمَّا وُلي زمن يزيد بن الوليد جلس مجلسًا واحدًا ثُمَّ استعفى، إيمانًا منه بِأنَّ القضاء مسؤوليَّة إسلاميَّة ضخمة لا يُمكن لِأي إنسان أن يتحمَّل وزر مسؤوليَّتها.[3]

وكان الأوزاعي من كبار الأئمَّة المُدافعين عن الإسلام والسُنَّة النبويَّة، لا سيَّما في فترة تزايد البدع والجدل والانحراف عن القُرآن والسُنَّة،[4] كما كان حريصًا على الجهاد والرباط والدفاع عن المظلومين وعن الحق، وكان استقراره في ثغر بيروت بدافع الرباط ورد الاعتداءات عن ديار الإسلام، وكانت الفترة التي قضاها في بيروت أكثر سني حياته المُنتجة والغزيرة، ففيها طوَّر مذهبه، وانتشر في كافَّة أنحاء الشَّام وانتقل إلى المغرب والأندلُس، لِيكون خامس مذاهب أهل السنة والجماعة، لكن لم يُكتب لمذهبه البقاء، فاندثر بعد أن لم يهتم تلامذته بتدوينه والحفاظ عليه، فحل مكانه المذهب الحنفي والشافعي في الشَّام والمالكي في المغرب والأندلس. توفي الأوزاعي في بيروت سنة 157 هـ، وكانت جنازته كبيرة وقيل أن من شارك فيها من المسيحيين واليهود كان أكثر ممن شارك من المسلمين، وأنَّ قسمًا من هؤلاء أشهر إسلامه يومها. دُفن الأوزاعي في قرية «حنتوس» جنوب بيروت، وشُيِّد على قبره مقام ومسجد عُرف بِمسجد الإمام الأوزاعي، ومع مُرور السنوات تغيَّر اسم القرية حتَّى أصبحت تُعرف بـ«الأوزاعي»، وشكَّلت جُزء من بيروت الكُبرى مع مرور الزمن.

تقديرًا لإنجازات الإمام الأوزاعي ورمزيَّته في بيروت، أُنشأت كُليَّة لِلدراسات الإسلاميَّة في المدينة سُميت على اسمه: كُليَّة الإمام الأوزاعي لِلدراسات الإسلاميَّة، وتمَّ إصدار طابع بريدي تذكاري سنة 2009م عن وزارة الاتصالات في لُبنان بعد موافقة مجلس الوزراء، وتبنَّت بلديَّة بيروت اقتراح المؤرخ الدكتور حسان حلاق بتسمية ساحة سوق الطويلة في وسط بيروت التجاري بساحة الإمام الأوزاعي، وبإعادة ترميم زاويته القائمة في ذات الساحة منذ عصره حتَّى اليوم.

Burial Place


Damas Cultural Society © 2007

Bio: Imam al-Jazuli

Bio: Imam al-Jazuli

Sayyidi Imam Muhammad b. Sulayman al-Jazuli al-Hasani al-Shadhili

الإمام الجزولي – أبو عبد الله محمد الجُزُولي السملالي الحسني الشاذلي
d. 869/870/873 H. in Marrakash
qaddasa Allah sirrahu


Bio: Imam al-Sha’rani | الإمام الشعراني

Bio: Imam al-Sha'rani | الإمام الشعراني

Sh. 'Abd al-Wahhab al-Sha'rani al-Shadhili

القطب الإمام أبو المواهب شرف الدين عبد الوهاب بن أحمد بن علي الشعراني الأنصاري الشافعي
d.973 H. (1565 CE) in Cairo
radiya Allah ‘anhu


Bio: Imam Al-Suyuti | الإمام جلال الدين السيوطي

Bio: Imam Al-Suyuti | الإمام جلال الدين السيوطي

Imam al-Suyuti

الإمام الحافظ عبد الرحمن بن أبي بكر بن محمد جلال الدين السيوطي
b. 849 in Cairo - d. 911 H. in Cairo


Bio: Imam Al-Tahawi | الإمام الطحاوي

Bio: Imam Al-Tahawi | الإمام الطحاوي

Imam Abu Ja´far al-Warraq Al-Tahawi

الإمام أبو جعفر اوراق الطحاوي
b. - d. 321 C. H. in Cairo
may Allah be pleased with him



Dr. Mahmud Sobieh

From Siyar al-A’lam View | Download
From Tarwid al-Mihan – ترويض المحن View | Download | Read online: Open | Close



• «الشفا بتعريف حقوق المصطفى – ط»
• و «الغنية – خ» في ذكر مشيخته،
• و «ترتيب المدارك وتقريب المسالك في معرفة أعلام مذهب الإمام مالك – ط» أربعة أجزاء وخامس للفهارس،
• و «شرح صحيح مسلم – خ» [ثم طُبع]  
• و «مشارق الأنوار – ط» مجلدان، في الحديث،
• و «الإلماع إلى معرفة أصول الرواية وتقييد السماع – ط» في مصطلح الحديث وكتاب في «التاريخ».

كتب المصنف بالموقع

Burial Place


Bio: Imam al-Tirmidhi

Bio: Imam al-Tirmidhi

Imam Abu ´Isa Muhammad b.´Isa al-Tirmidhi

الإمام محمد بن عيسى بن سورة الترمذي
b. 209 – d. 279 H. in … ( CE)
radiya Allah anhu

A student of Imam al-Bukhari.
Author of one of the six canonocal hadith collections


Imam Tirmidhi (209 – 279 H)

By Dr. G.F. Haddad

Imam Tirmidhi was born in the year 209 A.H. during the reign of the Abbasid Khalifa Ma’mun al-Rashid. The Abbasid Caliphate, despite its brilliant contributions to Islam, brought along with it many thorny problems. Greek Philosophy had a free flow into the Islamic world. This was fully sanctioned by the government until eventually it declared the Mu’tazila school of thought as the state religion. Anyone who opposed the Mu’tazila school of thought would be opposing the state. With the influence of Greek philosophy infiltrating within the people, many Muslims began attempting to reconcile between reason and revelation. As a result they deviated themselves and misled many innocent weak Muslims away from Allah and His Prophet (s). Many scholars of Islam had come to the fore in order to defend the Shari`ah. Forgeries and interpolations in Hadith by rulers who wished to fulfil their personal motives was common. In the first century `Umar bin Abdul `Aziz (r) initiated a movement for the compilation of the holy hadith of the the Prophet (s) as there was a fear of it being lost. Eventually this gigantic task was undertaken by six towering scholars of Islam. One of them was Imam Abu `Isa Muhammed ibn `Isa Tirmidhi

Having grown up in an environment of learning, together with possessing many great qualities naturally drove Imam Tirmidhi to dedicate his life totally towards the field of Hadith. He obtained his basic knowledge at home and later travelled to far off lands in search of this great science. He studied Hadith under great personalities such as Imam Bukhari, Imam Muslim and Imam Abu Dawud. In some narrations Imam Bukhari and Imam Muslim are his students as well.

Once Imam Bukhari mentioned to him “I have benefited more from you than you have benefitted from me.” Musa ibn `Alaq once said: “When Imam Bukhari passed away, he left no one in Khurasan who compared with Abu `Isa Tirmidhi in knowledge, memory, piety and abstinence.” According to `Abdullah ibn Muhammed Al-Ansari, Imam Tirmidhi’s Al-Jami` is more beneficial than the works of Bukhari and Muslim since their compilations can only be understood by a very deep sighted scholar whereas Al-Jami` can be understood by both the scholar and the layman.

Imam Tirmidhi said that he compiled this book and presented it to the learned of Hijaz, Iraq and Khurasan and they were pleased with it. Who ever has this book in his home, it is as though he has the Prophet (s) speaking to him there.

His remarkable memory:

Imam Tirmidhi had an exceptionally remarkable memory. If he heard something once he never forgot it. Once on his way to Makkah, Imam Tirmidhi met a scholar of hadith (muhaddith) from whom he had previously copied two chapters of hadith. Thinking that he had the notes with him he asked the scholar if he would allow him to read out these two chapters so that he could correct any errors. After realizing that he did not have those notes with him he took a blank piece of paper and read out the entire two parts from memory. When the muhaddith realized what he was doing he rebuked Imam Tirmidhi saying: “Have you no shame, why are you wasting my time.” Imam Tirmidhi assured him that he had committed all the ahadith to memory. The scholar was not convinced, even though Imam Tirmidhi had recited all the hadith from memory. Imam Tirmidhi requested him to recite to him some other hadith. The scholar recited forty ahadith which Imam Tirmidhi thenrepeated without making a single error, thus showing his remarkable power of committing hadith to memory.

Another incident has been recorded by Hakim ul-Ummat in his Al-Misk-us-Zaki, depicting the profound memory of Imam Tirmidhi. He writes:

Imam Tirmidhi had lost his sight towards the latter portion of his life. Once whilst on a journey, at a certain point he bowed his head. When asked as to why he did this, he replied: “Is there not a tree here whose branches hang over in such a manner that it harms those who are passing by.” They answered in the negative. He was quite shocked when he heard this as he distinctly remembered there being a tree and was worried as to whether his memory was failing him or not. He stopped the caravan immediately and asked his companions to enquire from the locals whether a tree had existed there or not. “If it is established that no tree existed then I will stop narrating the Hadith of the Prophet (s) due to my weak memory.” On inquiry it was shown to them that a tree had previously existed over there but due to it being a hindrance to travelers it was removed.

Imam Tirmidhi had a large number of students from all over the world. The most famous amongst them were Haysam ibn Kulaib, Abul Abbaas and Muhammed ibn Ahmed Shah Abdul `Aziz describes Imam Tirmidhi in the following words: “His memory was unique and his piety and fear of Allah ta’la was of a very high caliber. He would cry so much out of the fear of Allah, that towards the end of his life he lost his sight.”

According to Ibn Taymiyya and Shah Waliullah, Imam Timidhi was an independent Jurist (Mujtahid). Moulana Anwar Shah Kashmiri is of the opinion that he was a Shafi`i.

In the year 279 A.H. in a village called Bawag at the age of 70 , Imam Tirmidhi left this temporary abode for the everlasting life of the hereafter. May Allah swt fill his grave with light. The enormity of his sacrifices and the extent to which he served the religion can never be fully comprehended.

Many books of hadith were compiled before Imam Tirmidhi decided to compile his Al-Jami`. Dawud Tayalisi and Ahmed ibn Hanbal had compiled books consisting of both authentic and weak hadith. Later Imam Bukhari compiled his Sahih and omitted all weak narrations from it. His main objective was to derive masa’il / laws from the relevant hadith. Later Imam Muslim compiled his book with a primary focus on the isnad (different chain of narrators). Imam Nasa’i’s aim was to mention the discrepancies of the hadith whilst Abu Dawud prepared a book which became the basis for the fuqaha. Imam Tirmidhi had combined the styles of Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Dawud and Nasa’i by mentioning the discrepancies regarding the narrators and also making his compilation a basis for the jurists.

The Special characteristics of al-Jami` ut-Tirmidhi

1. It is a Sunan and a Jami`.

2. Only 83 hadith are repeated.

3. Imam Tirmidhi omits the major portion of the hadith and only mentions that part which is relevant to the heading. (title)

4. After mentioning a hadith he classifies it narration (whether it is authentic or weak, etc.)

5. He specifies the narrators names, e.g. if the narrators kunya (honorific name) was mentioned, he would then mention his proper name and vice versa.

6. One hadith in Tirmidhi is a thulaathiyaat i.e. the transmitters of the hadith betwen Imam Tirmidhi and the Prophet (s) are only three.

7. Every hadith in Tirmidhi al-Jami` is “ma’mul bihi” (practised upon by the jurists.)

8. He explains the different madhahib together with their proofs.

9. He gives an explanation to all difficult ahadith.

10. His book has been set out in an excellent sequence, hence to look for a hadith is very easy.

11. There is no fabricated hadith in the entire book.

The conditions of Imam Tirmidhi in the selection of hadith

According to the commentators of Al-Jami Imam Tirmidhi maintained the following conditions throughout the compilation of his book.

1. He never narrated hadith from those who fabricated hadith. 2. Allama Tahir Muqaddisi mentions that al-Jami` ut-Tirmidhicontains four types of hadith:

[1] Those ahadith that conform with the conditions of Bukhari and Muslim. [2] Those ahadith that conform with the conditions of Abu Dawud and Nasa’i. [3] Those ahadith that have certain discrepancies either in the sanad or matan. [4] Those weak hadith that some fuqaha have relied on.

3. Imam Tirmidhi accepts a hadith which is narrated with the word “a’n” provided both the narrators are contemporaries. 4. After mentioning a weak hadith, he explains the state of its weakness. 5. A mursal hadith is accepted by Imam Tirmidhi when it is supported by a chain of narrators which is not broken.

The status of al-Jami` ut-Tirmidhi among the six authentic books of hadith. al-Jami` ut-Tirmidhi has been categorized as fifth amongst the six most authentic books of hadith. According to the most preferred opinion, Bukhari enjoys the highest status, followed by Muslim, Abu Dawood, Nasai, Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah respectively. Haji Khalifa in al-Kashf al-Dhunoon has categorised Tirmidhi in third position. Al-Dhahabi has written that Tirmidhi in actual fact should be holding the third position, but due to him bringing weak narrators like Kalbi and Masloob its status has dropped. However, looking at the manner in which he set out his book it seems that Haji Khalifa’s opinion is best.

Some of the commentaries of Tirmidhi

{1.} ‘A’ridat-ul-Ahwazi

An Arabic compilation of Qadi Abu Bakr ibn `Arabi (r) in 7 volumes.

{2} Qut-ul Mughtazi

Compiled by Jalal ad-Din Suyuti (r).

{3} Tuhfat-ul Ahwadhi

Written by Sheikh Abdur Rahmaan Mubaarakpuri in 10 volumes. He is very critical against the Ahnaaf.

The Terminology of Imam Tirmidhi

The classification of hadith was firmly established by Ali ibn Madini (r) and later by his student Imam Bukhari (r). However Imam Tirmidhi was the first Imam to base his book on these classifications.

Imam Tirmidhi classifies most of the Ahadith and mentions its reliability. Altogether Imam Tirmidhi uses nine different terms.

1.) sahih: That hadith wherein each reporter must be trustworthy, he must have the power of retention and the sanad of the hadith must go back to Nabi (sallallahu alyhi wasallam) without any interruption, it must agree with those of other reliable reporters and there should be no hidden defect in the matan or the sanad. N.B. Imam Tirmidhi does not consider it a prerequisite that a sahih Hadith must have several chains of narrators.

2.) hasan: That hadith which does not contain a reporter accused of lying, it is not shaaz and the hadith has been reported through more than one sanad.

3.) da`eef: Such a hadith wherein the narrators are not trustworthy, or they don’t posses the ability of retaining, or there is a break in the chain of narrators, or the hadith is shaaz or mu’alall.

4.) gharib: According to Imam Tirmidhi a hadith is classified gharib for one of the following reasons..

(a) it is narrated from one chain only.

(b) there is some addition in the text.

(c) it is narrated through various chains of transmitters but having within one of its chains an addition in the sanad.

5.) hasan gharib: These two can be combined. i.e. hasan refers to the uprighteousness of the narrators whilst gharib implies that he is alone in transmitting the hadith.

6.) sahih gharib: This term implies that the hadith is authentic but there is only one sanad.

7.) hasan sahih gharib: This hadith is hasan since it has several chains of transmitters, it is sahih as the chains are all authentic and it is gharib in the words that Imam Tirmidhi narrated.

8.) hasan sahih: This term has caused much confusion amongst the Muhadditheen since hasan is lower in rank than sahih. While sahih indicates to the excellent retention power of a narrator, hasan indicates to a deficiency in this regard hence it seems that both are opposites and is not possible to reconcile. The mutaqaddimeen have given many explanations to this :

[1] Ibn Hajar (r) has mentioned that the word “aw” is omitted hence the hadith will be either hasan or sahih. [2] Ibn Salah is of the opinion that when a hadith is reported with two sanads, one should be considered as hasan and the other as sahih. [3] Ibn Kathir says that Imam Tirmidhi has made up a new term which implies the hadith to be higher than hasan but lower than sahih. [4] Ibn Daqiq ul `Eid is of this opinion that sahih and hasan are not opposites. Rather they belong to the same category. However hasan will be considered as inferior to sahih hence they both can be combined. This opinion has been given most preference by the Muhadditheen.


By the third century A.H. a number of collections on hadith were compiled. Imam Tirmidhi was one of those scholars who contributed greatly towards this field of hadith. In this modern age the world at large is deeply indebted to Imam Tirmidhi for his compilation of hadith. May Allah swt make it possible for all of us to benefit tremendously from this priceless collection of hadith.





Burial Place

Muhammad ibn `Isa at-Tirmidhi was born during the reign of the Abbasid caliph al-Ma’mun. His year of birth has been reported as 209 AH (824/825).

Imam al-TIrmidhi died on Monday night, 13 Rajab 279 AH (Sunday night, 8 October 892) in Bugh. He is buried on the outskirts of Sherobod, a 60 kilometers north of Termez in Uzbekistan. [wiki]

Bio: Mawlay Idris II – The Founder of Fas

Bio: Mawlay Idris II - The Founder of Fas

Moulay Idris II – Founder of the City of Fas

سيدنا ومولانا إدريس الأزهر  
b. 157 H. – d. 213 H. in Fas


Bio: Nur al-Din b. Zanki

Bio: Nur al-Din b. Zanki

Nur al-Din b. Zanki

b. 511 – d. 579 in Daamascus
radiya Allah anhu
– السلطان أبو القاسم نور الدين محمود ين أبي سعيد(أبو سعد) زنكي بن سيف الدين –

Just ruler of Damscus, first in history ot build a Dar al-hadith, gave many books as waqf, built schools and mosques and institueted many awqaf, loved and honored the pple of din; strong in warfare, a good archer, he would only consume out of wealth he gained by buisineness or spoils of war according to what the `ulema deemd lawful; he forbade wide under his rule, known for his justice and rightousness, rebuilt the city walls and fortresses of all Sham: Aleppo and Hums and Hama and Damascus and other places; build several hospitals, the most famous one in Damascus, which was institueted as waqf, and where rich and poor were attended to; and he made Daria (a village in the Ghuta west of Damascus) a waqf for poor Muslims. [Ziarat al-Sham p. 27-28, quoting Ibn Khaldun] He was buried in the city wall of Damascus, later his remains were moved to a madrasa he had built for the Hanafis on the Westersn side of (الخواصين أو الخوامين، معروف الآن بسعق الخياطين وكان يعرف بسوق الآخصاصين)ـ
[Ziarat al-Sham p. 29]

© Damas Cultural Society 2007 — Latest update:
Original site:

Bio: Qadi ´Iyad

Bio: Qadi ´Iyad

Qadi ´Iyad

القاضي عياض بن موسى بن عياض اليحصبي
b. 476 – d. 544 H. in Marrakesh (1083 – 1149 CE)
may Allah be pleased with him


From dar-sirr
Among the great Moroccan influential advocates of the cult of the Holy Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) is the Patron Saint of Marrakech Sidi al-Qadi Abul Fadl Iyyad ibn Musa al-Yahsubi al-Sabti al-Maghribi (d. 544/1129), the premier Hadith scholar of the late Almoravid period and qadi al-jama’a of the cities of Granada and Sabta (“current occupied Ceuta, may Allah turn it to Dar al-Islam). A famous adage, of whom it was said, “Were it not for Iyyad Morocco would not have been mentioned,” the Qadi’s most famous work, Kitab Shifa bita’rif huquq al-Mustapha (The Antidote in knowing the rights of the Chosen Prophet), is a tradition based treatise that promotes the veneration of the Chieftain of the Universe, the Reason of Existence, the Seal of Prophethood and Messengership, Sidna Mohammed ibn Abdellah (peace and blessing be upon him) as the universal archetype of humanity. Al-Qadi Iyyad portrays the Holy Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) as a mortal man who was blessed with superhuman qualities. Although he acknowledges that the Holy Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) had human limitations, he restricts these to the Prophet’s outward or bodily aspects alone. With respect to his inner qualities, the Prophet had more in common with the divine than with other of his species. This is proven of Qadi Iyyad by the Prophet’s enjoyment of divine protection and his freedom from major sins and weaknesses. For al-Qadi Iyyad, Holy Prophet’s al-qudwa al-‘hasana (beautiful example) is a paradigm for religious and nonreligious behaviour alike. Thus the Prophet’s actions exemplifies the best of human undertakings: “the best manner of living, the most efficacious teaching, the most useful knowledge, and the finest of personal attributes”. Since many of these qualities pertain to the prophet’s inborn nature and cannot be duplicated by other human beings, al-Qadi Iyyad urges his readers to instead immolate Sidna Mohammed’s acquired virtues, such as his generosity, forebearness, bravery, good fellowship, moral standards, justice, asceticism, and God-consciousness.


From Siyar al-A’lam View | Download
From Tarwid al-Mihan – ترويض المحن View | Download | Read online: Open | Close

From shamela

عياض بن موسى بن عياض بن عمرون اليحصبي السبتي، أبو الفضل: عالم المغرب وإمام أهل الحديث في وقته.
كان من أعلم الناس بكلام العرب وأنسابهم وأيامهم. ولي قضاء سبتة، ومولده فيها، ثم قضاء غرناطة.
وتوفي بمراكش مسموما، قيل: سمه يهودي.

وجمع المقري سيرته وأخباره في كتاب «أزهار الرياض في أخبار القاضي عياض – ط» ثلاثة مجلدات من أربعة و «الإعلام بحدود قواعد الإسلام – ط» و «شرح حديث أم زرع – خ» جزء لطيف، في خزانة الرباط (1857 كتاني) والظاهرية بدمشق.


Books on shamela
من تصانيفه
• «الشفا بتعريف حقوق المصطفى – ط»
• و «الغنية – خ» في ذكر مشيخته،
• و «ترتيب المدارك وتقريب المسالك في معرفة أعلام مذهب الإمام مالك – ط» أربعة أجزاء وخامس للفهارس،
• و «شرح صحيح مسلم – خ» [ثم طُبع]  
• و «مشارق الأنوار – ط» مجلدان، في الحديث،
• و «الإلماع إلى معرفة أصول الرواية وتقييد السماع – ط» في مصطلح الحديث وكتاب في «التاريخ».

كتب المصنف بالموقع

  1. الشفا بتعريف حقوق المصطفى – وحاشية الشمني
  2. الإلماع إلى معرفة أصول الرواية وتقييد السماع
  3. مشارق الأنوار على صحاح الآثار
  4. التنبيهات المستنبطة على الكتب المدونة والمختلطة
  5. الشفا بتعريف حقوق المصطفى – محذوف الأسانيد
  6. الغنية في شيوخ القاضي عياض
  7. ترتيب المدارك وتقريب المسالك
  8. إكمال المعلم بفوائد مسلم

Burial Place



Bio: Salman al-Farisi

Bio: Salman al-Farisi

Salman al-Farisi

d. 33/35 H. in Madina Munawwara
radiya Allah anhu



Hadith from Shamail

Hadith from Shamail al-Tirmidhi


1. From Abdul Wahid Hamid: “Companions of The Prophet”
2. From

1. From Abdul Wahid Hamid: “Companions of The Prophet”, Vol.1
View on

This is a story of a seeker of Truth, the story of Salman the Persian, gleaned, to begin with, from his own words:

I grew up in the town of Isfahan in Persia in the village of Jayyan. My father was the Dihqan or chief of the village. He was the richest person there and had the biggest house.

Since I was a child my father loved me, more than he loved any other. As time went by his love for me became so strong and overpowering that he feared to lose me or have anything happen to me. So he kept me at home, a veritable prisoner, in the same way that young girls were kept.

I became devoted to the Magian religion so much so that I attained the position of custodian of the fire which we worshipped. My duty was to see that the flames of the fire remained burning and that it did not go out for a single hour, day or night.

My father had a vast estate which yielded an abundant supply of crops. He himself looked after the estate and the harvest. One day he was very busy with his duties as dihqan in the village and he said to me:

“My son, as you see, I am too busy to go out to the estate now. Go and look after matters there for me today.”

On my way to the estate, I passed a Christian church and the voices at prayer attracted my attention. I did not know anything about Christianity or about the followers of any other religion throughout the time my father kept me in the house away from people. When I heard the voices of the Christians I entered the church to see what they were doing.

I was impressed by their manner of praying and felt drawn to their religion. “By God,” I said, “this is better than ours. I shall not leave them until the sun sets.”

I asked and was told that the Christian religion originated in AshSham (Greater Syria). I did not go to my father’s estate that day and at night, I returned home. My father met me and asked what I had done. I told him about my meeting with the Christians and how I was impressed by their religion. He was dismayed and said:

“My son, there is nothing good in that religion. Your religion and the religion of your forefathers is better.”

“No, their religion is better than ours,” I insisted.

My father became upset and afraid that I would leave our religion. So he kept me locked up in the house and put a chain on my feet. I managed however to send a message to the Christians asking them to inform me of any caravan going to Syria. Before long they got in touch with me and told me that a caravan was headed for Syria. I managed to unfetter myself and in disguise accompanied the caravan to Syria. There, I asked who was the leading person in the Christian religion and was directed to the bishop of the church. I went up to him and said:

“I want to become a Christian and would like to attach myself to your service, learn from you and pray with you.”

The bishop agreed and I entered the church in his service. I soon found out, however, that the man was corrupt. He would order his followers to give money in chanty while holding out the promise of blessings to them. When they gave anything to spend in the way oRGod however, he would hoard it for himself and not give anything to the poor or needy. In this way he amassed a vast quantity of gold. When the bishop died and the Christians gathered to bury him, I told them of his corrupt practices and, at their request, showed them where he kept their donations. When they saw the large jars filled with gold and silver they said.

“By God, we shall not bury him.” They nailed him on a cross and threw stones at him.

I continued in the service of the person who replaced him. The new bishop was an ascetic who longed for the Hereafter and engaged in worship day and night. I was greatly devoted to him and spent a long time in his company.

(After his death, Salman attached himself to various Christian religious figures, in Mosul, Nisibis and elsewhere. The last one had told him about the appearance of a Prophet in the land of the Arabs who would have a reputation for strict honesty, one who would accept a gift but would never consume charity (sadaqah) for himself. Salman continues his story.)

A group of Arab leaders from the Kalb tribe passed through Ammuriyah and I asked them to take me with them to the land of the Arabs in return for whatever money I had. They agreed and I paid them. When we reached Wadi al-Qura (a place between Madinah and Syria), they broke their agreement and sold me to a Jew. I worked as a servant for him but eventually he sold me to a nephew of his belonging to the tribe of Banu Qurayzah. This nephew took me with him to Yathrib, the city of palm groves, which is how th e Christian at Ammuriyah had described it.

At that time the Prophet was inviting his people in Makkah to Islam but I did not hear anything about him then because of the harsh duties which slavery imposed upon me.

When the Prophet reached Yathrib after his hijrah from Makkah, I was in fact at the top of a palm tree belonging to my master doing some work. My master was sitting under the tree. A nephew of his came up and said:

“May God declare war on the Aws and the Khazraj (the two main Arab tribes of Yathrib). By God, they are now gathering at Quba to meet a man who has today come from Makkah and who claims he is a Prophet.” I felt hot flushes as soon as I heard these words and I began to shiver so violently that I was afraid that I might fall on my master. I quickly got down from the tree and spoke to my master’s nephew. “What did you say? Repeat the news for me.”

My mastcr was very angry and gave me a terrible blow. “What does this matter to you? Go back to what you were doing,” he shouted.

That evening, I took some dates that I had gathered and went to the place where the Prophet had alighted. I went up to him and said:

“I have heard that you are a righteous man and that you have companions with you who are strangers and are in need. Here is something from me as sadaqah. I see that you are more deserving of it than others.”

The Prophet ordered his companions to eat but he himself did not eat of it.

I gathered some more dates and when the Prophet left Quba for Madinah I went to him and said: “I noticed that you did not eat of the sadaqah I gave. This however is a gift for you.” Of this gift of dates, both he and his companions ate.

The strict honesty of the Prophet was one of the characteristics that led Salman to believe in him and accept Islam.

Salman was released from slavery by the Prophet who paid his Jewish slave-owner a stipulated price and who himself planted an agreed number of date palms to secure his manumission. After accepting Islam, Salman would say when asked whose son he was:

“I am Salman, the son of Islam from the children of Adam.”

Salman was to play an important role in the struggles of the growing Muslim state. At the battle of Khandaq, he proved to be an innovator in military strategy. He suggested digging a ditch or khandaq around Madinah to keep the Quraysh army at bay. When Abu Sufyan, the leader of the Makkans, saw the ditch, he said, “This strategem has not been employed by the Arabs before.”

Salman became known as “Salman the Good”. He was a scholar who lived a rough and ascetic life. He had one cloak which he wore and on which he slept. He would not seek the shelter of a roof but stayed under a tree or against a wall. A man once said to him: “Shall I not build you a house in which to live?” “I have no need of a house,” he replied.

The man persisted and said, “I know the type of house that would suit you.” “Describe it to me,” said Salman.

“I shall build you a house which if you stand up in it, its roof will hurt your head and if you stretch your legs the wall will hurt them.”

Later, as a govenor of al-Mada’in (Ctesiphon) near Baghdad, Salman received a stipend of five thousand dirhams. This he would distribute as sadaqah. He lived from the work of his own hands. When some people came to Mada’in and saw him working in the palm groves, they said, “You are the amir here and your sustenance is guaranteed and you do this work!”

“I like to eat from the work of my own hands,” he replied. Salman however was not extreme in his asceticism. It is related that he once visited Abu ad-Dardaa with whom the Prophet had joined him in brotherhood. He found Abu adDardaa’s wife in a miserable state and he asked, “What is the matter with you.”

“Your brother has no need of anything in this world*” she replied.

When Abu ad-Dardaa came, he welcomed Salman and gave him food. Salman told him to eat but Abu adDardaa said, “I am fasting.”

“I swear to you that I shall not eat until you eat also.”

Salman spent the night there as well. During the night, Abu ad-Dardaa got up but Salman got hold of him and said:

“O Abu ad-Dardaa, your Lord has a right over you. Your family have a right over you and your body has a right over you. Give to each its due.”

In the morning, they prayed together and then went out to meet the Prophet, peace be upon him. The Prophet supported Salman in what he had said.

As a scholar, Salman was noted for his vast knowledge and wisdom. Ali said of him that he was like Luqman the Wise. And Ka’b al-Ahbar said: “Salman is stuffed with knowledge and wisdomÑan ocean that does not dry up.” Salman had a knowledge of both the Christian scriptures and the Qur’an in addition to his earlier knowledge of the Zoroastrian religion. Salman in fact translated parts of the Qur’an into Persian during the life-time of the Prophet. He was thus the first person to translate the Qur’an into a foreign language.

Salman, because of the influential household in which he grew up, might easily have been a major figure in the sprawling Persian Empire of his time. His search for truth however led him, even before the Prophet had appeared, to renounce a comfortable and affluent life and even to suffer the indignities of slavery. According to the most reliable account, he died in the year thirty five after the hijrah, during the caliphate of Uthman, at Ctesiphon.

Burial Place & Location

Mosque of Salman al-Farisi, Ghazwa-e-Khandak Site, Madina Munawwara

Photo sources: 1, Featured

Masjid Salman al-Farisi (Arabic: مسجد سلمان الفارسي) is part of a group of mosques known as al-Masajid al-Sab’a (Arabic: المساجد السبعة) or The Seven Mosques, located north-west of the Haram.

Map – Geotag Icon Show on overview map


Bio: Sh. Abd al-‘Aziz al-Dabbagh

The Knowledge of Shaykh Abdul Aziz Dabbagh |  Sh. Hamza Yusuf

Sayyidi Shaykh Abd al-‘Aziz al-Dabbagh al-Hasani

الشيخ مولانا عبد العزيز الدباغ
b 1095 – d. 1131 H. (1718 CE) in Fas


Bio: Sh. Abul Mawahib al-Shadhili | الشيخ أبو المواهب الشاذلي

Bio: Sh. Abul Mawahib al-Shadhili | الشيخ أبو المواهب الشاذلي

Sh. Abul Mawahib al-Shadhili

الشيخ أبو عبد الله محمد أبو المواهب التونسي الشاذلي الوفائي
d. 881 H. (? after 850) in Cairo


Bio: Sh. Ahmad ibn Ajiba

Bio: Sh. Ahmad ibn  Ajiba

Sayyidi Shaykh Ahmad ibn Ajiba al-Hasani

سيدي الشيخ أحمد ابن عجيبة الحسني
d. 1224 H. (1809 CE) East of Tetuan


Bio: Sh. Ibrahim al-Desuqi al-Husayni

Bio: Sh. Ibrahim al-Desuqi al-Husayni

Shaykh Ibrahim al-Desuqi al-Husayni

الشيخ سيدي إبراهيم الدسوقي
b – d. 675 H. (… CE) in Tanta
From the companions of Imam Abul Hasan al-Shadhili
may Allah be pleased with them


Bio: Sh. Izz al-Din ibn ‘Abd al-Salam | سيدي عز الدين بن عبد السلام

Bio: Sh. Izz al-Din ibn 'Abd al-Salam | سيدي عز الدين بن عبد السلام

Sh. Izz al-Din ibn 'Abd al-Salam

الشيخ عز الدين بن عبد السلام
b. in Damascus 577 H. – d. 660 H. in Cairo, Egypt
radiya Allah anhu


Bio: Sh. Muhammad Abul Yusr `Abidin al-Husayni

Bio: Sh. Muhammad Abul Yusr `Abidin al-Husayni

Al-Sayyid al-Sheikh Muhammad Abul Yusr `Abidin al-Husayni

الشريف الشيخ محمد أبو اليسر بن محمد عابدين الحسيني
b. 1307 – d. 1401 H. in Damascus (1889–1981 CE)
radiya Allah anhu


Bio: Sh. Muhammad Amin `Abidin (Ibn `Abidin)

Bio: Sh. Muhammad Amin `Abidin (Ibn `Abidin)

Al-Sayyid al-Sheikh Muhammad Amin`Abidin al-Hanafi al-Husayni

سيدي الشيخ محمد أمين بن عمر بن عبد العزيز عابدين الحنفي الحسيني الدمشقي
b. – d. 1252 H. in Damascus
radiya Allah anhu


Author the Hashya, known as Ibn ´Abidin

Abidin family tree and lineage

Lineage of `Umar ‘Abidin:

He was `Umar
b. `Abd al-`Aziz b. Ahmad
b. `Abd al-Rahim
b. Muhammad Salih al-Din (known as Ibn `Abidin because of his rightousness)
b. Najm al-Din b. Muhammad
b. Kamal b. Taqi al-Din (al-mudarris)
b. Mustafa b. Husayn b. Rahmatu Allahal-Thani b. Qasim
b. Hasan
b. Isma’il (the first of them who came to Damascus, became the leader of the guild of ashraf in 330 H. ),
b. Husayn al-Thalith,
b. Ahmad b. al-Khamis
b. Isma’il al-Thani
b. Muhammad
b. Isma’il al-A`raj
b. al-Imam Ja`far al-Sadiq
b. al-Imam Muhammad al-Baqir
b. al-Imam `Ali Zayn al-`Abidin
b. al-Imam al-Husayn
b. Sayyidina `Ali & Sayyidatina Fatima radia Allah `anhum.

Burial Place

Burial place of Sheikh Muhammad Amin ‘Abidin (author of the Hashia, d. 1252 H), Bab Saghir, Damascus
(Photo: bmk/ziarat 2009)

Notes & Refs

© Damas Cultural Society 2007 — Latest update: 2008-October-13
Original site: <a href="

Bio: Sh. Muhammad ibn Habib al-Buzidi

Bio: Sh. Muhammad ibn Habib al-Buzidi

Sayyidi Shaykh Muhammad Ibn al-Habib Al-Buzidi

الشيخ محمد بن حبيب البوزيدي, سيدي محمد بن الحبيب بن عبد الله بن أحمد
b. 1239 – d. 1327 H. in Mustaghanim, Algeria (1824-1909 CE)






Article on wiki, see also

محمد بن حبيب البوزيديهو سيدي محمد بن الحبيب بن عبد الله بن أحمد بن زيدان بن الصغير بن الجيلالي بن عبّو بن عبد الله بن أحمد بن أمحمد بن عبد الرحمن بن علي بن عبد المالك بن إبراهيم بن عامر بن عثمان بن إسحاق بن علي بن سيدي بوزيد الغوث (دفين آفلو وإليه ينسب لقب العائلة البوزيدية) بن علي بن المهدي بن سفيان بن يسّار بن موسى بن عيسى بن محمد بن موسى بن سليمان بن موسى بن محمد بن عيسى بن إدريس الأصغر بن إدريس الأكبر بن عبد الله الكامل بن الحسن المثنى بن سيدنا الحسن السبط بن سيدنا علي بن أبي طالب وسيدتنا فاطمة الزهراء بنت سيدنا النبي محمد رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم.




Bio: Sh. Muhammad ibn Hasan ibn Hamza Zhafir al-Madani

Bio: Sh. Muhammad ibn Hasan ibn Hamza Zhafir al-Madani

Shaykh Muhammad ibn Hasan ibn Hamza Zhafir al-Madani

الشيخ محمد بن حسن ظافر بن حمزة ظافر
b. in al-Madina al-Munawwara – d. 1262 H. in Misrata (Libya)
qaddasa Allah sirrahu

He took the noble Shadhili Tariqa from Sayyidi Shaykh ‘Arabi al-Dirqawi al-Hasani.
He passed the path on to Sayyidi Shaykh Muhammad ibn Mas‘ud al-Fasi
May Allah be pleased with all of them

From Al-Futuhat

From: Tabaqat al-Shadhiliyya al-Kubra by al-Hasan al-Kuhan

His biography is found in the Futuhat1 of Sayyidi Sheikh Muhammad ibn Mas´ud al-Fasi, where he says:

I took the Shadhili tariqa from my Master and Teacher, who reared murids by himma and hal and brought them to the stage of realization by particular stages of progression, the Pole of the Circle, the Channel of provisions (al-Maddad al-Ghauth), the Unique Uniter (al-Jami´ al-Fard),the Sheikh, my Master Muhammad ibn Hamza al-Zhafir al-Madani – may his great secret be sanctified – year 1242 H., after the passing of his teacher [Sheikh Muhammad ´Arabi al-Darqawi d. 1239 H.] and his return from the Marokko to Tripoli. Then Allah joined me with him, and I took from his essential lights and his impelling knowledge – that is I took from the lights that poured down on him from the Presence of the Impellor (al-Jabbar) – for about eighteen years, and Allah made me benefit therefrom.

He – may Allah be pleased with him – was bringing forth saints in his court yard, as the earth brings forth plants when rain pours down on it. His character was the character of the Prophets, and his state was  that of the most elect of the elect of the saints and the pure. He – may Allah be pleased with him – was a Qutb, from whose lights the Qutbs are provided, and from whose oceans the noblest take provisions. Whoever looked at him was enriched, whoever knew him would not desire anyone else. He had wonderful states and strange secrets. He strove in the science of interactions (mu´amalat) until he reached the highest level, and he served the saints – until the most elect of the elect from amongst the saints and the pure ones served him. He traveled along this path for some twenty-five years in the far Maghrib (Morocco), until he reached the shores of ´ Ain Hamiyya, while serving by his own hands the Sheikhs and the righteous ones, while seeking the the settlement of Layla – until he found her people in Ha’it Layla, which is the name of a place where our Master Sheikh al-´Arabi [al-Darqawi] resided.

He – may his secret be sanctified – passed away in 1262 H. [*] and was buried in his zawiya. His maqam there is visited from by travellers from all places.

Allah, makes us benefit from him, and gather us under his flag. Amin.

(*) In the edition of Dar al-Bayruti of 2000, it is written 1242, however the year was 1262 as stated in al-Futuhat al-Rabbaniyya. /bmk


Seyyiduna Muhammed bin Hasan bin Hamza Zafir el-Medeni
Muhammed el-Fâsî Efendimiz (Allah Teâlâ ondan razı olsun), (tarikatı) şeyhi, büyük kutub, meşhur önder, Muhammed bin Hamza Zâfir el-Medenî Efendimizden (Allah Teâlâ ondan razı olsun) almıştır. Nitekim “Fütühât”ında ondan bahsetmiştir ve şöyle demiştir:

Şâziliyye tarikatını; H.1242 senesinde, hocasının (Şeyh Muhammed ‘Arabi al-Dirqawi v.1239) vefatından ve Mağrip’ten Batı Trablus’a dönüşünden sonra efendim, üstadım, müridleri himmeti ve hali ile terbiye eden, onları farklı ilerleyiş mertebeleriyle tahkik makamına ulaştıran, dâirenin kutbu (bir tasavvufi terim: Adn Cennetin’de, Hakkı görmek üzere insanların bir araya gelip toplanmış halde bulunuşuna verilen isim), medet ve yardım kanalı, Efendim Şeyh Muhammed b. Hamza Zâfir el-Medenî’den (Allah Teala aziz ruhunu takdis etsin) aldım. Allah Teala beni onunla buluşturdu ve ona has nurlarından ve ceberuta dair marifetlerini öğrendim. Böylece Cebbar olanın huzurunda onun ruhunun üzerine dolup taşan bu nurlardan takriben on sekiz sene iktibas etmiş oldum ve Allah Teala beni onunla faydalandırdı.

Allah ondan razı olsun, üzerine yağmur yağdığında toprağın yeşillikler bitirmesi gibi etrafında Allah dostları biterdi. Ahlakı enbiyanın ahlakıydı ve evliya ve esfiyadan hâs olanlara özgü halleri vardı. Sırları takdis edilsin kutup idi. Kutup zatlara uzanan nurları ve soylu kişilere ulaşan okyanusları vardı. Kim ona bakarsa o kişiyi zengin ederdi. Kim onu tanırsa ondan başkasını istemezdi. Ve harikulade hallere ve acayip sırlara sahipti. Yüksek makamlara ulaşana kadar muamelât ilminde gayret gösterdi. Evliyanın ve esfiyanın en seçilmiş olanlar ona hizmet edene kadar evliyaya hizmet etti. Bu tarik üzere, yaklaşık 25 sene ‘Ayn Hamiye sahillerine varana kadar Uzak Mağrip topraklarında dolaştı, Şeyhlere ve salih kimselere bizzat kendisi hizmet ederek ve Leylâ’nın yerini arayarak. Ta ki “Hâitu Leyla’da (Leyla’nın Duvarında)” onun ehlini bulana kadar. Hâitu Leyla, Efendimiz Şeyh el-Arabi’nin ebedi istirahat ettiği yer için (kullanılan) mekanın adıdır.

Sırrı takdis edilsin, H.1262* senesinde vefat etti. Ve Mısrata’daki zaviyesine defnedildi. Makamı Mısrata’tadır. Makamı her yerden ziyaretçi alır. Ey Allah’ım bizi onunla faydalanmayı nasip et ve bizi onun sancağı altında haşret. Amin.

(*) Dar al-Bayruti’nin 2000 yılına ait nüshasında yıl 1242 olarak belirtilmiştir, ancak Futuhat-ı Rabbaniyye’de 1262 olarak belirtilmiştir. /bmk

Referans: Tabakat el-Şaziliyye el-Kubra, El-Hasan el-Kuhin


Bio note:
للشيخ محمد حسن ظافر المدني (1864م) ولد بالمدينة المنورة، ثم جاء إلى المغرب وقابل الشيخ العربي الدرقاوي وصار أحد أتباعه ثم عاد إلى المدينة خليفةً عنه، ثم استوطن مصراتة ودفن بها، وترجع طريقته إلى الطريقة الشاذلية

للشيخ محمد حسن ظافر المدني (1864م) ولد بالمدينة المنورة، ثم جاء إلى المغرب وقابل الشيخ العربي الدرقاوي وصار أحد أتباعه ثم عاد إلى المدينة خليفةً عنه، ثم استوطن مصراتة ودفن بها، وترجع طريقته إلى الطريقة الشاذلية

Notes on turuq:

_ الإمام العارف بالله سيدي محمد بن حمزة ظافر المدني (ت . 1262 ) وعنه تفرعت الطرق التالية :
الدرقاوية المدنية واشهرت بالحجاز وليبيا
والدرقاوية اليشرطية واشتهرت ببلاد الشام وفلسطين و رودوس وتركيا وكان من أتباعها السلطان العظيم عبد الحميد خــان الثاني رحمه الله
و الدرقاوية الفاسية واشتهرت بالحجاز ومصر وسيرلانكا .

His sons

Sayyiduna Shaykh Muhammad ibn Hasan ibn Hamza Zhafir had three sons, who are buried in Istanbul
  • Shaykh Muhammad Zhafir (d. 1321 H. / 1903 CE) who was his khalifa in the Shadhili Path
  • Shaykh Hamza Zhafir (d. 1904 CE)
  • Shaykh Bashir Zhafir (d. 1909 CE)
  • Refs

    Damas Cultural Society © 2017
    Damas Cultural Society © 2007

    See seaprate entry on his son
    Sayyidi Shaykh Muhammad Zhafir
    b. 1244 in Misrata – d. 1321 H. in Istanbul (1829 – 1903 CE)


    Bio: Sh. Muhammad Zhafir (the son)

    Bio: Sh. Muhammad Zhafir (the son)

    Shaykh Muhammad Zhafir (the son)

    الشيخ محمد بن حمزة ظافر المدني
    b. 1244 in Tarablus, Misrata (Libya) – d. 1321 H. in Istanbul (1829 – 1903 CE)
    qaddasa Allah sirrahu