Category: Islamic Sciences

Style: Islam

Ayat al-Shifa

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http://nur.nu/damas/Adhkar/Ayat-alShifa.pdf (more…)

Book on Mantiq | Akhdari: Al-Sullam

Book on Mantiq | Akhdari: Al-Sullam

Mantiq: The science of Logic – Book recommendation

 
Matn
Al-Akhdari: Al-Sulam (didactic poem) – السلم المنورق في علم المنطق للأخضري – View PDF | Download | Youtube recital

Commentary
Al-Damnahuri: Idah al-mubham min ma’ani al-Sulam – ايضاح المبهم في معاني السلم الشيخ احمد الدمنهوري – View PDF | Download | More shuruh…

See also…
A summary of Logic (english/arabic) View PDF | Download

From damas-original.nur.nu/

Book online | Bukhari: Al-Adab Al-Mufrad

Al-Adab Al-Mufrad 
By Imam Muhammad ibn Isma’il al-Bukhari (d. 256 H.)

English Translation by Aisha Bewley (pdf)
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Book online | Bukhari: Jami’ al-Sahih

Jami’al-Sahih (Collection of Sahih Hadiths) 
By Imam Muhammad ibn Isma’il al-Bukhari (d. 256 H.)

English Translation by Aisha Bewley (Revision in progress)  
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Book online | G.F.Haddad: Merits of al-Sham al-Sharif

Merits of al-Sham al-Sharif

Forty Narrations on The Immense Merits of al-Shâm
Compiled and translated by GF Haddad

The Arabic word al-Shâm has been left untranslated for lack of an English equivalent. It is originally written and pronounced al-Sha’m and means “the North” with relation to the Hijaz, covering the lands of present-day Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, and Jordan from the Euphrates to Sinai. Ibn Hibban said: “Al-Shâm begins at Bâlis [East of Aleppo] and ends at `Arish Misr [at the border of Egypt].”1 The lexical and geographical inclusion of al-Qudus (Jerusalem) in al-Shâm in the language of the Arabs is established by the narration of Salman al-Farisi’s question to the Christians of Persia: “Where is the origin of this religion?” They replied: “In al-Shâm.”2 In modern usage al-Shâm often means old Damascus. The Arabic term for the latter is Dimashq, which is cited in the authentic hadith.3 (more…)

Book online | Ibn Hajar: Nukhbat al-Fikr & Nazhat al-Nazhr


Name: Ibn Hajar al-'Asqalani: Nukhbat al-Fikr  
Info:
نزهة النظر في توضيح نخبة الفكر في مصطلح أهل الأثر
Nukhbat al-Fikr: Dar Ibn Hazm | Text with tashkil
Nazhat-alNazhar-fi-Sharh-Nukhbat-alFikr: Dar Bushra | Comparison of versions
Nukhbat al-Fikr explained (Dar al-Uloom)

Info

Nukhbat al-Fikar - Arabic text with tashkil

نخبة الفكر في مصطلح أهل الأثر
للحافظ ابن حجر –رحمه الله-

مَتْنُ نُخْبَةِ الْفِكَرِ

قَالَ الْإِمَامُ الْحَافِظُ: أَحْمَدُ بْنُ عَلِيِّ بْنِ حَجَرٍ الْعَسْقَلَانِيُّ – يَرْحَمُهُ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى- :
الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ الَّذِي لَمْ يَزَلْ عَلِيمًا قَدِيرًا ، وَصَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَى سَيِّدِنَا مُحَمَّدٍ الَّذِي أَرْسَلَهُ إِلَى النَّاسِ بَشِيرًا وَنَذِيرًا ، وَعَلَى آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ وَصَحْبِهِ وَسَلَّمَ تَسْلِيمًا كَثِيرًا. أَمَّا بَعْدُ:

فَإِنَّ التَّصَانِيفَ فِي اصْطِلَاحِ أَهْلِ الْحَدِيثِ قَدْ كَثُرَتْ ، وَبُسِطَتْ وَاخْتُصِرَتْ ، فَسَأَلَنِي بَعْضُ الْإِخْوَانِ أَنْ أُلَخِّصَ لَهُمُ الْمُهِمَّ مِنْ ذَلِكَ ، فَأَجَبْتُهُ إِلَى سُؤَالِهِ؛ رَجَاءَ الِانْدِرَاجِ فِي تِلْكَ الْمَسَالِكِ

فَأَقُولُ :
الْخَبَرُ إِمَّا أَنْ يَكُونَ لَهُ: طُرُقٌ بِلَا عَدَدٍ مُعَيَّنٍ ، أَوْ مَعَ حَصْرِ بِمَا فَوْقَ الِاثْنَيْنِ، أَوْ بِهِمَا، أَوْ بِوَاحِدٍ .
فَالْأَوَّلُ: الْمُتَوَاتِرُ: الْمُفِيدُ لِلْعِلْمِ الْيَقِينِيِّ بِشُرُوطِهِ.
وَالثَّانِي: الْمَشْهُورُ، وَهُوَ الْمُسْتَفِيضُ عَلَى رَأْيٍ.
وَالثَّالِثُ: : الْعَزِيزُ ، وَلَيْسَ شَرْطًا لِلصَّحِيحِ خِلَافًا لِمَنْ زَعَمَهُ.
وَالرَّابِعُ: الْغَرِيبُ.
وَكُلُّهَا – سِوَى الْأَوَّلِ – آحَادٌ .
وَفِيهَا الْمَقْبُولُ وَالْمَرْدُودُ؛ لِتَوَقُّفِ الِاسْتِدْلَالِ بِهَا عَلَى الْبَحْثِ عَنْ أَحْوَالِ رُوَاتِهَا دُونَ الْأَوَّلِ.
وَقَدْ يَقَعُ فِيهَا مَا يُفِيدُ الْعِلْمَ النَّظَرِيَّ بِالْقَرَائِنِ عَلَى الْمُخْتَارِ.
ثُمَّ الْغَرَابَةُ: إِمَّا أَنْ تَكُونَ فِي أَصْلِ السَّنَدِ ، أَوْ لَا.
فَالْأَوَّلُ: الْفَرْدُ الْمُطْلَقُ . وَالثَّانِي: الْفَرْدُ النِّسْبِيُّ ، وَيَقِلُّ إِطْلَاقُ الْفَرْدِيَّةِ عَلَيْهِ.

وَخَبَرُ الْآحَادِ بِنَقْلِ عَدْلٍ تَامِّ الضَّبْطِ ، مُتَّصِلِ السَّنَدِ ، غَيْرِ مُعَلَّلٍ وَلَا شَاذٍّ : هُوَ الصَّحِيحُ لِذَاتِهِ . وَتَتَفَاوَتُ رُتَبُهُ بِتَفَاوُتِ هَذِهِ الْأَوْصَافِ .
وَمِنْ ثَمَّ قُدِّمَ صَحِيحُ الْبُخَارِيِّ ، ثُمَّ مُسِلِمٍ ، ثُمَّ شَرْطُهُمَا.
فَإِنْ خَفَّ الضَّبْطُ: فَالْحَسَنُ لِذَاتِهِ ، وَبِكَثْرَةِ طُرُقِهِ يُصَحَّحُ .
فَإِنْ جُمِعَا فَلِلتَّرَدُّدِ فِي النَّاقِلِ حَيْثُ التَّفَرُّدُ ، وَإِلَّا فَبِاعْتِبَارِ إِسْنَادَيْنِ .
وَزِيَادَةُ رَاوِيهِمَا مَقْبُولَةٌ مَا لَمْ تَقَعْ مُنَافِيَةً لِمَنْ هُوَ أَوْثَقُ .

فَإِنْ خُولِفَ بِأَرْجَحَ فَالرَّاجِحُ الْمَحْفُوظُ ، وَمُقَابِلُهُ الشَّاذُّ . وَمَعَ الضَّعْفِ فَالرَّاجِحُ الْمَعْرُوفُ ، وَمُقَابِلُهُ الْمُنْكَرُ.
وَالْفَرْدُ النِّسْبِيُّ: إِنْ وَافَقَهُ غَيْرُهُ فَهُوَ الْمُتَابِعُ، وَإِنْ وُجِدَ مَتْنٌ يُشْبِهُهُ فَهُوَ الشَّاهِدُ .
وَتَتَبُّعُ الطُّرُقِ لِذَلِكَ هُوَ الِاعْتِبَارُ .
ثُمَّ الْمَقْبُولُ: إِنْ سَلِمَ مِنَ الْمُعَارَضَةِ فَهُوَ الْمُحْكَمُ .
وَإِنْ عُورِضَ بِمِثْلِهِ : فَإِنْ أَمْكَنَ الْجَمْعُ فَمُخْتَلِفُ الْحَدِيثِ .
أَوْ لا ، وثَبَتَ الْمُتَأَخِّرُ فَهُوَ النَّاسِخُ ، وَالْآخَرُ الْمَنْسُوخُُ ، وَإِلَّا فَالتَّرْجِيحُ ، ثُمَّ التَّوَقُّفُ .
ثُمَّ الْمَرْدُودُ: إِمَّا أَنْ يَكُونَ لِسَقْطٍ أَوْ طَعْنٍ :
فَالسَّقْطُ: إِمَّا أَنْ يَكُونَ مِنْ مَبَادِئِ السَّنَدِ مِنْ مُصَنِّفٍ، أَوْ مِنْ آخِرِهِ بَعْدَ التَّابِعِيِّ ، أَوْ غَيْرِ ذَلِكَ .

فَالْأَوَّلُ: الْمُعَلَّقُ . وَالثَّانِي : الْمُرْسَلُ . وَالثَّالِثُ : إِنْ كَانَ بِاثْنَيْنِ فَصَاعِدًا مَعَ التَّوَالِي فَهُوَ الْمُعْضَلُ ، وَإِلَّا فَالْمُنْقَطِعُ .
ثُمَّ قَدْ يَكُونُ وَاضِحًا أَوْ خَفِيًّا. فَالْأَوَّلُ: يُدْرَكُ بِعَدَمِ التَّلَاقِي ، وَمِنْ ثَمَّ احْتِيجَ إِلَى التَّأْرِيخِ .
وَالثَّانِي: الْمُدَلَّسُ وَيَرِدُ بِصِيغَةِ تَحْتَمِلُ اللَّقْيَ : كَعَنْ ، وَقَالَ ، وَكَذَا الْمُرْسَلُ الْخَفِيُّ مِنْ مُعَاصِرٍ لَمْ يَلْقَ

ثُمَّ الطَّعْنُ: إِمَّا أَنْ يَكُونَ لِكَذِبِ الرَّاوِي ، أَوْ تُهْمَتِهِ بِذَلِكَ ، أَوْ فُحْشِ غَلَطِهِ ، أَوْ غَفْلَتِهِ ، أَوْ فِسْقِهِ ، أَوْ وَهْمِهِ ، أَوْ مُخَالَفَتِهِ ، أَوْ جَهَالَتِهِ ، أَوْ بِدْعَتِهِ ، أَوْ سُوءِ حِفْظِهِ.
فَالْأَوَّلُ: الْمَوْضُوعُ، وَالثَّانِي: الْمَتْرُوكُ، وَالثَّالِثُ: الْمُنْكَرُ عَلَى رَأْيٍ، وَكَذَا الرَّابِعُ وَالْخَامِسُ.
ثُمَّ الْوَهْمُ: إِنِ اطُّلِعَ عَلَيْهِ بِالْقَرَائِنِ، وَجَمْعِ الطُّرُقِ : فَالْمُعَلَّلُ.

ثُمَّ الْمُخَالَفَةُ: إِنْ كَانَتْ بِتَغْيِيرِ السِّيَاقِ: فَمُدْرَجُ الْإِسْنَادِ، أَوْ بِدَمْجِ مَوْقُوفٍ بِمَرْفُوعٍ: فَمُدْرَجُ الْمَتْنِ، أَوْ بِتَقْدِيمٍ أَوْ تَأْخِيرٍ : فَالْمَقْلُوبُ ، أَوْ بِزِيَادَةِ رَاوٍ: فَالْمَزِيدُ فِي مُتَّصِلِ الْأَسَانِيدِ ، أَوْ بِإِبْدَالِهِ وَلَا مُرَجِّحَ : فَالْمُضْطَّرِبُ .
وَقَدْ يَقَعُ الْإِبْدَالُ عَمْدًا امْتِحَانًا ، أَوْ بِتَغْيِيرٍ مَعَ بَقَاءِ السِّيَاقِ: فَالْمُصَحَّفُ وَالْمُحَرَّفُ .
وَلَا يَجُوزُ تَعَمُّدُ تَغْيِيرِ الْمَتْنِ بِالنَّقْصِ وَالْمُرَادِفِ إِلَّا لِعَالِمٍ بِمَا يُحِيلُ الْمَعَانِي .
فَإِنْ خَفِيَ الْمَعْنَى احْتِيجَ إِلَى شَرْحِ الْغَرِيبِ ، وَبَيَانِ الْمُشْكِلِ .
ثُمَّ الْجَهَالَةُ: وَسَبَبُهَا أَنَّ الرَّاوِيَ قَدْ تَكْثُرُ نُعُوتُهُ فَيُذْكَرُ بِغَيْرِ مَا اشْتُهِرَ بِهِ لِغَرَضٍ ، وَصَنَّفُوا فِيهِ الْمُوَضِّحَ.

وَقَدْ يَكُونُ مُقِلًّا فَلَا يَكْثُرُ الأَخْذُ عَنْهُ ، وَصَنَّفُوا فِيهِ الوُحْدَانَ ، أَوْ لَا يُسَمَّى اخْتِصارًا ، وَفِيهِ المُبْهَمَاتُ ، وَلَا يُُقْبَلُ المُبْهَمُ وَلَوْ أُبْهِمَ بِلَفْظِ التَّعْدِيلِ عَلَى الْأَصَّحِ .

فَإِنْ سُمِّيَ وَانْفَرَدَ وَاحِدٌ عَنْهُ : فمَجْهُولُ الْعَيْنِ ، أَوِ اثْنَانِ فَصَاعِدًا ، وَلَمْ يُوَثَّقْ : فَمَجْهُولُ الحَالِ ، وَهُوَ الْمَسْتُورُ .
ثُمَّ الْبِدْعَةُ : إِمَّا بِمُكَفِّرٍ ، أَوْ بِمُفَسِّقٍ .

فَالْأَوَّلُ : لَا يَقْبَلُ صَاحِبَهَا الْجُمْهُورُ . وَالثَّانِي: يُقْبَلُ مَنْ لَمْ يَكُنْ دَاعِيَةً فِي الْأَصَّحِ ، إلَّا أنْ يَرْوِيَ مَا يُقوِّي بِدْعَتَهُ فَيُرَدُّ عَلَى الْمُخْتَارِ، وَبِهِ صَرَّحَ الْجَوْزَجَانِيُّ شَيْخُ النَّسَائِيِّ .

ثُمَّ سُوءُ الْحِفْظِ: إِنْ كَانَ لَازِمًا فَهُوَ الشَّاذُّ عَلَى رَأْيٍ، أَوْ طَارِئًا فَالْمُُخْتَلِطُ ، وَمَتَى تُوبِعَ سََيْئُّ الْحِفْظِ بِمُعْتَبَرٍ، وَكَذَا الْمَسْتُورُ ، وَالْمُرْسَلُ ، وَالْمُدلَّسُ: صَارَ حَدِيثُهُمْ حَسَنًا لَا لِذَاتِهِ ، بَلْ بِالْمَجْمُوعِ.

ثُمَّ الْإِسْنَادُ: إِمَّا أَنْ يَنْتَهِيَ إِلَى النَّبيِّ -صَلَّى اللَّهُ تَعَالَى عَلَيْهِ وَسِلَّمَ- ، تَصْرِيحًا ، أَوْ حُكْمًا : مِنْ قَوْلِهِ ، أَوْ فِعْلِهِ ، أَوْ تَقْرِيرِهِ.

أَوْ إِلَى الصَّحَابِيِّ كَذَلِكَ وَهُوَ : مَنْ لَقِيَ النَّبيَّ -صَلَّى اللَّهُ تَعَالَى عَلَيْهِ وَعَلَى آَلِهِ وَسَلَّمَ- مُؤْمِنًا بِهِ، وَمَاتَ عَلَى الْإِسْلَامِ ، وَلَوْ تَخَلَّلَتْ رِدَّةٌ فِي الْأَصَحِّ.
أَوْ إِلَى التَّاَّبِعِيِّ : وَهُوَ مَنْ لَقِيَ الصَّحَابِيَّ كَذَلِكَ .

فَالْأَوَّلُ : الْمَرْفُوعُ ، وَالثَّانِي : الْمَوْقُوفُ ، وَالثَّالِثُ : الْمَقْطُوعُُ ، وَمَنْ دُونَ التَّابِعِيِّ فِيهِ مِثْلُهُ، وَيُقَالُ لِلأَخِيرَيْنِ : الْأَثَرُ.
وَالْمُسْنَدُ: مَرْفُوعُ صَحَابِيٍّ بِسَنَدٍ ظَاهِرُهُ الْاتِّصَالُ.

فَإِنْ قَلَّ عَدَدُهُ : فَإِمَّا أَنْ يَنْتَهِيَ إِلَى النَّبِيِّ -صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَعَلَى آَلِهِ وَسَلَّمَ- ، أَوْ إِلَى إِمَامٍ ذِي صِفَةٍ عَلِيَّةٍ كَشُعْبَةَ . فَالْأَوَّلُ : الْعُلُوُّ الْمُطْلَقُ . وَالثَّانِي : النِّسْبِيُّ .
وَفِيهِ الْمُوَافَقَةُ : وَهِيَ الْوُصُولُ إِلَى شَيْخِ أَحَدِ الْمُصَنِّفِينَ مِنْ غَيْرِ طَرِيقِهِ.
وَفِيهِ الْبَدَلُ : وَهُوَ الْوُصُولُ إِلَى شَيْخِ شَيْخِهِ كَذَلِكَ.
وَفِيهِ الْمُسَاوَاةُ : وَهِيَ اسْتِوَاءُ عَدَدِ الْإِسْنَادِ مِنَ الرَّاوِي إِلَى آَخِرِهِ ، مَعَ إِسْنَادِ أَحَدِ الْمُصنِّفِينَ.
وَفِيهِ الْمُصَافَحَةُ: وَهِيَ الْاسْتِوَاءُ مَعَ تِلْمِيذِ ذَلِكَ الْمُصنِّفِ، وَيُُقَابِلُ الْعُلُوَّ بَأَقسامِهِ : النُّزُولُ.

فَإِنْ تَشَارَكَ الرَّاوِي وَمَنْ رَوَى عَنْهُ فِي السِّنِّ وَاللُّقِيِّ فَهُوَ الْأَقْرَانُ ُ. وَإِنْ رَوَى كُلٌّ مِنْهُمَا عَنِ الْآَخَرِ: فَالْمُدْبَجُ.

وَإِنْ رَوَى عَمَّنْ دُونَهُ : فَالْأَكَابِرُ عَنِ الْأَصَاغِرِ ، وَمِنْهُ الْآَبَاءُ عَنِ الْأَبْنَاءِ ، وَفِي عَكْسِهِ كَثْرَةٌ ، وَمِنْهُ مَنْ رَوَى عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ جَدِّهِ.
وَإِنِ اشْتَرَكَ اثْنَانِ عَنْ شَيْخٍ ، وَتَقدَّمَ مَوْتُ أَحَدِهِمَا ، فَهُوَ : السَّابِقُ وَاللَّاحِقُُ.
وَإِنْ رَوَى عَنْ اثْنَيْنِ مُتَّفِقَي الْاسْمِ ، وَلَمْ يَتَمَيْزَا ، فَبِاخْتِصَاصِهِ بِأَحَدِهِمَا يَتَبَيْنُ الْمُهْمَلُ.
وَإِنْ جَحَدَ مَرْوِيَّهُ جَزْمًا : رُدَّ ، أَوْ احْتَمَالًا : قُبِلَ فِي الْأَصَحِّ. وَفِيهِ : “مَنْ حَدَّثَ وَنَسِيَ”.
وَإِنِ اتَّفَقَ الرُّوَاةُ فِي صِيَغِ الْأَدَاءِ ، أَوْ غَيْرَهَا مِنَ الْحَالَاتِ ، فَهُوَ الْمُسَلْسَلُ.

وَصِيَغُ الْأَدَاءِ: سَمِعْتُ وَحَدَّثَنِي ، ثُمَّ أَخْبَرَنِي ، وَقَرَأْتُ عَلَيْهِ ، ثُمَّ قُرِئَ عَلَيْهِ وَأَنَا أَسْمَعُ ، ثُمَّ أَنْبَأَنِي ، ثُمَّ نَاوَلَنِي ، ثُمَّ شَافَهَنِي. ثُمَّ كَتَبَ إِلَيَّ ، ثُمَّ عَنْ ، وَنَحْوَهَا.

فَالْأَوَّلْانِ : لِمَنْ سَمِعَ وَحْدَهُ مِنْ لَفْظِ الشَّيْخِ ، فَإِنْ جَمَعَ فَمَعَ غَيْرِهِ ، وَأَوَّلُهَا : أَصْرَحُهَا وَأَرْفَعُهَا فِي الْإِمْلَاءِ.

وَالثَّالِثُ، وَالرَّابِعُ : لِمَنْ قَرَأَ بِنَفْسِهِ ، فَإِنْ جَمَعَ : فَكَالْخَامِسِ.

وَالْإِنْبَاءُ : بِمَعْنَى الْإِخْبَارُ. إِلّا فِي عُرْفِ الْمُتَأَخِرِينَ فَهُوَ لِلْإِجَازَةِ كَعَنْ ، وَعَنْعَنَةُ الْمُعَاصِرِ مَحْمُولَةٌ عَلَى السَّمَاعِ إِلَّا مِنْ المُدَلِّسٍ وَقِيلَ : يُشْتَرَطُ ثُبُوتُ لِقَائِهِمَا -وَلَوْ مَرَّةً- ، وَهُوَ الْمُخْتَارُ .

وَأَطْلَقُوا الْمُشَافَهَةَ فِي الْإِجَازَةِ الْمُتَلَّفَظُ بِهَا، وَالمُكَاتَبَةُ فِي الْإِجَازَةِ الْمَكْتُوبِ بِهَا ، وَاشْتَرَطُوا فِي صِحَّةِ الْمُنَاوَلَةِ اقْتِرَانُهَا بِالْإِذْنِ بِالرِّوَايَةِ ، وَهِيَ أَرْفَعُ أَنْوَاعِ الْإِجَازَةِ.

وَكَذَا اشْتَرَطُوا الْإِذْنَ فِي الوِجَادَةِ ، وَالْوَصِيِّةِ بِالْكِتَابِ وَفِي الْإِعْلَامِ ، وَإِلَّا فَلَا عِبْرَةَ بِذَلِكَ كَالْإِجَازَةِ الْعَامَّةِ ، وَلِلْمَجْهُولِ ، وَلِلْمَعْدُومِ ، عَلَى الْأَصَحِّ فِي جَمِيعِ ذَلِكَ.

ثُمَّ الرُّوَاةُ إَنِ اتَّفَقَتْ أَسْمَاؤُهُمْ ، وَأَسْمَاءُ آَبَائِهِمْ فَصَاعِدًا ، وَاخْتُلِفَتْ أَشْخَاصُهُمْ : فَهُوَ الْمُتَّفِقُ وَالْمُفْتَرِقُ ، وَإِنِ اتَّفَقَتِ الْأَسْمَاءُ خَطًا ، وَاخْتَلَفَتْ نُطْقًا : فَهُوَ الْمُؤْتَلِفُ وَالْمُخْتَلِفُُ.

وَإِنِ اتَّفَقَتِ الْأَسْمَاءُ وَاخْتَلَفَتِ الْآَبَاءُ ، أَوْ بِالْعَكْسِ : فَهُوَ الْمُتَشَابِهُ ، وَكَذَا إِنْ وَقَعَ الْاتِّفَاقُ فِي الْاسْمِ وَاسْمِ الْأَبِ ، والْاِخْتِلَافُ فِي النِّسْبَةِ، وَيَتَرَكَّبُ مِنْهُ وَمِمَّا قَبْلَهُ أَنْوَاعُ : مِنْهَا أَنْ يَحْصُلَ الْاِتِّفَاقُ أَوْ الْاِشْتِبَاهُ إِلَّا فِي حَرْفٍ أَوْ حَرْفَيْن. أَوْ بِالتَّقْدِيمِ وَالتَّأْخِيرِ أَوْ نَحْوَ ذَلِكَ.
خَاتِمَـةٌ

وَمِنَ الْمُهِمِّ : مَعْرِفَةُ طَبَقَاتِ الرُّوَاةِ وَمَوَالِيدِهِمْ ، وَوَفَيَاتِهِمْ ، وَبُلْدَانِهِمْ ، وَأَحْوَالِهِمْ تَعْدِيلًا وَتَجْرِيحًا وَجَهَالَةً.

وَمرَاتِبُ الْجَرْحِ : وَأَسْوَؤُهَا الْوَصْفُ بِأَفْعَلَ ، كَأَكْذَبِ النَّاسِ ، ثُمَّ دَجَّالٍ ، أَوْ وَضَّاعٍ ، أَوْ كَذَّابٍ.
وَأَسْهَلُهَا : لَيْنٌ ، أَوْ سَيِّئُ الْحِفْظِ ، أَوْ فِيهِ مَقَالٌ.

وَمرَاتِبُ التَّعْدِيلِ : وَأَرْفَعُهَا الْوَصْفُ بَأَفْعَلَ : كَأَوْثَقِ النَّاسِ ، ثُمَّ مَا تَأكَدَ بِصِفَةٍ أَوْ صِفَتَيْنِ كَثِقَةٍ ثِقَةٍ ، أَوْ ثِقَةٍ حَافِظٍ وَأَدْنَاهَا مَا أَشْعَرَ بِالْقُرْبِ مِنْ أَسْهَلِ التَّجْرِيحِ : كَشَيْخٍ ، وَتُقْبَلُُ التَّزْكِيَةُ مِنْ عَارِفٍ بَأَسْبَابِهَا ، وَلَوْ مِنْ وَاحِدٍ عَلَى الْأَصَحِّ.

وَالْجَرْحُ مُقَدَّمٌ عَلَى التَّعْدِيلِ إِنْ صَدَرَ مُبَيِنًا مِنْ عَارِفٍ بِأْسْبَابِهِ ، فَإِنْ خَلَا عَنِ التَّعْدِيلِ : قُبِلَ مُجْمَلًا عَلَى الْمُخْتَارِ.
فصل

وَمِنَ الْمُهِمِّ مَعْرِفَةُ كُنَى الْمُسَمِّينَ ، وَأَسْمَاءِ الْمُكَنَّيْنَ ، وَمَنِ اسْمُهُ كُنْيَتُهُ ، وَمَنِ اخْتُلِفَ فِي كُنْيَتِهِ ، وَمَنْ كَثُرَتْ كُنَاهُ أَوْ نُعُوتُهُ ، وَمَنْ وَافَقَتْ كُنْيَتُهُ اسْمَ أَبِيهِ، أَوْ بِالْعَكْسِ ، أَوْ كُنْيتُهُ كُنْيَةُ زَوْجَتِهِ ، وَمَنْ نُسِبَ إِلَى غَيْرِ أَبِيهِ ، أَوْ إِلَى غَيْرِ مَا يَسْبِقُ إِلَى الْفَهْمِ ، وَمَنِ اتَّفَقَ اسْمُهُ وَاسْمُ أَبِيهِ وَجَدِّهِ ، أَوْ اسْمُ شَيْخِهِ وَشَيْخِ شَيْخِهِ فَصَاعِدًا، وَمَنِ اتَّفَقَ اسْمُ شَيْخِهِ وَالرَّاوِي عَنْهُ .

وَمَعْرِفَةُ الْأَسْمَاءِ الْمُجَرَّدَةِ ، وَالْمُفْرَدَةِ ، وَالْكُنَى ، وَالْأَلْقَابِ ، وَالْأَنْسَابِ ، وَتَقَعُ إِلَى الْقَبَائِلَ وَالْأَوْطَانِ ، بِلَادًا ، أَوْ ضَيَاعًا أَوْ سِكَكًا ، أَوْ مُجَاوِرَةً. وَإِلَى الصَّنائِعَ وَالْحِرَفِ ، وَيَقَعُ فِيهَا الْاتِّفَاقُ وَالْاشْتَبَاهُ كَالْأَسْمَاءِ ، وَقَدْ تَقَعُ أَلْقَابًا.

وَمَعْرِفَةُ أَسْبَابِ ذَلِكَ ، وَمَعْرِفَةُ الْمَوَالِي مِنْ أَعْلَى ، وَمِنْ أَسْفَلِ ، بِالرِّقِ ، أَوْ بِالْحَلِفِ ، وَمَعْرِفَةُ الْإِخْوَةِ وَالْأَخَوَاتِ.

وَمَعْرِفَةُ آَدَابِ الشَّيْخِ وَالطَّالِبِ ، وَسِنِّ التَّحَمُّلِ وَالْأَدَاءِ ، وَصِفَةِ كِتَابَةِ الْحَدِيثِ وَعَرْضِهِ ، وَسَمَاعِهِ ، وَإِسْمَاعِهِ ، والرِّحْلَةِ فِيهِ ، وَتَصْنِيفِهِ ، إِمَّا عَلَى الْمَسَانِيدِ ، أَوْ الْأَبْوَابِ ، أَوْ الْعِلَلِ ، أَوْ الْأَطْرَافِ.

وَمَعْرِفَةُ سَبَبِ الْحَدِيثِ ، وَقَدْ صَنَّفَ فِيِهِ بَعْضُ شُيُوخِ القَاضِي أبِي يَعْلَى بْنِ الْفَرَّاءِ ، وصَنَّفُوا فِي غَالِبِ هَذِهِ الْأَنْوَاعِ ، وَهِيَ نَقْلٌ مَحْضٌ، ظَاهِرةُ التَّعْرِيفِ ، مُسْتَغْنِيَةٌ عَنِ التَّمْثِيلِ ، وَحَصْرُهَا مُتَعَسِّرٌ ، فَلْتُرَاجِعْ لَهَا مَبْسُوطَاتِهَا.
وَاللَّهُ الْمُوَفِّقُ وَالْهَادِي ، لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا هُوَ.

Book online | Malik: Al-Muwatta’

Al-Muwatta’ 
By Imam Malik ibn Anas (d. 175 H.)

English Translation by Aisha Bewley (pdf)
(including some corrections and changes to the original translation)
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Book | Sirajuddin: Sharh al-Bayquniyya

Book | Sirajuddin: Sharh al-Bayquniyya

Name: AbdAllah Sirajuddin: Sharh al-Bayquniyya  
Info: 2009 Dar al-Falah, Halab. Original Language: Arabic
الشيخ عبدالله سراج الدين الحلبي
Şeyh Abdullah Siracuddin: El-Manzumetu'l Beykuniyye Hadis Istılahları | View

Book | Tirmidhi: Shamail

Book | Tirmidhi: Shamail

Name: Imam al-Tirmidhi: Al-Shamai'il - The description of the Prophet Muhammad (s)  
Info: Original language: Arabic. Recommeded edition: Dar al-Gharb 2000. | View
الإمام الترمذي : الشمائل المحمدية - دارالكتب العلمية
Editions: Dar al-Gharb - pdf | Dar al-Kutub - pdf | More on archive.org
Sharh: Bajuri: Al-Mawahib al-Laduniyyah - pdf
Urdu translations:
Arabic/Urdu (transl: Allama Muhammad Siddiq Hazarwi) pdf, high resolution
Arabic/Urdu w/ sharh (Zakariyya Khadhelwi) pdf
English Translations:
Transl. Zakariyya Khandhelwi pdf | Arabic/English Online
Transl. Muhammad Danyal: Compendium of Prophetic Beauty
Utvalda hadither (rahma.se)
"So war der Prophet" Abe al-Hafidh Wentzel (Auszug) | View
More... Media:  
Al-Shamail Chapter 1. Explained by His Eminence Shaykh Muhammad al-Yaqoubi Playlist:

Books on the science of hadith

The most famous Books on hadith science

Based on “Sharh al-Bayquniyya” by Sheikh AbdAllah Sirajud-Din al-Halabi rahimahu Allah (pdf, excerpt) (more…)

Hadith

Hadith

Category: Hadith

View all articles in the category: Hadith


Hadith al-Hilya


Name: Hadith: al-Hilya  
Info: In Shamail al-Tirmidhi and Qadi 'Iyad's Shifa
Arabic (in process)
Türkçe'ye Çeviri: Mehmet Yaşar Kandemir | View
Urdu transl: Zakariyya Khadhelwi (Shamail) | View
English transl. Zakariyya w/ commentary Khandhelwi | View
Svensk översättning: Kultursällskapet Damas; se även rahma.se | View
Deautsch (Teil 4): Abdul-Hafizh Wentzel (Warda: So war der Prophet) | View

Hadith science

Articles on Hadith Science

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Hadith Umm Zara’


Name: Hadith Umm Zara'  
Info: In Sahih al-Bukhari, Sahih Muslim, Tirmidhi's Shamail
شرح اإمام السيوظي على حديث أم زرع | View
Shuruh: Al-Suyuti | Qadi 'Iyad | Al-Qazwini | Al-Bajuri |
Türkçe'ye Çeviri: Mehmet Yaşar Kandemir | View
Urdu transl. from Sahih Bukhari
English transl. of the sharh of Al-Qazwini (kitaabun)
More...  
In Sahih Muslim: The Virtues of the Companions- sunnah.com/muslim
In Sahih Bukhari: Book of Marriage - sunnah.com/bukhari
In Tirmidhi's Shamail: sunnah.com/shamail

Hadith: In Poetry is wisdom

Ibn Asakir relates, in his history of Damascus, that a person said to Jamil: “If you read the Qoran, it would be more profitable for you than composing poetry;” to which Jamil replied: “There is Anas Ibn Malik who tells me that the Blessed Prophet (s) said
‘إن من الشعر حكمة’

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Matn | Bayquni: Manzhuma

Matn | Bayquni: Manzhuma

Al-Bayqouniyya: A Didactic Poem on Hadith terminology
By Imam ‘Umar ibn Muhammad al-Bayqūnī al-Dimashqi (d. 1080 H)

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Mawlid Ayat

Mawlid Ayat

Verses in the Holy Quran

relating to The Messenger of Allah ﷺ
Compiled by bmk for the Damas Cultural Society

English: View | Dowload
Svenska: View | Dowload


Mustalahat al-Hadith: Brief list of Technical Terms

Hadith terminology : Brief list of Technical Terms

English

Some key concepts in hadith science

A hadith consists of a text content – matn (متن), and a transfer chain sanad (سند).

A hadith may refer to the Prophet Muhammad (Salla Allah’aleihi wasallam) or to any person in the generations after him.The hadith called

  • marfū’ (مرفوع) – if the hadith goes back to the Prophet (s)
  • mawqūf’ (موقوف) – if it stops at a Sahabi
  • maqtū’ (مقطوع) – if it stops at a Tabi’i


Depending on length of the chain of narrators the hadith is called

  • ‘ali (عالي) – high – if the chain consists of few narrators
  • nazil (نازل) – Low – if the chain consists of many narrators

A “high” chain, i.e. a chain consisting of few reliable people, is the most valued.

Depending on the number of narrators at each level of the chain, the hadith is classified as

  • khabar mutawatir (خبر متواتر) – at every level there are so many independent narrators that one can not reasonably believe that they all agreed on a lie.
  • Khabar Ahad (خبر آحاد) – all hadiths that are not mutawatir.
    Khabar Ahad divided in turn into:
    • fard (خبر فرد) – if there is only one narrator in first layer
    • ‘Aziz (خبر عزيز) – if there are only two or three narrators in the first layer, even if there are hundred narrators at the following levels [this is the definition of Ibn Salah and Imam al-Nawawi]
    • mash-how (خبر مشهور) – if at each level there are at least three narrators

With respect to the credibility, hadiths are classified as

  • sahih (صحيح) – sound
  • hasan (حسن) – fair
  • ḍa’īf (ضعيف) – weak

A hadith that is fabricated is called mawḍū’ (موضوع).

Criteria for assessing credibility

When evaluating the credibility of a hadith, many factors are taken into account:

  1. Regarding the completeness of the chain, a hadith is
    • musnad (مسند) – if it can be referred to the Prophet (s) without gaps in the chain.
    • muttaṣil (متصل) – if it can be referred to its source (other than the Prophet (s)) without any gaps in the chain.
    • munqaṭi’ (منقطع) – if there is a gap somewhere in the chain (it can be be anywhere in the chain, and it may a single link or serveral links that are missing). More specifically, a hadith is called
      • mu’ḍal (معضل) – if two or more consecutive links are missing in the chain
      • mursal (مرسل) – if it is narrated by a Tabi’i directly from Prophet (Salla Allah’aleihi wasallam) without the Sahabi being mentioned.
    • mudallas (مدلس) – if the last narrator omits or tries to hide the name of his Sheikh
    • maqlūb (مقلوب) – (a) if the two names misplaced in the chain, or (b) if the entire chain replaced with another chain

  2. The individual narrators. A person is called:
    • ḍābiṭ (ضابط) – if he is precise and has a good memory
    • ‘adl (عدل) – if he is righteous
    • majhūl (مجهول) – if it is not known if he existed, or if his character is unknown
    • It also taken into account when and where the narrators lived. E.g. if two successive narrators lived at the same time, it is reasonable that they met each other, unless it is known that they never met.
    • Furthermore, the circumstaces under which the hadith is narrated are considered. E.g. a person who in his youth is considered to be thiqa (reliable), may have become forgetful at old age. He is then no longer considered to be thiqa.

    A hadith is called

    • mubham (مبهم) – if any person in the chain, or any person mentioned in the hadith, is not mentioned clearly by name.

  3. The content of the matn. A hadith is called
    • shādhdh – when it contradicts one another hadith that is more credible. The more credible hadith is then called maḥfūzh (محفوظ).
    • munkar (منكر) – a weak hadith is rejected because it goes against a more credible hadith. The opposite is Ma’ruf (معروف).
    • mudraj (مدرج) – if any of the words of the re-narrator is accidentally incorporated in hadith
  4. Overall assessment. A hadith called
    • mu’allal (معلل) – if the hadith has some subtle weakness, which only hadith scholars with great insight are able to detect
    • muḍṭarib (مضطرب) – if different hadith scholars have variying but equally strong opinions about the status of chain or the content content of the hadith.
    • matrūk (متروك) – a weak hadith, which is narrated by a single unreliable person, and whcih is rejected unanimously by hadith scholars.

A brief description of how haidth are classified:

To categorize a hadith, the scholars would begin by verifying the names of all the people who passed on the hadith, and the time when they lived, so as to see if it is reasonable that they met. If a name is missing, or if the names do not match, there will be a gap in the chain. This will affect the rank of the hadith, but it will not automatically classified as false.

If the full list of narrators is complete, and names, years, places, etc. etc. are consistent, still, this is not enough to establish that the hadith is true. Now the next step will be to examine whether each person in the chain is reliable. E.g. if a person in the chain is known to be an imaginative person or a swindler, or if he is forgetful, or he is publicly known as sinners – this will reducee the rank of hadith.

This goes until the rank of the hadith is finally established. One should bear in mind that scholars have varied in their assessment of hadith, and this is also a factor to be taken into account when stating its status.

Laymen and non-experts should not attempt to classify hadith – they should rely on the judgement of acknowledged hadith scholars.

Swedish

Några centrala begrepp i hadithvetenskapen

Av bmk

En hadith består av en text – matn (متن), och en överföringskedja sanad (سند).

Olika typer av hadither

En hadith kan referera till Profeten Muhammad (salla Allah ´aleihi wa sallam) eller till någon av person i generationerna efter honom. Hadithen kallas

  • marfū´ (مَرْفُوْع) – om hadithen går tillbaka till Profeten (själv)
  • mawqūf´ (مَوْقُوْف) – om det den stannar vid en Sahabi
  • maqtū´ (مَقْطُوْع) – om det den stannar vid en Tabi´i


Beroende på berättarkedjans längd kallas den

  • ´ālī (عالي) – hög – om kedjan består av få återberättare
  • nāzil (نازل) – låg – om kedjan består av många återberättare

En “hög” kedja, dvs. en kedja som består av få tillförlitliga personer, är den som värderas högst.

Indelning i mutawatir och ahad

Beroende på antalet berättare i varje led i kedjan klassas hadithen som

  • khabar mutawātir (خبر متواتر) – i varje led finns så manga oberoende berättare att man inte rimligtvis kan tro att de alla enats om att ljuga.
  • khabar āḥād (خبر آحاد) – alla hadither som inte är mutawatir
    Khabar ahad indelas i sin tur i:
    • fard (خبر فرد) – om det endast finns en enda berättare i första ledet
    • ´azīz (خبر عزيز) – om det endast finns två eller tre berättare i första ledet, även om det därefeter finns hundra återberäqttare [detta är Ibn Salahs och Imam al-Nawawis definition]
    • mash-hūr (خبر مشهور) – om det i varje led finns minst tre återberättare

Klassificering efter trovärdighet

Med avseende på trovärdighet klassas Hadither som

  • ṣaḥīḥ (صحيح) – sunda
  • ḥasan (حسن) – goda
  • ḍaʻīf (ضعيف) – svaga

En hadith som är fabricerad kallas mawḍū´ (موضوع).

Kriterier för bedömning av trovärdighet

Vid bedömning av en hadiths trovärdighet tar man hänsyn till många olika faktorer:

Berättarkedjans fullständighet
  1. Berättarkedjans fullständighet. Hadithen är
    • musnad (مسند) – om den kan återföras utan luckor till Profeten (själv).
    • muttaṣil (مُتَّصِل) – om hadithen kan återföras till källan utan luckor i berättarkedjan.
    • munqaṭiʻ (مُنْقَطِع) – om det finns en lucka någonstans i berättarkedjan. Luckan kan vara vara som helst i kedjan, och det kan bara ett eller flera led som saknas. Specifikt kallas hadithen
      • muʻḍal (معضل) – om det två eller fler led efter varandra saknas i kedjan
      • mursal (مرسل) – om den berättas av en Tabi´i direkt från Profeten (salla Allah ´aleihi wa sallam), utan att Sahabin nämns.
    • mudallas (مدلَّس) – om hadithens sista återberättare utelämnar eller försöker dölja sin Sheikhs namn
    • maqlūb (مقلوب) – (a) om två namn kastas i kedjan, eller (b) om hela kedjan bytts ut mot en annan kedja

    De enskilda berättarna
  2. De enskilda berättarna. En person kallas:
    • ḍābiṭ (ضابط) – om han är nogrann och har gott minne
    • ʻadl (عدل) – om han är rättfärdig
    • majhūl (مجهول) – om det inte är känt om han funnits, eller om hans karaktär är okänd
    • Man tar även hänsyn när och var berättarna levde, t.ex. om två på varandra följande berättare levde vid samma tid, om det är rimligt att de träffat varandra, eller om det är känt att de aldrig träffade varandera.
    • Vidare beaktar man under vilka omtständigheter hadtihen berättats. Om t.ex. en person som i sin ungdom gäller som thiqa (tilförlitlig) på ålderdomen blir glömskt, gäller han vid det senare tillfället inte längre som thiqa.

    En hadith kallas

    • mubham (مبهم) – om någon person i kedjan, eller någon person som omtalas i hadithen, inte nämns entydligt vid namn
    Hadithens innehåll

  3. Hadithens innehåll (matn). Hadithen är
    • shādhdh – en hadith som motsäger en en annan hadith som är mera trovärdig. Den mera trovärdiga hadithen kallas maḥfūzh (محفوظ).
    • munkar (منكر) – en svag hadith som avvisas för att en motsäger en mera trovärdig hadith. Motsatsen är ma´rūf (معروف).
    • mudraj (مدرج) – om något av en återberättares ord av misstag införlivats i hadithen
    Övergripande bedömnng
  4. Övergripande bedömnng. Hadithen kallas
    • mu´allal (معلل) – om den har någon subtil svaghet, som endast hadithlärda med stor insikt kan upptäcka
    • muḍṭarib (مضطرب) – om de olika hadithlärda har lika starka men oföreniga åsikter om kedjans eller innehållets status
    • matrūk (متروك) – en svag hadith, som endast återverättas av en enda otillförlitlig person, och som de hadithlärda enhälligt avvisar.

När en hadith kategoriseras börjar man med att kontrollera namnen på alla de personer som förmedlat hadithen, och tiden då de levde, så att man kan se att det är rimligt att de kan ha träffats. Skulle något namn saknas, eller om något namn inte stämmer, så blir det en lucka i kedjan. Det på verkar då trovärdigheten på hadithen, men den blir inte automatisk klassad som falsk.

Om hela listan med berättare är komplett, med namn, årtal, platser, etc. etc. som överensstämmer, räcker det dock inte föratt fastställa att hadithen är sann. Nu blir nästa steg att man undersöker om varje person är tillförlitlig. Om en person N. i kedjan t.ex. är känd för att vara en fantasifull person eller en skojare, eller om man han är glömsk, eller är öppet känd som syndare – då minskar rangen av hadithen.

Så fortsätter det tills man vågar bestämma vilken trovärdighetsrang hadithen slutligen får. Detta kan vara en komplicerad process. Det är kanske därför man inte helt vill förkasta de hadither som klassats svaga eller falska, eftersom det kan ha gjorts en felaktig bedömning.

Detta var en kortfattad beskrivning så man får en överblick över vad en hadith är.


Lästips

Klassificering av haditherI Imam M. Muslim Eneborg (rahma.se)

Search terms

matn, sanad, marfu´, mawquf, maqtu´, ´ali, nazil, mutwatir, ahad, aziz, mashhur, fard, sahih, hasan, daif, mawdu´, musnad, muttasil, munqati´, mu´dal, mursal, mudallas, maqlub, dabit, ´adl, majhul, mubham, shadhdh, mahfuzh, munkar, ma´ruf, mu´llal, mudraj, mudtarib, matruk


References

  1. Sheikh Abd Allah Siraj al-Din: Sharh al-Manzhumati al-Bayquniyya
  2. Imam al-Nawawi: al-Taqrib
  3. Imam al-Suyuti’s comment: Al-Tadrib
    التقريب والتيسير لمعرفة سنن البشير والنذير للإمام النووي

Recital of Sahih Muslim 1428

Recital of Sahih Muslim
by Sheikh Muhammad al-Yaqoubi in Damascus, Rajab 1428 (July 2007)


ختمت بحمد الله جامع مسلم *** بجوف دمشق الشام جوف الإسلام

Khutimat bi hamdiAllah-i Jami’u Muslim
bi-jawfi Dimashq al-Sham, jawf al-Islam.

The book of Muslim has been completed, praise be to Allah
in the heart of Damascus of Sham, the heart of Islam.

Ten yeas ago…

Those who regularly attend the classes of al-Sayyid al-Sharif Sheikh Abul Huda Muhammad ibn Ibrahim al-Yaqoubi in the Mosque of Sheikh Muhuy al-Din Ibn al-Arabi in Damascus, will have heard him mentioning time upon time: “The recital of the books of Hadith is a tradtion that must be revived. ”

Ten years ago, in Ramadan 1418 H., Sheikh Muhammad al-Yaqoubi (may Allah preserve him and raise his rank) completed the recitatal of Imam al-Bukhari’s Jami` al-Sahih (commonlyh known as “Sahih a-Bukhari”) on the 19th of Ramadan, followed by the recital of Imam Muslim’s Al-Musnad al-Sahih (known as “Sahih Muslim”) which he completed on the 29th of Ramadan, then Al-Shama’il al-Muhammadiyya of Imam al-Tirmidhi. This was a private recital. Sheikh Mustafa Turkmani (who later became the khalifa of Sheikh Abd al-Rahman al-Shaghouri, may Allah have mercy on them both) was among those who attended the triple khatam, which was celebrated with a mawlid at the end. After ‘Eid, Sheikh Muhammad continued reciting Al-Muwatta’ of Imam Malik and one forth of the Sunan of Abu Dawud.

At this time, he was witnessed in a dream, sharing out a huge mount of gold on top of the Mosque of al-Sheikh al-Akbar.

Sheikh Muhammad Abul Huda recited

  • Sahih al-Bukhari and al-Muwatta’ in the Zaytuna Institute in California in 2000 (1421) – this was the first time ever that these books were recited in the West.
  • He recited Sahih al-Bukhari in the Hounslow Mosque in London in December 2003 (1424 H.)
  • He recited Sahih al-Bukhari in a private home in Damascus in summer 2004 (Sha’ban 1425 H.)
  • He recited al-Muwatta’ in his own home in Dimas outside Damascus in 2005 (1426)
  • He recited Imam al-Tirmidhi’s al-Shama’il al-Muhammadiyya in the Central Mosque of Manhattan, New York in Ramadan 2004 (1425), and after `Eid again in Pittsburg, US; then the following summer 2005 (1426) in the Rihla program in Madina, then he began teaching and commenting upon it in the Mosque of Sheikh Muhyi al-Din Ibn al-‘Arabi in Damascus from the beginning of year 1428 and onwards.

Rajab 1428

Then in Rajab 1428, he recited Imam Muslim’s Al-Musnad al-Sahih in Damascus, hosted by none less than al-Sheikh al-Akbar, Sheikh Muhyi al-Din Ibn al-`Arabi, may Allah ta’ala be pleased with him, in al-Jami’ al-Salimiyy. the mosque annexed to his burial place.

This was a historical event, since Imam Muslim’s Musnad has not been recited publicly in its entirety for 130 years. The last time this occurred was in 1290, when Ahmad Musalla ibn ‘Abd al-Rahman al-Kuzbari recited it under Qubba al-Nasr in Damascus in 1290 H., and before that by al-Amir ‘ Abd al-Qadir al-Jaza’iri (the famous mujahid, who was also a muhaddith) in the maqam of Sayyiduna al-Husayn in the Ummawi mosque – may Allah ta’ala find pleasure in them all and accept their deeds.

Tabaqat – that is the traditon of registering the attendants and the details of which parts of the recital each person listened to or was absent from – have not been done for 200 years. The last person to set up tabaqat of hadith recition was Murtada al-Husayn al-Zabiydi (d. 1205 H.)

The recital was completed in 9 days, beginning after fajr – after reciting Hizb al-Nur, one of the Shadhili awrad – and continuing until ‘isha with breaks for prayer, food and rest. It was attended by some 400 persons, men and women, and lists of attendence (tabaqat) where established. About half of the attendees were visitors from other coutries – Malaysia, Singapore, Turkey, US, Britain, Canada, Egypt, Jordan, Saudi Arabia etc. A group of munshids, directed by Sheikh Abul Huda, refreshed the spririts during breaks. and made the travel easy and pleasant.

The recital was accompanied by several miracles as befits the dignity of the occasion:

  • Sheikh Muhammad Abul Huda one morning related dream he had the night before: He saw himself reciting the Musnad of Imam Muslim in the presence of two of Imam Muslim’s Shuyukh, Abu Bakr ibn Abi Shayba and Ishaq ibn Ibrahim. Upon hearing this, one of the attendees got up and said: “I had exactly the same dream.”
  • In one of the sessions, a young student of Sheikh Turkmani shared a dream he had of his Sheikh, directing him to “go to Sheikh Abu al-Huda.”
  • As for logistics, nothing was planned, everythinge was improvised. At times, there would be electricity black-outs, upon which the Sheikh continued the recitation at impovised lights, without micophones. The entire event was served by only two people, who vonunteered to serve food and coffe during the breaks.

However the greatest miracle is problably the voice of Sheikh Muhammad Abul Huda, by which – despite severely reduced lung capacity – Allah ta`ala has once more allowed us to inhale a fresh breath from the speach of His most beloved Prophet (sallAllah `alehi wa Alihi wa sallam).

Wa al-hamduli Allah Rabb al-`Alamin.

Khatam and Ijazat

The khatam took place on Sunday the 15th of Rajab, coinciding with the day of passing of Imam Muslim, and was attended by as many people as the mosque could hold, including some 40 top scholars of Damascus and visitors from other countries, among them:

  • Al-Sayyid al-Sharif Sheikh Fatih al-Kettani hafizhahu Allah ta’ala, son of the great muhaddith Muhammad al-Makki ibn Ja`far ibn Idris al-Kettani rahimahu Allah ta’ala, whose valuable ijazat are sought by many, but rarely given. On this occasion, he gave general ijaza to all those present at the khatam to pass on his isnads, which are the highest existing today.
  • Sheikh Muhammad TaHa Sukar hafizhahu Allah ta’ala, chief senior qari’  of Damascus, who made a long du`a.
  • Sheikh Hasan al-Hindi (one of Damascus’ great experts on Hanafi fiqh)
  • Sheikh Yahya al-Ghuthani, a famous qari’ from Saudi-Arabia, who gave general ijaza to all those present at the khatam;
  • Sheikh Munawwar `Atiq, who is serving as a Mufti for the community of Birmingham, UK’
  • etc. etc.

Finally Sheikh Muhammad ibn Ibrahim al-Ya’qubi – may Allah ta`ala spread his light and incline hearts to his guidance – made du`a and gave ijaza to all those present to narrate Sahih Muslim, under the conditons that the recipient must follow it up by acquiring precision and correctness in recitation, and submit to guidance and suluk.

Such ijazat are not a proof of qualification of the recipient, but may be used in future if the person acquires qualifications. Sheikh Muhammad al-Yaqoubi even encouraged children to attend the sama’ (hearing),  giving several examples of how great scholars attained ijazat in their childhood that later were valued because of their “highness’. He quoted as an example his own hearing at the age of ten  from sheikh Muhammad al-Makki al-Kettani, a link that contributes to the highness of his own chains of transmission today.

Impact

The khatam is over. however, the recital of hadith has only just begun.

“Haddathana Yahya bnu Yahya al-Tamimiyy… Haddathana Abu Bakri bnu Abi Shaybah… Haddathana Ishaqu bnu Ibrahima…Haddathana Qutaydatu bnu Sa`id…. Haddathna… ” The names of the narrators keep reverberating throughout Damasucus, as, at this time of writing, dozens of hadith work shops are taking place all over the city. How come?

Many of the attendees were attracted by the hope of being given ijaza by one of the greatest Hadith scholars’ of our time. However, certaiin conditions are attached to this, as the Sheikh detailed in connection with the recital sessions:

1. Sheikh Abul Huda stressed at the very beginning of the recital that the ijaza is not valid except to persons belonging to Ahl al-Sunna wa al-Jama’a, i.e. those who adhere to the Ash’ari-Maturidi ‘aqida, and the four schools of fiqh, and acknowledge the sufi turuq which conform thereto. – This caused some attendees to leave, while others were led to reconsider their own stance.

2. To show full adab towards Allah ta`ala, His Messenger (blessings and peace be upon him and his family), the mosque, the books (they belong to Allah, and are given as an amana) and the Sheikh, listening in silence, sitting in front of the Sheikh in a position like in tashahhud, giving him respect and complying with his requests. In this way the recital sessions became a practical course of adab, that no book can possibly replace.

3. Attendance of the entire recital. The Sheikh required any parts missed to be made up by listening or reading in front of attendees that he appointed.

This last point in particular contains a lot of wisdom. It has resulted in the recital being followed up by dozens of halaqas of hadith all over Damascus, where people recite to each other to make up for missed parts, exerting themselves, and thereby increasing their love for the hadith and their appreciation of the effort involved in performing this type of recital.

In general, the impact of the event can hardly be underestimated, and its fruits are already showing.

  • The envolvment of scholars of all ranks, seekers of Sacred Knowledge and commoners, in completing this recital has raised the consciousness of the value of upholding the tradition carrying on the chains of transmission.
  • The fame of Damascus and its scholars, as the treasurers of the science of hadith is flying over the Muslim world.
  • The subtle blessings of reciting the reports of Allah’s Messenger (may He send blessings and peace over him and his family) can not in any way be enumerated – but maybe some of it is conveyed in a dream that one of the attendees witnessed during the course of the recital. He said:
“A wali informed me last night of a great disaster approaching Damascus,
but because of this recital, it was averted.”

Praise and thanks be to Allah who grants us His favours. May our deeds meet with His pleasure and acceptance. May He preserve the People Hadith, its Keepers and Servants and Lovers. May He keep us all under the shade of Protection he grants us through them, and never stop the showers of Mercy sent down at their hands. May he tie us firmly, by word an deed and spirit, to the Sunna of His Most Beloved – upon whom be the blessings and salutations of Allah most Hign, as well as over his Noble Family and Companions. Amin.

bmk 2007

Special Ayat

Special Ayat:
1- Ayat for healing – Ayat al-Shifa html
2- Ayat for warding off calamities
3- Du`at from the Quran beginning with Rabbana
4- Du`at from the Quran beginning with Rabbi

Tajwid – Recitals

Recitals

of use for tajwid students


Dr Samir Nass
[Fatiha] [Mulk] [Muzzamil][Waqiyya] [Rahman] [Yaseen]

Juz Amma Sura no:
[078] [079] [080] [081] [082] [083] [084] [085] [086] [087] [088] [089] [090] [091] [092] [093] [094] [095] [096] [097] [098] [099] [100] [101] [102] [103] [104] [105] [106] [107] [108] [109] [110] [111] [112] [113] [114]

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Textkit: Hadith

Articles on Hadith science
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Textkit: Islamic Knowledge

Textkit: Islamic Knowledge

Hadith about seeking knowledge

 
Kathir ibn Qays said: “I was sitting with Abu al-Darda’ in the mosque of Damascus. A man came to him and said: Abu al-Darda’, I have come to you from the city of Allah’s Messenger for a narration I have heard that you relate from the Prophet (s). I have come for no other purpose.” He said: I heard Allah’s Messenger (s) say:
“If anyone travels on a road in search of knowledge, Allah will cause him to travel on one of the roads of Paradise, the angels will lower their wings from good pleasure with one who seeks knowledge, and the inhabitants of the heavens and the earth and the fish in the depth of the water will ask forgiveness for the learned man. The superiority of the learned man over the ordinary believer is like that of the moon on the night when it is full over the rest of the stars. The learned are the inheritors of the Prophets, and the Prophets have neither dinar nor dirham, leaving only knowledge, and he who takes it takes an abundant
portion.”

Abu Dawud narrated it in his Sunan as the first hadith of the book of `Ilm, also Ibn Majah and Darimi in the muqaddima of their Sunan, all of them with a weak chain which, however, is strengthened by the fact that Bukhari in his Sahih, Tirmidhi in his Sunan, Ahmad in his Musnad, Bayhaqi in his Sunan all narrate various parts of this hadith.

 

Textkit

The Legal Ruling on Smoking | Sh. Muhammad Al-Yaqoubi

The Legal Ruling on Smoking


By His Eminence Shaykh Muhammad Al-Yaqoubi

The following is a transcript of a Friday sermon delivered on the 8th August 2008 by Shaykh Muhammad Al-Yaqoubi.

 

Dear believing brothers! I would like to address an important matter, and that is the legal ruling on smoking in the Shari‘a. This habit has become prevalent amongst our youth, in so much so that it has become a custom to smoke to relieve oneself from anger or to appear elevated amongst a crowd. Smoking has become a form of amusement and folly for some, and many of our youth adopt this habit to conform to their friends and colleagues.

 

Dear believing brothers! Smoking is forbidden. There is no doubt whatsoever as to its prohibition among the jurists. The rulings of the Shari‘a can only be proven by a clear text from the Noble Qur’an, or by the pure Prophetic practice (Sunna), through the prohibition (in this case) of al-Mustafa, upon him be the peace and blessings of Allah Almighty, or by the consensus (ijma) of the mujtahidin or by analogical reasoning (qiyas) based upon the Book and the Prophetic practice. These are the four fundamental principles that are agreed upon by the all jurists, imams and mujtahidin without exception.

 

Through the application of these four principles, one does not need to find a specific text on smoking to arrive at the conclusion that it is forbidden. Rather, the agreement of the jurists in a given era is sufficient to deduce a particular act or thing is forbidden (haram), permissible (mubah), disliked (makruh) or recommended (mandub). It suffices us to find similar examples which are in unison with the original principle (laid down by the jurists to newly arising problems). As such, the principle of wine being intoxicating is mentioned in a narration of the Prophet, upon him be the peace and blessings of Allah Almighty,. If we apply the principle in this case, the ruling is one of prohibition and the proof is from qiyas.

 

Therefore, the majority of jurists have declared smoking to be forbidden. I am not referring to the Islamic council of jurisprudence in Jeddah which gathers a group of jurists from every country to agree on contemporary issues of the Muslims (this council agreed that smoking is forbidden).Rather, I refer you to the opinions of select jurists who clarified this ruling over one hundred years ago.

 

One such jurist was Sayyid Muhammad ibn Ja’far al-Kittani (may Allah Almighty show him mercy), a muhaddith from Morocco, who authored a great book about three hundred pages long in which he clarified that the legal ruling on smoking is forbidden. He mentioned its harms, deducing its prohibition from Prophetic narrations and various chapters of jurisprudence. My father’s paternal uncle, the erudite scholar, Sayyid Muhammad Sharif al-Yaqoubi (may Allah Almighty show him mercy), who was the Imam of the Grand Umayyad Mosque, also issued this ruling. He would never attend a gathering where people smoked, for the sake of establishing the Prophetic practice and supporting the religion of Allah Almighty.

 

My father, Sayyid Ibrahim al-Yaqoubi (may Allah Almighty show him mercy), seal of the authenticators, leader of the scholars in this city thirty years ago, also issued a legal ed

ict that it was forbidden to smoke according to the four legal schools of thought. Being an expert in issuing legal judgments according to the four schools, and possessing knowledge of the texts of the jurists of these schools, he found corroboration that indicated to the prohibition of smoking. What are these aspects?

 

The first aspect is harm. The harm of smoking is now obvious to everyone. Our parents and grandparents clarified some of its harms, and indeed in this era in which knowledge has advanced and medical research has expanded, everyone is familiar with the harm of smoking! It would require more time and along lecture to explain the harmful effects in detail. Nevertheless, I would like to elucidate the extent of the damage caused by smoking.

 

It has been proven that from the time of its plantation, farming and then further to its consumption, great harm is attributed to tobacco production, its inhalation and even long after its consumption. Some physicians from the Faculty of Medicine of Damascus authored an epistle called “The Industrial Harms of Tobacco Production”, which showed that there is harm involved in the sowing of tobacco, from harvesting, drying out and milling its leaves, and there is also harm on whoever is involved in the production process. If these people are inflicted with harm, what of the one who consumes smoke? In this latter case, smoke is entering the body! What is the proof for this? I do not believe a rational person would demand proof. The Prophet, upon him be the peace and blessings of Allah Almighty, said in an authentic narration, “There is no inflicting or receiving harm.” This means it is not permissible for anyone to harm himself or to inflict harm onto another. This narration is from the comprehensive speech of the Prophet, upon him be the peace and blessings of Allah Almighty, which became a juristic principle on which rulings are based. Perhaps mankind thinks that the harm is not manifest and that he cannot see the effect. If a man consumes a large amount of poison he will die in a moment. Yet if he takes a matchstick, dips it into poison, places it in a handkerchief, and then puts the handkerchief into a barrel of water and then drinks from it, it will not visibly harm him straight away. However its harm will manifest over a period of time. Many leaders died from slow poisoning, Harun al-Rashid is one such example.

 

With regards to the inhalation of smoke, some of our youth argue, “I am not harmed by it, nor does it affect me”. They are deluded, as man does not know when an illness will appear. Likewise, it is not known when a malignant tumour will manifest itself. Tumours can consume the members of his body, limbs and intestines in the severest of manners. Man does not know when to purchase the cure for his body. It has been medically proven that smoking is harmful and the facet of its harm does not stop with the liver, the heart, the intestines, the brain, the blood and the chest. Physicians know this better than us. I do not wish to change the subject of this sermon to medicine. Hence, smoking is forbidden because it is harmful.

 

The second aspect of the prohibition is that smoking is an irritant. Namely, it is a type of drug which spreads after being consumed. We can prove this by knowledge of a smoker’s habit. Their habit is to argue with every one of their smoking companions and to display severe anger until what frees him! Smoking? So it cools his anger, cools his limbs and calms his nerves.

 

This is proof that smoking numbs the nerves. Knowledge of tobacco being an irritant has been proven without a shadow of a doubt. As a child, aged ten years old, I saw an experiment; the nicotine from a cigarette was injected into a kitten, and it died instantly! Although the strength of a human body can bear these levels of nicotine, it does cause weakness. Passing unnoticed, the desire to smoke increases; most smokers begin with one or two cigarettes in a day and then progress to one or two packets a day.

 

We are heading towards the month of Ramadan. Henceforth, we would like every one of us who smokes to take a silent oath within them to give up smoking. Fasting is the best way for us to quit smoking. Thus, we can see the benefits of fasting, its virtues and its fruits, if Allah Almighty wills, in Ramadan. We beseech Allah Almighty that we arrive in Ramadan in the best of health, wellbeing, faith and piety, as He is Sami, Qarib and Mujib.

 

It was narrated by Umm Salama, may Allah Almighty be pleased with her, recorded by Imam Ahmad in his Musnad and authenticated by Imam al-Suyuti, that the Prophet, upon him be the

peace and blessings of Allah Almighty, said, “Prohibited is every intoxicant and drug”. Thus, the second aspect is that it is an irritant.

 

As for the third aspect of prohibition; it gives off a pungent smell. This is something we know well, as most of us have experienced the harm caused by the smell of smokers or smoke. Imam Muslim reports, in his authentic collection of Prophetic narrations, that the Prophet, upon him be the peace and blessings of Allah Almighty, said, “Whoever eats from these two nauseating trees should not approach our mosques because angels are repulsed by what people are repulsed by.” The Prophet, upon him be the peace and blessings of Allah Almighty, indicated onions and garlic and, in some narrations, leeks.

 

We have a principle in the manners of greeting people, which is that one adorns oneself with the best of ornaments and the most beautiful garments. Part of beautification is the use of perfume of goods cent and part of the individual characteristics of the Prophet, upon him be the peace and blessings of Allah Almighty, was the pleasant fragrance of his noble perspiration. It would emanate an aroma of musk, despite it not being touched by perfume. Nevertheless, the Prophet, upon him be the peace and blessings of Allah Almighty, loved perfume and said, “Beloved to me are perfume, women and the apple of my eye is in the prayer.” This is the disposition of the Muslim, especially concerning the obligations upon him. Therefore, how should one enter the house of Allah Almighty? How then, should one enter the prayer? In what state should one be in, considering the angels accompany him? “Protectors are sent to you.” “They guard you from the front and from behind; they protect you by the command of Allah Almighty.” How is it that he invokes Allah Almighty with this odour, knowing that with each invocation the angels descend on him from the heavens, bringing mercy which engulfs him and tranquillity falls upon him, as reported in the narration of al-Mustafa, upon him be the peace and blessings of Allah Almighty,. Knowing this, is it appropriate for a believer to change the odour of his body and mouth? Is it appropriate, after this, to invoke the name of Allah Almighty with his mouth, and take breaths with His names? Is it fitting, after this, to change the natural odour to a disliked odour, which repels angels as it repels humans? This is an external aspect of the prohibition of smoking.

 

The fourth aspect to the prohibition of smoking and perhaps the most obvious is widely known among people, due to the fact that Allah Almighty categorised matters into good and bad. Our Prophet, upon him be the peace and blessings of Allah Almighty, was described in a passage from the Noble Qur’an, and it encompasses the description of his message. Allah Almighty states, “Those who follow the Messenger, the Prophet, the Unlettered, who is found recorded in the Torah and the Bible. He commands goodness and forbids evil…. ”“He invites to goodness and forbids that which is foul.” Allah Almighty has commanded us to take from the good of the Earth, “Eat from the good that we have provided for you.” It is forbidden to eat the odious; the Prophet, upon him be the peace and blessings of Allah Almighty, forbade the repulsive. There is no hesitation in categorising tobacco as harmful. How can it be categorised as good? I do not think a drinker of wine would categorise it as good.

 

The aspect of its prohibition is vast and without end; it would need lengthy lectures and lessons. I would only like this to be a brief insight into the evidences for the prohibition of smoking. I urge smokers young, old, women and men to give up smoking because smoking is disobedience to Allah Almighty.

 

The fifth and final aspect is squandering and wasting money. We deduce this from the following narration of the Prophet, upon him be the peace and blessings of Allah Almighty, “Spend thrifts are the brothers of Satan.” The money of those who waste it is seized under the laws of jurisprudence and they are called fools. What would you think of a person who sets his money alight? What would you call a person who brings dollars and burns them in front of people? A person who, every day would come with hundreds of pounds and set them alight in front of others? How would people judge him? No doubt he would be called a fool. There are chapters and rules pertaining to these types of people in the books of jurisprudence. They are restricted from spending money even for their living expenses. This is the reality of the one who smokes; he burns and squanders his wealth. He will be asked regarding it on the Day of Judgment, “The feet of a slave will not move on the Day of Judgment, until he is questioned about four things.” The Prophet finished with, “From where he earned his wealth and where he spent his wealth.”

 

I ask Allah Almighty to teach us what benefits us and benefit us with what we have learnt; as He is Sami, Qarib and Mujib. I affirm my speech and I seek forgiveness for myself and all of you. And seek His forgiveness as the seekers of forgiveness attain success.