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Ayat al-Shifa

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Book on Mantiq | Akhdari: Al-Sullam

Book on Mantiq | Akhdari: Al-Sullam

Mantiq: The science of Logic – Book recommendation

Al-Akhdari: Al-Sulam (didactic poem) – السلم المنورق في علم المنطق للأخضري – View PDF | Download | Youtube recital

Al-Damnahuri: Idah al-mubham min ma’ani al-Sulam – ايضاح المبهم في معاني السلم الشيخ احمد الدمنهوري – View PDF | Download | More shuruh…

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A summary of Logic (english/arabic) View PDF | Download


Book online | Bukhari: Al-Adab Al-Mufrad

Al-Adab Al-Mufrad 
By Imam Muhammad ibn Isma’il al-Bukhari (d. 256 H.)

English Translation by Aisha Bewley (pdf)

Book online | Bukhari: Jami’ al-Sahih

Jami’al-Sahih (Collection of Sahih Hadiths) 
By Imam Muhammad ibn Isma’il al-Bukhari (d. 256 H.)

English Translation by Aisha Bewley (Revision in progress)  

Book online | G.F. Haddad: 40 Hadith on the Excellence of Sham

Book online | G.F. Haddad: 40 Hadith on the Excellence of Sham

The Excellence of Syro-Palestine ~ Al-Sham and its People

Forty Hadith – Compiled and translated by Shaykh GF Haddad
Bilingual – Arabic & English – 2017
Remembrance Publications | amazon


The Arabic word al-Shâm has been left untranslated for lack of an English equivalent. It is originally written and pronounced al-Sha’m and means “the North” with relation to the Hijaz, covering the lands of present-day Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, and Jordan from the Euphrates to Sinai. Ibn Hibban said: “Al-Shâm begins at Bâlis [East of Aleppo] and ends at `Arish Misr [at the border of Egypt].”1 The lexical and geographical inclusion of al-Qudus (Jerusalem) in al-Shâm in the language of the Arabs is established by the narration of Salman al-Farisi’s question to the Christians of Persia: “Where is the origin of this religion?” They replied: “In al-Shâm.”2 In modern usage al-Shâm often means old Damascus. The Arabic term for the latter is Dimashq, which is cited in the authentic hadith.3
GF Haddad ©


In the Qur'an - I.

I. In the Noble Qur’an

1. Allah Most High blessed the land of Shâm when He said {Glorified be He Who carried His servant by night from the Inviolable Place of Worship to the Far Distant Place of Worship the neighborhood whereof We have blessed, that We might show him of Our tokens! Lo! He, only He, is the Nearer, the Seer} (17:1).

The Prophet ﷺ said: “I was brought the Burâq, a tall white beast, bigger than a donkey but smaller than a mule. He could place his hooves at the farthest boundary of his gaze. I mounted it until I arrived at the Hallowed House (Bayt al-Maqdis). I tied it at the ring where the Prophets tied it before him. I entered the mosque and prayed two rak`as there.4

Other narrations of the hadith of isrâ’ and mi`raj state that the following took place during the Prophet’s ﷺ flight on top of the Burâq:

Gibrîl said: “Alight and pray here.” The Prophet ﷺ did so then remounted. Gibrîl said: “Do you know where you prayed?” He said no. Gibrîl said: “You prayed in Madyan5 at the tree of Musa.”6 The Burâq continued his lightning flight, then Gibrîl said: “Alight and pray here.” He did so then remounted, then Gibrîl said: “Do you know where you prayed?” He said no. Gibrîl said: “You prayed at the mountain of Sînâ’ where Allah addressed Musa.” Then he reached a land where the palaces of al-Shâm became visible to him. Gibrîl said to him: “Alight and pray.” He did so and remounted, then the Burâq continued his lightning flight and Gibrîl said: “Do you know where you prayed?” He said no. Gibrîl said: “You prayed in Bayt Lahm, where `Isa ibn Maryam was born.”… He continued travelling until he reached the city of the Hallowed House and he entered it by its Southern gate. He dismounted the Burâq and tied it at the gate of the mosque, using the ring by which the Prophets tied it before him. “We entered the mosque from a gate through which the sun and the moon could be seen when they set. I prayed in the mosque for as long as Allah wished.”7

The commentaries are unanimous in adducing the Prophet’s ﷺ reports whereby {the Far Distant Place of Worship the neighborhood whereof We have blessed} is the divine sanctuary in al-Qudus in Shâm.8 Ka`b al-Ahbar said: “Allah has blessed al-Shâm from the Euphrates to al-`Arish [Egypt’s border].”9

2. Allah Most High also said {And We caused the folk who were devised to inherit the eastern parts of the land and the western parts thereof which We had blessed} (7:137), meaning Shâm, as narrated from the authorities in tafsîr among the Tâbi`în.10

3. Allah Most High also said {And We verily did allot unto the Children of Israel a beautiful abode (mubawwa’a sidq), and provided them with good things} (10:93). The scholars of the Tâbi`în explained the beautiful abode to mean Shâm.11

4. Allah Most High also said {And We rescued him [Ibrahim] and Lot (and brought them) to the land which We have blessed for (all) peoples} (21:71) meaning Shâm according to the Salaf as reported by the commentators.12

5. Allah Most High also said {And unto Solomon (We subdued) the wind in its raging. It set by His command toward the land which We had blessed} (21:81), meaning Shâm.13 Ibn `Abd al-Salam said that the scholars differed whether this blessing consisted in the presence of the Prophets and Messengers, or with the abundance of harvests and water.14

6. Allah Most High also said {And We set, between them and the towns which We had blessed, towns easy to be seen, and We made the stage between them easy, (saying): Travel in them safely both by night and day} (34:18). The early scholars have identified those blessed towns as Shâm.15

7. Allah Most High also swore {By the fig and the olive, By Mount Sînâ} (95:1-2), meaning by “the fig” al-Shâm and by “the olive” Palestine, which is also in Shâm, as is Sînâ.16 Each of these three symbols and the places they stand for refers in turn to a Prophet, respectively Ibrahim `alayhi as-Salam, `Isa `alayhi as-Salam, and Musa `alayhi as-Salam.

8. The divine mention of “the first gathering” in the verse {He it is Who has caused those of the People of the Scripture who disbelieved to go forth from their homes unto the first gathering} (59:2) is an allusion to the second and final gathering, both of which take place in Shâm.17

9. The land of refuge for `Isa ibn Maryam `alayhi as-Salam and his mother in the verse {And We made the son of Mary and his mother a portent, and We gave them refuge on a height (rabwa), a place of flocks and water springs} (23:50) was Damascus according to Ibn `Abbas, `Abd Allah ibn Salam, Sa`id ibn al-Musayyib, and al-Hasan al-Basri.18

10. His – the Most High – statement {many columned Iram, The like of which was not created in the lands} (89:7-8) was explained by Bishr ibn al-Harith to refer to Shâm.19

Blessings and greetings of Allah on the Holy Prophet, his Noble Family, and all his Companions.


1In Ibn Hibban (16:294). Bâlis is sixty miles East of Aleppo, at the South-East bend of the Euphrates, while `Arish Misr is the first Egyptian town on the side of Shâm, on the Mediterranean coast as defined in Mu`jam al-Buldan. Al-Suyuti in al-Durr al-Manthur mentions that Ibn `Asakir narrates something similar from the Tâbi`î Abu al-Aghdash. This definition is confirmed by the report narrated from Ka`b al-Ahbar below.

2Narrated as part of a very long hadith by Ahmad in his Musnad and al-Tabarani, both with sound chains as stated by al-Haythami in Majma` al-Zawa’id, and by al-Bazzar in his Musnad.

3Cf. below, Part I #9 and Part II #14, 23, 26, 27, and 36.

4Narrated as part of a long hadith from Anas by Muslim and Ahmad.

5A city on the shore of the Red Sea bordering Tabuk near the valley of Shu`ayb.

6The tree under which Musa `alayhi as-Salam rested from fatigue and hunger during his flight from Fir`awn.

7Narrated as part of a long hadith from Anas by al-Nasa’i with a sound chain and from Shaddad ibn Aws by al-Bayhaqi who declared it sound in Dala’il al-Nubuwwa (2:355-357), and by al-Tabarani in al-Kabir and al-Bazzar with a sound chain as indicated by al-Haythami in Majma` al-Zawa’id. See Ibn Hajar’s Mukhtasar (1:90-91 #32).

8See al-Suhayli, al-Ta`rif wa al-I`lam fi ma Ubhima fi al-Qur’an min al-Asma’ wa al-A`lam (p. 96) and the Tafsirs of Abu al-Su`ud (5:155), Ibn Kathir (3:22-24), al-Jalalayn (p. 365), al-Durr al-Manthur (5:182, 5:195, 5:222), al-Tabari (15:5), al-Wahidi (2:627), al-Nahhas (4:119), etc. Also al-Mubarakfuri, Tuhfa (8:450).

9In al-Suyuti, Mufhimat al-Aqran fi Mubhamat al-Qur’an (p. 21).

10Narrated from al-Hasan and Qatada by `Abd al-Razzaq, `Abd ibn Humayd in his Musnad, al-Tarabi in his Tafsir, Ibn al-Mundhir, Ibn Abi Hatim, Abu al-Shaykh, and Ibn `Asakir as mentioned in al-Suyuti’s al-Durr al-Manthur and Ibn `Abd al-Salam in Targhib Ahl al-Islam (p. 13-14).

11Narrated from Qatada, al-Dahhak, and Ibn Zayd by Ibn al-Mundhir as stated by al-Suyuti in Mufhimat al-Aqran fi Mubhamat al-Qur’an (p. 115) and Ibn `Abd al-Salam in Targhib Ahl al-Islam (p. 14). See the Tafsirs of Abu al-Su`ud (4:174), al-Jalalayn (p. 281), al-Durr al-Manthur (4:389), al-Tabari (11:166-167), `Abd al-Razzaq (2:297), Ibn al-Jawzi (4:62), al-Shawkani (2:485), al-Nahhas (3:316), etc.

12See the Tafsirs of Abu al-Su`ud (6:77), Ibn Kathir (3:186), al-Jalalayn (p. 427), al-Durr al-Manthur (5:642-643), al-Tabari (11:166, 17:45-47), al-Qurtubi (11:305), al-Wahidi (2:720), Ibn al-Jawzi (5:368), al-Shawkani (3:416), etc.

13See the Tafsirs of Abu al-Su`ud (6:80), al-Jalalayn (p. 428), al-Tabari (17:55), al-Qurtubi (11:322), Ibn al-Jawzi (5:370-374), al-Shawkani (3:419) etc.

14Ibn `Abd al-Salam, Targhib (p. 13).

15See the Tafsirs of Abu al-Su`ud (7:128), Ibn Kathir (3:534), al-Tha`alibi (3:244), al-Jalalayn (p. 566), al-Durr al-Manthur (6:692), al-Tabari (22:83-84), al-Qurtubi (14:289), al-Wahidi (2:882), Mujahid (2:525), Ibn al-Jawzi (6:448), al-Shawkani (4:321), al-Nahhas (5:410) etc.

16See the Tafsirs of Abu al-Su`ud (9:174), Ibn Kathir (4:527), al-Jalalayn (p. 813), al-Durr al-Manthur (8:554-555), al-Tabari (30:239), `Abd al-Razzaq (3:382), al-Qurtubi (20:111), al-Wahidi (2:1214), Ibn al-Jawzi (9:168-170), al-Shawkani (5:464-465), etc. and al-Bakri’s Mu`jam ma Ustu`jam (3:898).

17See the Tafsirs of al-Jassas (5:316), Abu al-Su`ud (8:225), al-Tha`alibi (4:281-282), al-Jalalayn (p. 730), al-Durr al-Manthur (1:730), al-Tabari (28:28-29), `Abd al-Razzaq (3:282), al-Qurtubi (18:2), al-Wahidi (2:1080), Ibn al-Jawzi (8:204), al-Shawkani (5:195, 5:199), etc. and al-Hakim (1990 ed. 2:525). See also the report cited below (#28).

18Cf. Ibn Abi Shayba (6:409) with a sound chain to Sa`id ibn al-Musayyib, al-Suyuti in Mufhamat al-Aqran (p. 148), al-Haythami (7:72), Ibn `Abd al-Salam in Targhib Ahl al-Islam (p. 27), and the Tafsirs of Abu al-Su`ud (6:137), Ibn Kathir (3:247), al-Thawri (p. 216), al-Durr al-Manthur (6:101-102), al-Tabari (18:26), `Abd al-Razzaq (3:45), al-Qurtubi (12:126), al-Wahidi (2:748), Ibn al-Jawzi (5:476), al-Shawkani (3:486-487), al-Nahhas (4:461-462), etc. as well as Yaqut’s Mu`jam al-Buldan (2:464) and al-Bakri’s Mu`jam ma Ustu`jam (2:637).

One narration of this commentary has a chain from Ibn al-Musayyib up to `Abd Allah ibn Salam but its authenticity was questioned by Ibn Abi `Asim (d. 287) in his `Ilal al-Hadith (2:65-66) on the grounds that none of the authorities went further up than Ibn al-Musayyib. However, the hadith master Abu Muhammad al-Ramahurmuzi’s (d. 362) narration in al-Muhaddith al-Fasil Bayn al-Rawi wa al-Wa`i (“The Hadith Scholar That Differentiates Between Narrators and Containers”) (p. 475) does narrate it up to `Abd Allah ibn Salam with his chain, and both Ibn Kathir in his Tafsir (3:247) and al-Qurtubi in his (12:126) mention Ibn Salam’s narration. Note that al-Dhahabi lauded al-Ramahurmuzi’s book in his Siyar (1996 ed. 12:233) and related that al-Silafi carried it wherever he went. Dr. Nur al-Din `Itr pointed out in a class communication that it was the first comprehensive book on hadith science ever written, second to which came the works of al-Hakim, al-Khatib, and Ibn al-Salah.

Another narration raises this commentary to the Prophet ﷺ from Abu Umama as narrated by Ibn `Asakir in Tarikh Dimashq (1:192), Tammam al-Razi in al-Fawa’id (2:11), al-Raba`i in Fada’il al-Sham wa Dimashq (p. 37), and al-`Ajluni in Kashf al-Khafa’ (1:544). However, its chain is very weak due to Maslama ibn `Ali who is discarded as a narrator (matrûk).

19Narrated from al-Maqbiri by al-Tabari in his Tafsir (30:111) and others.

Source: In the Noble Qur’an

In Hadith - II.

II. In the Noble Hadith

The Prophet ﷺ called al-Shâm the purest of the lands of Allah Most High, the place where Religion, belief and safety are found in the time of dissension, and the home of the saints for whose sake Allah sends sustenance to the people and victory to Muslims over their enemies. The following is a list of hadiths relevant to the immense merits of al-Shâm:

11. The Prophet ﷺ said: “Blessings to al-Shâm, blessings to al-Shâm, blessings to al-Shâm!” (yâ tûbâ li al-Shâm). They asked why and he replied: “Because the wings of the angels of the Merciful are lowered over it.”1

Ibn `Abd al-Salam said: “This is an allusion to the fact that Allah has put certain angels in charge of guarding Shâm and protecting it. This is in agreement with the hadith of `Abd Allah ibn Hawala [#18] that states that they [the people of Shâm] are under His guarantee (kafâla) and His care.”2

12. The Prophet ﷺ said: “The heartland of the Abode of Islam is al-Shâm.” (`Uqr dâr al-islâm al-shâm.)3 A longer version states that Salama ibn Nufayl al-Hadrami al-Sakuni came to the Prophet ﷺ and said: “I have fattened the horses and laid down arms, for war has rested its burdens and there is no more fighting.” The Prophet ﷺ said: “Now has fighting come! There shall not cease to be a group in my Community that shall remain victorious over all people. Allah shall cause the hearts of some to go astray and those shall fight them and receive from them His sustenance, until His command comes to pass as they are in that state. Lo! Verily, the heartland of the Believers is al-Shâm (`uqr dâr al-mu’minîn al-shâm), and immense good remains tied to the forelocks of horses until the Day of Resurrection.”4

Ibn `Abd al-Salam said: “In this hadith the Prophet ﷺ informed us of the apostasy that would take place on the part of those whose hearts Allah would cause to go astray, and the fighting against the apostates. In his telling us about residing in Shâm there is a sign that to live there consists in waging war for His sake, and news that Shâm shall remain a fortified borderline city until the Day of Resurrection. We have witnessed this, for the outer borders of Shâm are permanent front lines.”5

13. Strengthened by the above report is that of the Prophet’s ﷺ saying: “The people of Shâm, their spouses, their offspring, and their male and female servants are garrisoned for the sake of Allah murâbitûn). Therefore, whoever takes up residence in one of the cities of Shâm, he is in a garrison-post or fortified borderline city and he is a mujâhid.”6

14. The Prophet ﷺ is also related to say: “A party of my Community shall not cease to fight at the gates of Damascus and its surroundings and at the gates of Bayt al-Maqdis and its surroundings. The betrayal or desertion of whoever deserts them shall not harm them in the least. They shall remain victorious, standing for truth, until the Hour rises.”7 Al-Nawawi explained the term “the Hour” to mean “the spread of the wind [that shall take away the lives of the Believers].”8

15. The Prophet ﷺ said: “The anti-Christ shall come out into my Community and endure for forty days or months or years” – the narrator was unsure – “after which Allah shall send `Isa ibn Maryam, who looks exactly like `Urwa ibn Mas`ud. `Isa shall pursue the anti-Christ and destroy him. Then people shall live for seven years without the least enmity among them. Then Allah shall send a cool wind from the direction of al-Shâm, whereupon none shall remain on the face of the earth that has an atom’s worth of goodness in their heart except they shall be taken away…”9 The Prophet ﷺ described that wind as having “the scent of musk and the touch of silk.”10

16. The Prophet ﷺ said: “O Allah, bless us in our Shâm and our Yemen!” They said: “O Messenger of Allah! and our Najd!” He did not reply but again said: “O Allah, bless us in our Shâm and our Yemen!” They said: “O Messenger of Allah! and our Najd!” He did not reply but again said: “O Allah, bless us in our Shâm and our Yemen!” They said: “O Messenger of Allah! and our Najd!” He said: “Thence shall come great upheavals and dissensions, and from it shall issue the side of the head of Shaytân.”11

Som people claim that Najd means Iraq in the terminology of the hadith but this is incorrect.12 Al-Nawawi said: “Najd is the area that lies between Jurâsh (in Yemen) all the way to the rural outskirts of Kûfâ (in Iraq), and its Western border is the Hijaz. The author of al-Matali` said: Najd is all a province of al-Yamama.”13 Al-Fayruzabadi said: “Its geographical summit is Tihama and Yemen, its bottom is Iraq and Shâm, and it begins at Dhatu `Irqin14 from the side of the Hijaz.”15 Al-Khattabi said: “Najd lies Eastward, and to those who are in Madina, their Najd is the desert of Iraq and its vicinities, which all lie East of the people of Madina. The original meaning of najd is `elevated land’ as opposed to ghawr which means declivity. Thus, Tihama is all part of al-Ghawr, and Mecca is part of Tihama.”16 This is confirmed by Ibn al-Athir’s definition: “Najd is any elevated terrain, and it is a specific name for what lies outside the Hijaz and adjacent to Iraq.”17 Similarly al-Dawudi said: “Najd lies in the vicinity of Iraq.”18 Iraq itself lexicaly means river-shore or sea-shore, in reference to the Euphrates and the Tigris.19 In other words, Najd is the mountainous area East of the Hijaz, bordering it and Iraq at the same time and actually separating them. This is confirmed by the verse of the poet `Awamm ibn al-Asbagh:

Next to Batni Nakhlin there is a mountain called the Black One: One half of it is Hijazi, another half Najdi.20

A further confirmation is in the account of the qunût of the Prophet ﷺ against the tribes of Najd. `Amir ibn Malik came to the Prophet ﷺ in the 4th year of the Hijra, neither accepting nor rejecting Islam. Instead he said: “O Muhammad! If you send some of your Companions to the people of Najd to call them to your affair, I have hope that they shall respond favorably to you.” The Prophet ﷺ replied: “Truly I fear for them [harm] from the people of Najd” (innî akshâ `alayhim ahla Najd). `Amir said: “I proclaim that they are under my protection.” The Prophet ﷺ then sent seventy men from the elite of the Ansar. They travelled until they alighted at the Well of Ma`una, at which time they sent Haram ibn Malhan with the letter of the Messenger of Allah ﷺ to `Amir ibn al-Tufayl. The latter did not look at the letter but instead killed Haram ibn Malhan. Then he called upon the Banu `Amir for assistance to kill the rest of the Muslim group, but they declined to challenge `Amir ibn Malik’s protectorate. So `Amir ibn al-Tufayl called upon the following tribes of the Banu Sulaym: `Usayya, Ra`l, Dhakwan, and they responded to him. They formed an expedition and surrounded the group with their mounts. The Muslims were killed to the last man but for `Amr ibn Umayya al-Dumari who returned to Madina. The Prophet ﷺ was deeply affected by their death and remained supplicating (yaqnutu) for one month during the dawn prayer against the (Najdi) Banu Sulaym tribes of Ra`l, Dhakwan, Banu Lahyan, and `Usayya.21

Another proof is that no-one from Iraq entered Islam in the time of the Prophet ﷺ but only after his time. However, the Prophet ﷺ sent military expeditions to Najd, went there himself, and some Najdis even accepted Islam as shown by the following hadiths:

(a) It is narrated from Talha ibn `Ubayd Allah in al-Bukhari and Muslim that “a man came to the Messenger of Allah ﷺ from the people of Najd (min ahli najd), disheveled, the din of his voice audible although he was unintelligible…” to the end of the hadith in which the man said, speaking of the Five Pillars of Islam: “By Allah! I shall never add to this nor subtract from it,” whereupon the Prophet ﷺ said: “He shall obtain success if he proves truthful.” As stated by al-Khatib,22 this is a different man from that mentioned in the hadith of Anas in al-Bukhari as coming into the Mosque with his camel and asking “Which one of you is Muhammad?” later identifying himself as Dimam ibn Tha`laba al-Sa`di al-Bakri from the Banu Sa`d ibn Bakr tribe.

(b) The hadith of Abu Hurayra in the two Sahihs and the Sunan: “The Messenger of Allah ﷺ sent a mounted detachment towards Najd and they brought a man from Banu Hanifa named Thumama ibn Uthal…”

(c) The hadith of Abu Hurayra in Abu Dawud with a good chain, “We went out to Najd with the Messenger of Allah ﷺ until we arrived at Dhat al-Riqa` in a region of datepalms, where he met a detachment from Ghatafan.” The Ghatafan are a Najdi tribe as shown by al-Tabari’s phrase: “Two thousand Najdis coming from Ghatafan,”23 and Ibn al-Qayyim states: “Then he ﷺ raised a campaign against Najd, aiming at the Ghatafan.”24 This tribe is famous for two facts:

Before Islam the Jews of Khaybar vanquished them by making tawassul through the Prophet ﷺ as stated by Ibn al-Qayyim in Hidayat al-Hayara (p. 18) in explaining the verse (And when there came to them a (true) Book from Allah the Qur’an) verifying that which they have (the Torah), and aforetime (before the Qur’an was revealed) they used to pray for victory against those who disbelieve (saying: O Allah, grant us victory against them by the intermediary and help of the Prophet ﷺ that is to be sent at the end of time), but when there came to them (the Prophet; the truth which they knew from the Torah, namely, the advent of the Prophet) that which they did not recognize, they disbelieved in him (due to envy and aversion to their loss of authority); so the curse of Allah is on the unbelievers( (2:89; Muhammad Shakir’s translation together with Tafsir al-Jalalayn);

After Islam, the Ghatafan were among the tribes that turned apostate and said the claims of the pseudo-prophet Tulayha al-Asadi were true.

(d) The famous hadith of the spoils from Abu Sa`id al-Khudri in the two Sahihs and the Sunan in which the Quraysh became angry and said: “He is giving to the nobility of Najd and leaving us out!” to which the Prophet ﷺ replied: “I am only trying to win their hearts over to us.” Then a man named Dhu al-Khuwaysira from the Banu Tamim came with sunken eyes, protruding cheeks, big forehead, profuse beard, and shaven head. He said: “Fear Allah, O Muhammad!” Etc. which ends with the prophecy that “Out of that man’s seed shall come a people who will recite the Qur’an but it will not go past their throats. They will pass through religion the way an arrow passes through its quarry. They shall kill the Muslims and leave the idolaters alone. If I live to see them, verily I shall kill them the way the tribe of `Ad was killed.”

It is also established in the authentic Sunna that after Abu Talib’s death by about three years, in the 10th year of the Hijra, on the actual night that the Prophet ﷺ was preparing to leave Makka for Madina, the plot to kill him by the collective hand of a conspiracy of the tribes was hatched up by Iblis in the guise of a venerable old man (shaykh jalîl) who, when asked who he was, simply answered “An old man from Najd” (shaykhun min Najd). The reports go on to refer to him as “The Old Man from Najd” (al-shaykh al-najdî).25

At any rate, the above explanations prove that those who say that Najd in the hadith denotes present-day Iraq exclusively of present-day Najd26 are mistaken, as Najd at that time included not only Iraq but also – as in our present time – everything East of Madina, especially the regions far South of Iraq. The proof for this is the hadith whereby the Prophet ﷺ pointed to Yemen and said: “Verily, belief is there; but hardness and coarseness of heart is with the blaring farmers (al-faddadîn), the people of many camels, where the two sides of the head of Shaytân shall appear, among [the tribes of] Rabi`a and Mudar.”27 Ibn Hajar identified these two tribes as “the most prestigious of the people of the East, the Quraysh – from which the Prophet ﷺ is issued – being a branch of Mudar.”28 This is confirmed by al-Bukhari’s narration in seven places and Muslim’s in six, from Ibn `Umar, that the East (al-Mashriq) is the origin of dissension and the place where the side of the head of Shaytân would appear – or two sides in one narration of Muslim. The fact that Muslim narrated that Salim ibn `Abd Allah ibn `Umar applied this hadith to the people of Iraq does not limit its meaning to them. It only confirms that the Prophet ﷺ foresaw the dissension of the Khawârij among other dissensions hailing from the East, such as that of Musaylima the Liar and others: Ibn `Abidin said: “The name of Khawârij is applied to those who part ways with Muslims and declare them disbelievers, as took place in our time with the followers of Ibn `Abd al-Wahhab who came out of Najd and attacked the Two Noble Sanctuaries.”29

Another proof is that the Prophet ﷺ set Qarn al-Manazil as the starting-point (mîqât) for the state of consecration (ihrâm) for pilgrims coming from Najd, which in his time included Iraq, although Islam had not yet reached the latter. Later, the people of Iraq, finding Qarn al-Manazil too far out of the way for them, asked for something nearer, whereupon `Umar – Allah be well-pleased with him – set Dhatu `Irqin (Kufa) as their mîqât as established in the following narrations:

a) “The Prophet ﷺ declared that the ihrâm of the people of Madina starts at Dhu al-Hulayfa; that of the people of Shâm starts at al-Juhfa; that of the people of Najd starts at Qarn al-Manazil; and that of the people of Yemen starts at Yalamlama.”30 Al-Nawawi said: “Qarn al-Manazil is the mountain of that name. Between it and Mecca on the East lies a distance of two legs of journey.”31

b) “When these two cities were conquered – al-Basra and al-Kufa – they came to `Umar ibn al-Khattab and said: `O Commander of the Believers, the Messenger of Allah ﷺ gave Qarn as a limit to the people of Najd, and it is out of our way, so that if we want to go to Qarn it creates hardship for us.’ `Umar replied: `See what lies nearest to it on your way.’ So he determined Dhatu `Irqin as a limit for them.”32 Ibn al-Athir said: “Ibn `Abbas said: `At Dhatu `Irqin, facing Qarn,’ Dhatu `Irqin being the mîqât of the people of Iraq, and Qarn that of the people of Najd, and they are equidistant from the Haram.”33

On the foregoing evidence one might make a case that Najd is synonymous with Iraq in the hadith in the general sense of the immediate East in relation to Madina. This view is supported by other narrations of the hadith “bless us in our Shâm and our Yemen” in which the terms “East” and “Iraq” are used interchangeably in the place of Najd:

a) The Prophet ﷺ said: “O Allah! Bless us in our Shâm and our Yemen!” A man said: “And our East, O Messenger of Allah!” The Prophet ﷺ repeated his invocation twice, and the man twice said: “And our East, O Messenger of Allah!” whereupon the Prophet ﷺ said: “Thence shall issue the side of the head of Shaytân. In it are nine tenths of disbelief. In it is the incurable disease (al-dâ’ al-`addâl).”34

b) The Prophet ﷺ said: “O Allah! Bless us in our sâ` and in our mudd (i.e. in every measure)! Bless us in our Mecca and our Madina! Bless us in our Shâm and our Yemen!” A man said: “O Prophet of Allah, and our Iraq!” The Prophet ﷺ said: “In it is the side of the head of Shaytân. In it shall dissensions heave. Verily, disrespect (al-jafâ’) lies in the East.”35

17. The Prophet ﷺ said: “A huge fire shall issue from Hadramawt – or: from the direction of the sea of Hadramawt – before the Day of Resurrection, which shall cause a great movement of people.” They said: “O Messenger of Allah! What do you order us to do at that time?” He said: “You must go to Shâm.”36

18. The Prophet ﷺ said: “It shall reach the point when you will all be joining [opposite] armies: one army in al-Shâm, one in Yemen, and one in Iraq.” `Abd Allah ibn Hawala said: “Choose for me, O Messenger of Allah! in case I live to see that day.” The Prophet ﷺ said: “You must join al-Shâm, for it is the chosen land of Allah in His earth. In it shall the chosen ones among His servants have protection. Otherwise, go to Yemen but be prepared to drink from still water. For Allah has given me a guarantee concerning Shâm and its people.” `Abd Allah ibn Hawala would add after narrating the above: “And whoever has Allah as his guarantor shall suffer no loss.”37 Another version states that some Companions said: “We are herdsmen, we cannot adapt to Shâm,” whereby the Prophet ﷺ said: “Whoever cannot adapt to Shâm, let him go to Yemen. Verily, Allah has given me a guarantee concerning Shâm.”38

19. In another version Ibn Hawala states: “When he noticed my dislike for Shâm he said: `Do you know what Allah says about Shâm? Verily, Allah said: O Shâm, you are the quintessence (safwa) of My lands and I shall inhabit you with the chosen ones among My servants.”39 Ibn al-Athir defines safw and safwa in his dictionary al-Nihaya as “the best of any matter, its quintessence, and purest part.”40

20. Related to the events mentioned by the Prophetﷺ above is his hadith: “Strife shall take place after the death of a Caliph. A man of the people of Madina will come forth flying to Mecca. Some of the people of Mecca will come to him, bring him out against his will and swear allegiance to him between the Corner and the Maqâm. An expeditionary force will then be sent against him from Shâm but will be swallowed up in the desert between Mecca and Madina, and when the people see that, the Substitutes (Abdâl) of Shâm and the best people of Iraq shall come to him and swear allegiance to him…”41

Blessings and greetings of Allah on the Holy Prophet, his Noble Family, and all his Companions.


1Narrated from Zayd ibn Thabit al-Ansari by al-Tirmidhi in his Sunan (hasan gharîb) with a fair chain because of Yahya ibn Ayyub al-Ghafiqi who is merely “truthful” (sadûq) as in al-Arna’ut and Ma`ruf’s al-Tahrir (4:78 #7511); Ahmad with two chains, one of which is sound according to Ibn al-Qayyim in his commentary on Abu Dawud’s Sunan (7:115), the other is a fair chain because of `Abd Allah ibn Lahi`a; al-Hakim (2:229; 1990 ed. 2:249) who said it is sahîh and al-Dhahabi concurred; al-Bayhaqi in the Shu`ab (2:432); Ibn Abi Shayba (4:218, 6:409); Ibn Hibban (16:293) with a sound chain meeting Muslim’s criterion according to Shaykh Shu`ayb al-Arna’ut; and al-Tabarani in al-Kabir (5:158 #4935) with a sound chain according to al-Haythami (10:60) and al-Mundhiri in al-Targhib (1997 ed. 4:30).

2Ibn `Abd al-Salam, Targhib Ahl al-Islam (p. 21).

3Narrated from Salama ibn Nufayl by al-Tabarani in al-Kabir (7:53 #6358) with a sound chain as indicated by al-Haythami (10:60).

4Narrated from Salama ibn Nufayl by Ahmad with a fair chain, al-Nasa’i with a sound (sahîh) chain, Ibn Sa`d (7:427-428), and al-Bukhari in his Tarikh al-Kabir (4:70), the latter with the addition: “and I find the breath of the Merciful coming from over there [i.e. Yemen].” Also narrated from al-`Irbad ibn Sariya and al-Nuwwas ibn Sam`an by Ibn `Asakir in his Tarikh (1:70, 1:105-106). A forged mursal report narrated from the Tâbi`î Kathir ibn Murra al-Hadrami by Nu`aym ibn Hammad (d. 228) in Kitab al-Fitan (1:254) states that the Prophet ﷺ said: “Lo! Verily, the heartland of the Abode of Islam is al-Shâm. Allah leads to it the quintessence of His servants. None earnestly desires to live in it except a beneficiary of divine mercy, and none earnestly desires to live away from it except one seduced by sin. Allah trains His gaze upon it since the beginning of time until the end of time, with shade and rain. Even if He makes its people needy of money, He never made them needy of bread nor water.” Its chain contains Sa`id ibn Sinan who is discarded as a narrator because of his forgeries, but I cited it because its last sentence is true from general obervation, and its first two sentences are confirmed in sound narrations. See also below, hadith #38.

5Ibn `Abd al-Salam, Targhib Ahl al-Islam (p. 20).

6Narrated from Abu al-Darda’ through Abu Muti` Mu`awiya ibn Yahya from Artah ibn al-Mundhir from someone unnamed from Abu al-Darda’ by al-Tabarani, the rest being trustworthy, as stated by al-Haythami (10:60), Artah himself being highly trustworthy, and Muti` fair as stated by al-Mundhiri in al-Targhib (1997 ed. 4:32 = 1994 ed. 4:106 #4514). The hadith is further strengthened by Ibn `Asakir’s chain in Ta`ziya al-Muslim (p. 75) from Sa`id al-Bajali from Shahr ibn Hawshab (cf. n. 1636) from Abu al-Darda’ and by hadiths #23-26 and 32 below.

7Narrated from Abu Hurayra by Abu Ya`la in his Musnad and by al-Tabarani in al-Awsat, al-Haythami (10:60-61) indicating that the former chain is sound but the latter weak because of al-Walid ibn `Abbad, who is unknown. However, he is also in Abu Ya`la’s chain and Ibn `Adi in al-Kamil (7:84) stated that this hadith is narrated only through him. The hadith is therefore weak with this chain and wording – although confirmed by the hadith #32 below – and mass-transmitted with the wording “A party of my Community shall not cease to remain victorious, standing for truth, until the Hour rises.” See al-Kattani, Nazm al-Mutanathir (p. 141).

8In Sharh Sahih Muslim (1972 ed. 13:66).

9Narrated from `Abd Allah ibn `Amr by Muslim and Ahmad as part of a longer hadith.

10Narrated from `Uqba ibn `Amir by Muslim.

11Narrated from Ibn `Umar by al-Bukhari, al-Tirmidhi (hasan sahîh gharîb), and Ahmad with three chains, one of which with the addition: “And in it [Najd] are nine tenths of all evil.”


13Al-Nawawi in Tahrir al-Tanbih (p. 157, s.v. “najd”).

14Ibn Hajar gave the opinion that Dhatu `Irqin is Kufa in Fath al-Bari (1959 ed. 3:390).

15In al-Qamus al-Muhit, article al-Najd. See also Mu`jam al-Buldan.

16In Ibn Hajar, Fath al-Bari (1959 ed. 13:48).

17Ibn al-Athir, al-Nihaya, s.v. n-j-d.

18In Ibn Hajar, Fath al-Bari (1959 ed. 13:48).

19Ibn al-Athir, al-Nihaya, s.v. `-r-q.

20In Yaqut al-Hamawi (d. 626), Mu`jam al-Buldan (1:192, 2:219).

21Narrated by al-Tabari in his Tarikh (2:81) and – in parts – from Anas by al-Bukhari; al-Bayhaqi, al-Sunan al-Kubra (9:225 #18587), Abu Ya`la (5:448), Ahmad, al-Tahawi in Sharh Ma`ani al-Athar (1:244 waj`al qulûbahum `alâ qulubi nisâ’a kawâfir). The story is told in al-Buti, Fiqh al-Sira (p. 254-255).

22In al-Rihla fi Talab al-Hadith (p. 191).

23Tarikh (2:384).

24Zad al-Ma`ad (3:190).

25Ibn Hisham, al-Sira al-Nabawiyya (3:6-8); al-Tabari, Tafsir (9:227-228) and Tarikh (1:566-567); Ibn Kathir, Tafsir (“sahîh” 2:303 on verse 8:30) and al-Bidaya wa al-Nihaya; al-Suyuti, al-Durr al-Manthur (verse 8:30).

26Cf. al-Albani in his notes on al-Raba`i, Fada’il al-Sham wa Dimashq (p. 6, 27).

27Narrated from Abu Mas`ud by al-Bukhari in three places and Muslim.

28Ibn Hajar, Fath al-Bari (1959 ed. 6:531). The first words of al-Busiri’s Qasida Mudariyya are: “O our Lord! Send Your blessings on the Elect One of Mudar” (Ya rabbî salli `alâ al-mukhtâri min mudarin).

29Ibn `Abidin, Radd al-Muhtar `ala al-Durr al-Mukhtar (3:309), Bab al-Bughat [Chapter on Rebels].

30Narrated from Ibn `Abbas by al-Bukhari and Muslim.

31Al-Nawawi, Tahrir al-Tanbih (p. 157, s.v. “qarn”). Al-Shawkani in Nayl al-Awtar (4:295) said the same.

32Narrated from Ibn `Umar by al-Bukhari.

33In al-Nihaya s.v. h-dh-y.

34Narrated from Ibn `Umar by al-Tabarani in al-Awsat (2:529 #1910) with a sound chain as indicated by al-Haythami (3:305).

35Narrated from Ibn `Abbas by al-Tabarani in al-Kabir (12:84 #12553) with a sound chain as indicated by al-Haythami (3:305). Abu Nu`aym narrates something similar in the Hilya (1985 ed. 6:133).

36Narrated from Ibn `Umar by al-Tirmidhi (hasan gharîb sahîh) who added that it is also narrated from Hudhayfa ibn Asid, Anas, Abu Hurayra, and Abu Dharr. Also narrated from Ibn `Umar by Ahmad with five chains, Ibn Hibban (16:294) with a sound chain meeting al-Bukhari’s criterion according to Shaykh Shu`ayb al-Arna’ut, Ibn Abi Shayba (7:471), Ibn Tahman in his Mashyakha (#201), and Abu Ya`la in his Musnad (9:405) with a sound chain as stated by al-Haythami (10:61).

37Narrated from `Abd Allah ibn Hawala by Abu Dawud and Ahmad with sound chains, Ibn Hibban (16:295), al-Hakim (4:510; 1990 ed. 4:555) who said it is sahîh and al-Dhahabi concurred, al-Tahawi in Mushkil al-Athar (2:35), al-Bayhaqi in al-Sunan al-Kubra (9:179), and Ibn `Abd al-Salam in Targhib Ahl al-Islam (p. 15). Also narrated from Abu al-Darda’ by al-Bazzar and al-Tabarani with a sound chain as indicated by al-Haythami (10:58) after al-Mundhiri in al-Targhib (1997 ed. 4:30). Something similar is narrated from `Abd Allah ibn Yazid by al-Tabarani with a very weak chain as indicated by al-Haythami (10:58) and from Wathila ibn al-Asqa` by al-Tabarani in al-Kabir (22:55-58), specifying that those who were asking the Prophet ﷺ were Mu`adh and Hudhayfa. Al-Haythami (10:59) stated that all al-Tabarani’s chains of the latter narration were weak. Shaykh Ahmad al-Ghumari in al-Mughir (p. 71) declared this hadith forged by Mu`awiya’s – Allah be well-pleased with him – supporters against `Ali – Allah be well-pleased with him -!

38Narrated from Abu al-Darda’ by al-Bazzar and al-Tabarani with a sound chain as indicated by al-Haythami (10:58).

39Narrated by al-Tabarani with two chains of which one is fair according to al-Mundhiri in al-Targhib (1997 ed. 4:30). Something similar is narrated from al-`Irbad ibn Sariya by al-Tabarani in al-Kabir (18:251) with a sound chain according to al-Mundhiri in al-Targhib (1997 ed. 4:30) and al-Haythami (10:58), chapter entitled Fada’il al-Sham, and from Ibn `Umar by al-Tabarani and al-Bazzar with a weak chain according to al-Suyuti in al-Durr al-Manthur. Al-Suyuti also said that Ibn `Asakir narrated it from Thabit ibn Ma`bad.

40The Prophet ﷺ also compared the world to a little rain water on a mountain plateau of which the safw had already been drunk and from which only the kadar or dregs remained. Narrated from Ibn Mas`ud by Ibn `Asakir in Tarikh Dimashq. Al-Huwjiri and al-Qushayri mention it in their chapters on tasawwuf respectively in Kashf al-Mahjub and al-Risala al-Qushayriyya.

41Narrated from Umm Salama by Abu Dawud through three different good chains in his Sunan, Ahmad, Ibn Abi Shayba, Abu Ya`la in his Musnad (12:369 #6940) with a fair chain according to Shaykh Husayn Asad, al-Tabarani in al-Awsat (2:89 #1175) and al-Kabir (23:389-390 #930-931), al-Hakim, Ibn Hibban (15:158-159 #6757) with a weak chain because of Muhammad ibn Yazid ibn Rufa`a – but he has been corroborated – and al-Bayhaqi.

Source: Hadith 1-20


III. In the Noble Hadith

21. The Prophet – Allah bless and greet him – said: “As I was sleeping I saw the Column of the Book being carried away from under my head. I feared lest it would be taken away, so I followed it with my eyes and saw that it was being planted in al-Shām. Verily, belief in the time of dissensions will be in al-Shām.”1 The Prophet repeated three times: “When the dissensions take place, belief shall be in al-Shām.” One version states: “Safety will be in al-Shām.”2

22. The Prophet – Allah bless and greet him – said: “I saw on the night that I was taken on a Night-Journey a white column resembling a pearl, which the angels were carrying. I said to them: `What are you carrying?’ They replied: `The Column of the Book, we have been ordered to place it in al-Shām.’ Later, in my sleep, I saw that the Column of the Book was snatched away from under my headrest (wisādatī). I began to fear lest Allah the Almighty had abandoned the people of the earth. My eyes followed where it went. It was a brilliant light in front of me. Then I saw it was placed in al-Shām.” `Abd Allah ibn Hawala said: “O Messenger of Allah, choose for me (where I should go).” The Prophet said: `alayka bi al-shām -“You must go to al-Shām.”3

23. The Prophet – Allah bless and greet him – said: “The rallying-place of Muslims on the day of Armageddon (yawm al-malhama) is in al-Ghūta, next to a city called Damascus (Dimashq), which is among the best of the cities of al-Shām.” The narrator added in Abu Dawud: “Meaning in great battles.”4

24. `Abd Allah ibn `Amr ibn al-`As narrated: “A time shall come when people shall see no believer remaining on earth except they have repaired to Shām.”5 Ibn `Abd al-Salam said of this report: “Such a statement is not made except by [Prophetic] prescription (tawqīfan).”6 This is in conformity with the rules of hadith science, tafsīr, and usūl whereby news of the unseen in an authentic mawqūf Companion-report has the full force of a marfū` Prophetic narration.7 The hadith master and imam of Shām in his time al-Walid ibn Muslim (d. 195) reported that because of the Prophet’s – Allah bless and greet him – insistence on the immense merits of Shām, 10,000 eyes that had seen the Prophet – Allah bless and greet him – later entered Shām.8

25. A similar Companion-report to that effect is that of Ka`b al-Ahbar9 on the Prophet’s – Allah bless and greet him – sovereignty over Shām as part of his qualities mentioned in the Torah according to the saying of Allah (Those who follow the messenger, the unlettered Prophet, whom they can find described in the Torah and the Gospel (which are) with them( (7:157): * Ibn `Abbas asked Ka`b al-Ahbar: “What qualities of the Messenger of Allah – Allah bless and greet him – do you find written in the Torah?” Ka`b replied: “We find him named Muhammad ibn `Abd Allah, his birthplace Mecca, his place of migration Tābah [=Madina], and his kingdom Shām. He is not coarse of speech nor boisterous in the market-places. He does not return wrong with wrong but forgives and pardons.”10 In another version Ka`b adds: “His Community are the Praisers (al-hammādūn). They praise Allah in every happy and sad occasion, and extol Allah on every height. They cleanse their limbs, wear the waist-wrap, and line up for their prayers just as they do for battle. The sound they make in their places of worship is like that of bees. Their callers [to prayer] can be heard in the air of the heaven.”11 * In another version Ka`b said: “The description of Muhammad – Allah bless and greet him – in the Torah is as follows: `Muhammad is My chosen servant. He is neither rough nor harsh. He is not boisterous in the market-places nor does he return wrong with wrong, but he forgives and pardons. His birthplace is Mecca, his place of migration is Madina, and his kingdom is Shām.'”12 * In another version Ka`b said: “In the first line [of the Torah’s text] is: `Muhammad the Messenger of Allah, My elect servant. He is neither rough nor harsh. He is not boisterous in the market-places nor does he return wrong with wrong, but he forgives and pardons. His birthplace is Mecca, his place of migration is Madina, and his kingdom is Shām.’ In the second line is: `Muhammad the Messenger of Allah. His Community are the Praisers. They praise Allah in every happy and sad occasion. They praise Allah in every place and extol Him on every high place. They observe the movements of the sun and accomplish the prayer when its time comes, even if they find themselves on top of a refuse-heap. They wear the waist-wrap and cleanse their limbs. The sound of their voices in the night air is like that of bees.'”13 * There are other similar strong reports from Ka`b that do not mention Mecca, Madina, and Shām.14 * `Abd Allah ibn `Amr ibn al-`As, `Abd Allah ibn Salam, `A’isha, and Wahb ibn Munabbih all relate something similar to the above reports but without mention of Mecca, Madina, and Shām.15

26. The Prophet – Allah bless and greet him – was also related to say: “The fortress (ma`qal) of the Muslims at the time of the great battles 16 shall be in Damascus, their fortress against the anti-Christ (al-dajjāl) shall be Bayt al-Maqdis, and their fortress against Gog and Magog (Ya’jūj wa Ma’jūj) shall be Bayt al-Tūr.”17 Related to these two narrations are Abu Dawud’s reports from the Tābi`īn whereby “The Byzantines shall cut through al-Shām for forty days, and none but Damascus and Amman shall repel them”18 and “One of the foreign kings shall dominate all the cities except Damascus.”19

27. The Prophet – Allah bless and greet him – said: “When the great battles take place, an army of foreigners (al-mawālī) shall come out of Damascus, the noblest of the Arabs in knightship and most skillful in weaponry. Through them shall Allah support the Religion.”20

28. The Prophet – Allah bless and greet him – said: “The place of the Final Gathering is al-Shām” (al-Shām ardu al-mahshar.)21 In another version: “The place of the Final Gathering and Resurrection is al-Shām.” (Al-Shām ardu al-mahshar wa al-manshar.)22 Al-Qari said that the letter of this report means that al-Shām is the starting-point for these events or that it shall be expanded so as to contain all humankind.23

29. Asma’ Bint Yazid narrated that Abu Dharr (al-Ghifari) used to serve the Prophet – Allah bless and greet him – and when he finished he would go to the mosque and sleep. The mosque was his house. One time the Prophet – Allah bless and greet him – came in and found Abu Dharr lying on the ground. He nudged him with his foot and Abu Dharr sat up. The Prophet – Allah bless and greet him – said: “Sleeping?” He replied: “O Messenger of Allah, where else can I sleep? I have no house other than this.” The Prophet – Allah bless and greet him – said: “What will you do if they expel you from it?” He said: “I will repair to al-Shām, for verily al-Shām is the land of emigration, the land of the Final Gathering, and the land of Prophets. So I shall be one of its dwellers.” The Prophet – Allah bless and greet him – said: “What will you do if they expel you from al-Shām?” He said: “I will come back here and make it my house and my dwelling.” The Prophet – Allah bless and greet him – said: “What if they expel you from it a second time?” He replied: “Then I will take up my sword and fight them off until I die.” The Prophet – Allah bless and greet him – looked displeased and he held him firmly and said: “Shall I tell you of a better way?” He said: “Yes, may my father and mother be ransomed for you, O Messenger of Allah!” The Prophet – Allah bless and greet him – said: “Let them lead you whither they lead you, and let yourself be taken whither
they take you, until you meet me again in that very state.”24

Blessings and greetings of Allah on the Holy Prophet, his Noble Family, and all his Companions.


1Narrated from Abu al-Darda’ by Ahmad with a chain whose narrators are all the men of the sahih and by al-Bazzar with a sound chain as indicated by al-Haythami and al-Mundhiri in al-Targhib (1997 ed. 4:31). Also narrated by al-Tabarani in al-Kabir and al-Awsat and al-Hakim.

2Narrated from `Abd Allah ibn `Amr by al-Tabarani in al-Kabir and al-Awsat. Al-Haythami (10:58) said the men in its chain are those of sound hadith except for Ibn Lahi`a.

3Narrated from Abu al-Darda’ by al-Bazzar and from `Abd Allah ibn Hawala by al-Tabarani in al-Awsat, both with sound chains as indicated by al-Haythami (7:289, 10:58), and from `Amr ibn al-`As by Ahmad with a weak chain according to al-Haythami (10:57).

4Narrated from Abu al-Darda’ with sound chains by Abu Dawud, Ahmad, al-Mundhiri in al-Tarhib wa al-Targhib (4:63), and al-Hakim (4:486) who declared its chain sound while al-Dhahabi concurred. Also narrated from Makhul by Abu Dawud.

5Narrated by Ibn Abi Shayba (4:217) with a sound chain meeting Muslim’s criterion, al-Hakim (4:457=1990 ed. 4:504) with a fair chain because of al-Husayn ibn Hafs who is merely “truthful” (sadūq), and Ibn al-Mubarak in al-Jihad (p. 152).

6Ibn `Abd al-Salam, Targhib Ahl al-Islam (p. 24-25).

7Cf. Nur al-Din ‘Itr, Manhaj al-Naqd fi ‘Ulum al-Hadith (p. 328).

8In Ibn `Abd al-Salam, Targhib Ahl al-Islam (p. 25).

9This trustworthy Tābi`ī is mukhadram i.e. he may have met the Prophet – Allah bless and greet him – and is therefore accorded the same respect as the Companions. Even if he is known to relate Israelite reports (isrā’īliyyāt), these reports are accepted when they are confirmed by the Qur’an and/or Sunna. This rule is spelled out by the Prophet – Allah bless and greet him – in his saying: “Convey [the Religion] on my behalf, even a single verse, and narrate without constraint (haraj) from the Israelites, but whoever purposely tells a lie about me, let him prepare himself for his seat in the Fire.” Narrated from `Abd Allah ibn `Amr ibn al-`As by al-Bukhari, al-Tirmidhi (hasan sahīh), Ahmad, and al-Darimi. Al-Shafi`i said: “It means: narrate from the Israelites whatever you know not to be a lie, and whatever you consider to be possible (mā tujawwizūnahu), there is no contraint on you not to narrate it from them.” In Ibn Hajar, Fath al-Bari (1959 ed. 6:498).

10Narrated by Ibn Sa`d (1:360) with a strong chain except that Mu`awiya ibn Salih’s shaykh, Abu Farwa, is unknown.

11Narrated by al-Darimi in his Sunan with a sound chain except for Abu Farwa, who is unknown. The only person to narrate from him in the Nine Books is Mu`awiya ibn Salih ibn Hudayr, who is trustworthy (thiqa) as stated in al-Arna’ut and Ma`ruf, Tahrir al-Taqrib (3:394 #6762).

12Narrated by Ibn Sa`d (1:360) with a strong chain except that Mu`awiya ibn Salih does not name the link between him and Ka`b, which is probably Abu Farwa, who is unknown.

13Narrated by Ibn `Asakir in Tarikh Dimashq (1:175-176) and al-Darimi with a very weak chain because of al-Darimi’s shaykh, Zayd ibn `Awf, who is discarded as a narrator. Ibn `Abd al-Salam cites this report in Targhib Ahl al-Islam (p. 25-26).

14Narrated from Ka`b by al-Tabari in his Tafsir (9:83), Ibn Sa`d (1:360), al-Bayhaqi in his Dala’il al-Nubuwwa, and Abu Nu`aym in his.

15`Abd Allah ibn `Amr: Narrated by Ahmad in his Musnad, al-Tabari in his Tafsir (9:83), al-Bukhari in al-Adab al-Mufrad (p. 95), al-Bayhaqi in Dala’il al-Nubuwwa, Ibn Kathir in his Tafsir (1:421), al-Qurtubi in his (7:299), and al-Shawkani in his (2:254); `Abd Allah ibn Salam: Ibn Sa`d (1:360); `A’isha: ibid. (1:363), al-Hakim (1990 ed. 2:671) who declared it sahīh, and al-Bayhaqi and Abu Nu`aym in Dala’il al-Nubuwwa; Wahb: Narrated by Ibn Abi Hatim in his Tafsir and Abu Nu`aym in Dala’il al-Nubuwwa as cited by al-Suyuti in al-Durr al-Manthur for verse 7:157.

16In Abu Nu`aym only.

17Narrated from al-Husayn ibn `Ali ibn Abi Talib ( through al-Awza`i by Abu Nu`aym in his Hilya (1997 ed. 6:157 #8141) and HiHmursal from the Tābi`ī Abu al-Zahiriyya Hudayr ibn Kurayb by Ibn Abi Shayba (4:217, 6:409). Abu al-Zahiriyya is trustworthy (thiqa) as stated in al-Arna’ut and Ma`ruf’s Tahrir (1:256 #1153).

18Narrated from Makhul by Abu Dawud with a sound chain.

19Narrated from Abu al-A`yas `Abd al-Rahman ibn Salman by Abu Dawud with a fair chain.

20Narrated from Abu Hurayra by al-Tabarani in Musnad al-Shamiyyin (2:414), al-Hakim (4:548=1990 ed. 4:591) who said its chain is sound and al-Dhahabi concurred, and Ibn Majah – the latter without mention of Damascus – but al-Busiri in Misbah al-Zujaja (4:206) avered that the chain is only fair (hasan) because of `Uthman ibn Abi al-`Atika. However, the latter is weak for uncorroborated reports according to al-Arna’ut and Ma`ruf in al-Tahrir (2:439 #4483), and so the narration is weak.

21Narrated from Ibn `Abbas by al-Bazzar, Ibn al-Mundhir, Ibn Abi Hatim, Ibn Mardawayh, al-Bayhaqi in al-Ba`th as well as Shu`ab al-Iman (1:316) but the latter without chain, and Ibn `Uyayna in his Tafsir as cited by Ibn Hajar in Fath al-Bari (1959 ed. 11:380); and from `Abd al-Rahman ibn Ghanm – with a chain questioned by Ibn Kathir in his Tafsir (verses 17:76-77) – by Ibn Abi Hatim, al-Bayhaqi in al-Dala’il, and Ibn `Asakir. Cf. Ibn Hajar, Fath al-Bari (1959 ed. 8:111-112) on Tabuk.

22Narrated from Maymuna bint Sa`d by Ahmad and Ibn Majah with a sound chain as stated by al-Busiri in his Zawa’id (2:14) and al-Nawawi in al-Majmu` and from Abu Dharr by Ibn Marduyah, Ibn `Asakir, and Abu al-Hasan ibn Shuja` al-Raba`i in Fada’il al-Sham with a fair chain according to al-Suyuti in al-Jami` al-Saghir and al-`Ajluni in Kashf al-Khafa’.

23In al-Mubarakfuri, Tuhfat al-Ahwadhi (6:345) and `Azim Abadi, `Awn al-Ma`bud (11:289).

24Ahmad narrated it with a weak chain because of Shahr ibn Hawshab al-Ash`ari al-Shami as per al-Haythami (5:222-223) and al-Arna’ut and Ma`ruf in al-Tahrir (2:122 #2830), although Ibn Hajar in Fath al-Bari (1989 ed. 3:65) and al-Dhahabi declared him reliable after the opinion of several of the early Imams. Nevertheless, the hadith is authentic with regard to Abu Dharr’s words regarding al-Shām as they are authentically reported from the Prophet – Allah bless and greet him – himself as established in the previous hadith.

Source: Hadith 21-29


IV In the Noble Hadith

30. Shurayh ibn `Ubayd said that the people of al-Shām were mentioned in front of `Ali ibn Abi Talib while he was in Iraq, and some people said to him: “Curse them, O Commander of the Believers.” He replied: No, I heard the Messenger of Allah – Allah bless and greet him – say: “The Substitutes (al-Abdāl) are in al-Shām and they are forty men, every time one of them dies, Allah substitutes another in his place.1 By means of them Allah brings down the rain, gives us victory over our enemies, and averts punishment from the people of al-Shām.”2

The Prophet – Allah bless and greet him – said: “The earth will never lack forty men similar to the Friend of the Merciful [Ibrahim – upon him peace -]. Through them people receive rain and are given help. None of them dies except Allah substitutes another in his place.” Qatada said: “We do not doubt that al-Hasan is one of them.”3

In another narration the Prophet – Allah bless and greet him – said: “The Substitutes in this Community are thirty like Ibrahim the Friend of the Merciful. Every time one of them dies, Allah substitutes another one in his place.”4

Another version adds: “By means of them the world subsists (bihim taqūm al-ard), you receive rain, and you achieve victory.”5

A similar narration of Ibn `Abbas states: “The world after Nuh – upon him peace – has never been without seven people through which Allah Most High wards off evil from humankind.”6

31. The Prophet – Allah bless and greet him – said: “Do not curse the people of Shām but curse their worse men. For among them are the Abdāl.”7

In another version `Awf ibn Malik said to the people of Egypt: “Do not curse the people of Shām, for I heard the Messenger of Allah – Allah bless and greet him – say: `Among them are the Abdāl. Through them you achieve victory and receive sustenance.”8

Another version states that `Ali ibn Abi Talib said to the people of Iraq: “Do not curse the people of Shām, for among them are the Substitutes (al-Abdāl), but curse their injustice.”9

Wahb ibn Munabbih said: I saw the Prophet – Allah bless and greet him – in my sleep and said: “O Messenger of Allah! Where are the Substitutes(budalā’) of your Community?” He gestured with his hand towards Shām. I said: “O Messenger of Allah! Are there not any in Iraq?” He said: “Yes: Muhammad ibn Wasi`, Hassan ibn Abi Sinan, and Malik ibn Dinar, who walks among the people similarly to Abu Dharr in his time.”10

32. The Prophet – Allah bless and greet him – said: “When the people of Shām become corrupt, no goodness shall be left among you. There shall not cease to be a group in my Community that shall remain victorious over all people; those who betray or desert them cannot harm them in the least; and so until the Hour rises.”11 Al-Tirmidhi narrated from al-Bukhari that `Ali ibn al-Madini said: “These are the hadith authorities (ashāb al-hadīth).”

Al-Mubarakfuri explained the phrase “there shall be no goodness left among you” as meaning “for residing in Shām or going there.”12

33. Another version states that the Prophet – Allah bless and greet him – said: “Goodness is ten parts, nine in al-Shām and one in the remaining countries; and evil is ten parts, one in al-Shām and nine in the remaining countries. When the people of Shām become corrupt, no goodness shall be left in you.”13 Another version attributes this hadith to Ibn Mas`ud.14 Ka`b al-Ahbar said: “There will still be time for people until the head is struck. When the head is struck they shall perish.” He was asked: “What is the striking of the head?” He replied: “The destruction of Shām.”15

34. The Prophet – Allah bless and greet him – is related to say: “The world shall be destroyed forty years before Shām is.” (Tukhrabu al-ardu qabla al-Shāmi bi arba`īna sana.)16 Nu`aym ibn Hammad al-Marwazi (d. 288) narrates it mawqūf from Ka`b al-Ahbar and Abu al-Zahiriyya.17

35. Another hadith of the Prophet – Allah bless and greet him – states: “The people of the West (ahl al-gharb) shall not cease to be victorious, standing for truth, until the Hour rises.”18 Al-Nawawi said:
Ibn al-Madini said that [it is read al-gharab so that] “the people of al-gharab” are the Arabs and `al-gharab’ refers to the very large pail (al-dalaw), as they are known to use it. Others said that al-gharb denotes the West of the earth. Mu`adh ibn Jabal said: “It is Shām.”19 Another narration says Bayt al-Maqdis.20 It is also said that it refers to the people of Shām and whatever lies beyond it. Al-Qadi `Iyad said: “It is said that ahl al-gharb denotes the people of hardship and long-suffering, as the gharb of anything is its utmost (hadd).”21

Al-Qurtubi said:

The beginning of the West in relation to the Prophet’s – Allah bless and greet him – city is al-Shām and its end the continental far-Western tip of the earth, all that lies in between being `the Occident’ (al-maghrib). So then, is what is meant by ahl al-gharb, the entire West, or its beginning? Both are possible. Abu Bakr al-Turtushi said in an epistle he sent to the farthest part of Morocco: “Allah knows best whether the Prophet – Allah bless and greet him – meant you by this hadith or whether he meant the people of North Africa and Andalusia (ahl al-maghrib) as a whole, because of their staunch adherence to the Sunna and the Congregation, their exemption from innovations in the Religion, and their strict following in the steps of the pious Salaf.”22

Ibn Abi Hujja said:

It refers to the wise scholars of knowledge (al-`ulamā’), as al-ghar(a)b homonymously denotes a huge pail, or the place where the sun sets, or the abundant shedding of tears. Therefore, the meaning of “the people of al-gharb shall not cease” etc. is: the people that shed tears of humble Godwariness knowing Allah and His rulings, shall not cease to be victorious.

Al-Qurtubi cited the preceding paragraph and commented:

This interpretation is confirmed by the Prophet’s – Allah bless and greet him – hadith: “He for whom Allah desires great good, He grants him understanding in the Religion. There shall not cease to be among the Muslims a party who shall fight on the side of truth and remain victorious over those who oppose them until the Day of Resurrection.”23 The latter narration literally ties the first part with the last. Allah knows best.24

Al-Suyuti said:

What supports the view that by gharb is meant the West of the earth is the narration of `Abd ibn Humayd and Baqiy ibn Makhlad25 with the wording: “The people of the West (ahl al-gharb) shall not cease to be victorious”26 and al-Daraqutni’s narration: “A party in my Community shall not cease to be victorious, standing for truth in the Occident (fi al-maghrib) until the Hour rises.”27 Nor would it be far-fetched to say that by Occident, Egypt is meant, for it is included by all among the Western parts.28

Ibn Hajar said:

It was also said that by ahl al-gharb are meant the people of strength and striving in jihād…. It is possible to put together the reports and say that the people to which they refer shall be in Bayt al-Maqdis, which is part of Shām, use the pail for watering, and possess fighting-strength against the enemy as well as zeal and intensity.29

Nearly all these meanings were cited for ahl al-gharb by the lexicographers.30

36. The Prophet – Allah bless and greet him – said: “`Isa ibn Maryam – upon both of them peace – shall descend at the White Minaret East of Damascus, wearing two lightly-saffroned garments resting his hands upon the wings of two angels. Whenever he moves his head it trickles water, and when he raises it, the like of pearl droplets fall from it.”31

37. The Prophet – Allah bless and greet him – said: “There shall be successive emigrations (hijra ba`da hijra), at which time the best of human beings shall rally to Ibrahim’s – upon him peace – haven (muhājar). Only the most evil of people shall remain on the earth. Their own abodes shall loathe them, Allah Himself shall detest them, and Hellfire shall collect them together with apes and swine.”32 “Ibrahim’s haven” is al-Shām.33

38. A hadith narration states that the Prophet – Allah bless and greet him – said: “Shām is the quintessence of the lands of Allah Most High. There do the quintessence of his servants go for protection. Therefore, whoever departs from Shām to go somewhere else earns [His] anger (sakhta), and whoever enters it from somewhere else earn His mercy.”34

39. Another narration states that the Prophet – Allah bless and greet him – said: “The quintessence of the lands of Allah Most High is Shām. In it are the quintessence of His creatures and servants. Verily, a vast number (thulla) of my Community shall enter Paradise without reckoning nor punishment.”35

40. Haram ibn Hayyan asked Uways al-Qarani: “Where do you advise me to go?” Uways replied: “To Shām.” Haram asked: “How is one’s livelihood there?” Uways said: “Fie upon such hearts! Doubt has mixed into them and admonition is wasted on them.”36

41. `Ata’ al-Khurasani said: “When I decided to move, I consulted those of the people of knowledge who were in Mecca, Madina, Kufa, Basra, and Khurasan, asking them where they thought I should go with my dependents. All of them said: `You must go to Shām.'”37

42. `Abd Allah ibn Shawdhab said: “We spoke about Shām and I said to Abu Sahl38: `Have you not heard that such-and-such would take place in it?’ He replied: `Yes, but whatever takes place in it is lesser than what takes place elsewhere.'”39

Blessings and greetings of Allah on the Holy Prophet, his Noble Family, and all his Companions.


1Al-Suyuti in al-Ta`aqqubat `ala al-Mawdu`at asserted that the Prophetic report of the existence of the Abdāl is sahīh and its general meaning is mutawātir. This is confirmed by the hadith master al-Kattani in his Nazm al-Mutanathir (p. 220-221) and Ibn `Abidin in his Majmu`a al-Rasa’il (2:264-281). Ibn Hajar said, as reported by al-Munawi in Fayd al-Qadir: “Some of the reports on the Abdāl are sound, some weak.” The claims of Ibn al-Qayyim in al-Manar al-Munif (p. 136) that all the Prophetic reports that mention the Abdāl are invalid and that of his teacher Ibn Taymiyya whereby “the name of Abdāl does not appear in a single hadith whether sound or weak” are attributed to stubbornness and fanaticism by al-Munawi in Fayd al-Qadir. Al-Suyuti’s position is supported by the fact that the Salaf believed in the existence of the Abdāl, and Ibn Taymiyya himself included such belief into his Islamic creed entitled al-`Aqida al-Wasitiyya!

Al-Sakhawi cited Shurayh ibn `Ubayd’s narration as the strongest report on the Abdāl and said in al-Maqasid al-Hasana (p. 33 #8): “What makes this hadith stronger and indicates its currency among the Imams is the statement of our Imam, al-Shafi`i, concerning a certain man: `We considered him one of the Abdāl’ and al-Bukhari’s words concerning another: `They did not doubt that he was one of the Abdāl,’ and other than these two among the highly meticulous scholars, hadith masters, and Imams [such as Qatada, see above] also used this description for other people, stating that they were of the Abdāl.” Abu Hatim said of `Abd al-Kabir ibn Mu`afi that he was considered one of the Abdāl. Abu Dawud in the Sunan narrates the same from Muhammad ibn `Isa about `Anbasa al-Qurashi. Ibn Majah in his Sunan states the same of Yahya ibn `Uthman al-Himsi, al-Khatib in al-Jami` li Akhlaq al-Rawi (1983 ed. 2:229) of Abu `Umar al-Khawlani, al-Bayhaqi in the Shu`ab (4:137) of Jabir ibn Marzuq, al-Daraqutni in al-`Ilal (6:63) of al-Nadr ibn Kathir al-Sa`di, al-Nawawi in Bustan al-`Arifin (p. 31) of the hadith master Hammad ibn Salama ibn Dinar (d. 167), al-Fattani in his Tadhkira of Hubaysh ibn Dinar, etc.

2Narrated by Ahmad in his Musnad and Fada’il al-Sahaba (2:906) with a sound chain as indicated by al-Sakhawi in al-Maqasid, al-Haythami in Majma` al-Zawa’id, al-Munawi in Fayd al-Qadir, al-Suyuti in al-Khabar al-Dall `ala Wujud al-Qutb wa al-Abdal, and al-Ghumari in his notes on the latter who all declared its narrators trustworthy. Al-Suyuti similarly declared it sound in al-Jami` al-Saghir. Al-Maqdisi in al-Mukhtara (2:110) cites the same chain while Ibn `Asakir in his Tarikh narrates it through Isma`il ibn `Ayyash from Safwan ibn `Umar al-Saksaki from Shurayh from `Ali from the Prophet – Allah bless and greet him – as in al-Suyuti’s al-Khabar al-Dall (p. 4). To the correct objection that the chain is munqati` because Shurayh never met `Ali ( al-Haythami (10:62) replied: “Shurayh narrated from al-Miqdad [ibn al-Aswad], who is older than `Ali.” Al-Suyuti in al-Khabar al-Dall (p. 4-5) cites Ibn `Asakir’s narration of corroborating chains of the same hadith from `Abd Allah ibn Zurayr al-Ghafili from `Ali from the Prophet – Allah bless and greet him – with weak or very weak chains.

Al-Sakhawi mentions Shurayh’s narration in his Maqasid (p. 33 #8) and states that it is more likely a saying of `Ali himself. This is confirmed by:

The mawqūf narration of the same hadith from `Abd Allah ibn Zurayr from `Ali in Ibn Yunus’s Tarikh Misr as cited by al-Suyuti in al-Khabar al-Dall (p. 5-6);

The sound mawqūf narration of the same hadith from `Abd Allah ibn Zurayr from `Ali with a similar chain through `Uthman ibn Sa`id al-Darimi by al-Hakim (1990 ed. 4:596) who said it is sahīh, and al-Dhahabi concurred;

The sound mawqūf narration of the same hadith from al-Zuhri from `Abd Allah ibn Safwan from `Ali in Imam Ahmad’s Fada’il al-Sahaba (2:905), al-Azdi’s al-Jami` (11:249), Ibn Abi al-Dunya’s al-Awliya’ (p. 30), al-Bayhaqi, al-Khallal’s al-Awliya’, al-Maqdisi in two places in al-Mukhtara (2:111-112), and Ibn `Asakir.

The same mawqūf report is also narrated from al-Zuhri from Safwan ibn `Abd Allah ibn Safwan from Shurayh from `Ali by Ibn Rahuyah, al-Dhahabi in `Ilal Hadith al-Zuhri, and al-Bayhaqi in Dala’il al-Nubuwwa, and al-Suyuti cited many other chains.

Even if the report were established as sound only from `Ali, it would still have the force of a Prophetic narration as it contains information about the unseen which is not subject to opinion, and is confirmed by other narrations.

3Narrated from Anas by al-Tabarani in al-Awsat with a fair chain and from Ibn Mas`ud with a chain containing two unknown narrators, both as stated in Majma` al-Zawa’id (10:63). Ibn Hibban narrates it in al-Tarikh through Abu Hurayra as: “The earth will never lack thirty men similar to Ibrahim – upon him peace – the Friend of the Merciful, and through whom you are helped, receive your sustenance, and receive rain.” The latter is unanimously a forged narration as stated by Ibn al-Jawzi in al-Mawdu`at, Ibn Hibban in al-Tarikh, al-Suyuti in al-Ta`aqqubat, al-Munawi in Fayd al-Qadir, and al-Fattani in his Tadhkira.

4Narrated from `Ubada ibn al-Samit by Ahmad in his Musnad, al-Hakim al-Tirmidhi in Nawadir al-Usul, Ibn Marduyah, Ibn Kathir in his Tafsir for the verse (And if Allah had not repelled some men by others the earth would have been corrupted( (2:251), and al-Khallal in Karamat al-Awliya’. Al-Haythami (10:62) indicated that Ahmad’s chain was sound, but Ahmad himself declared the hadith “condemned” (munkar) after narrating it. However, al-Suyuti declared it sahīh in al-Jami` al-Saghir.

5Al-Tabarani in al-Kabir and al-Bazzar from `Ubada ibn al-Samit. Al-Suyuti declared it sahīh in al-Jami` al-Saghir and al-Munawi did not contradict him in Fayd al-Qadir. However, al-Haythami (10:63) said that their chains contains two unknown narrators, which makes the narration weak. Al-Tabarani in al-Kabir (10:181) also narrates from Ibn Mas`ud a similar narration mentioning the number forty.

6Narrated by Ahmad in al-Zuhd and al-Khallal in Karamat al-Awliya’ with a sound chain according to al-Suyuti in al-Durr al-Manthur.

7Narrated as part of a longer hadith from `Ali by al-Tabarani in al-Awsat with a chain of trustworthy narrators except for `Abd Allah ibn Lahi`a, and he is fair (hasan) as stated by Ibn `Adi in al-Kamil (4:144 #977, 4:153): “Ibn Lahi`a’s narrations are fair, the Salaf did not declare him weak, and he is fair as a narrator.” Cf. al-Haythami (7:52): “There is weakness in him and his narrations could be graded fair”; (4:196, 5:325): “There is weakness in him and his narrations are fair”; (1:155, 5:23, 10:16): “His narration is fair.” Moreover, Ibn Lahi`a relates this narration from `Iyash ibn `Abbas, `Abd Allah ibn Hubayra, and al-Harith ibn Yazid.

8Narrated by al-Tabarani in al-Kabir (18:65) with a chain containing `Amr ibn Waqid who is discarded as a narrator as stated in al-Taqrib, and Shahr ibn Hawshab who is weak. Al-Suyuti declared it hasan in al-Jami` al-Saghir, and al-Munawi did not contradict him in Fayd al-Qadir, but this is incorrect as the chain is very weak.

9Narrated as part of a longer hadith pertaining to al-Mahdi and al-Dajjal by al-Hakim (4:553=1990 ed. 4:596) who graded it sound (sahīh), and al-Dhahabi concurred.

10Narrated from Julays by Ahmad in al-Zuhd, Ibn Abi al-Dunya, Abu Nu`aym, al-Bayhaqi, and Ibn `Asakir.

11Narrated from Qurra ibn Iyas by al-Tirmidhi (hasan sahīh), Ahmad with three sound chains, and Abu Dawud al-Tayalisi in his Musnad (2:145 #1076); also Ibn Hibban (16:292-293 #7302-7303) with two sound chains according to Shaykh Shu`ayb al-Arna’ut, al-Tabarani in al-Kabir (19:27), Abu Nu`aym in Hilya al-Awliya’ (1985 ed. 7:230-231), and al-Khatib in Tarikh Baghdad (8:417, 10:182), the last four without the second part. The first part is mass-narrated (mutawātir) as pointed out elsewhere. Al-Tirmidhi added that it is also narrated from `Abd Allah ibn Hawala, Ibn `Umar, Zayd ibn Thabit, and `Abd Allah ibn `Amr.

12In Tuhfa al-Ahwadhi (6:359).

13Narrated from `Abd Allah ibn `Amr by al-Khatib in al-Muttafaq wa al-Muftaraq and Ibn `Asakir in Tarikh Dimashq (1:143) with a fair chain because of al-Wadīn ibn `Ata’ who is sadūq hasan al-hadīth as stated by al-Arna’ut and Ma`ruf in al-Tahrir (4:59-60 #7408). Ibn `Abd al-Salam cites it in Targhib Ahl al-Islam (p. 22-23) and Yaqut in Mu`jam al-Buldan (3:312).

14Narrated mawqūf from Ibn Mas`ud by al-Hakim (4:505=1990 ed. 4:550) who said its chain is sound and al-Dhahabi concurred, al-Tabarani in al-Kabir (9:177), and Ahmad in Fada’il al-Sahaba (2:897-898), the latter two with chains containing `Abd Allah ibn Dirar who is weak as stated by al-Haythami (10:60), and Ibn `Asakir.

15Narrated from Abu al-Nadr by Nu`aym ibn Hammad in Kitab al-Fitan (1:237).

16Narrated from `Awf ibn Malik by Ibn `Asakir in Tarikh Dimashq (1:185) and thus cited by Ibn `Abd al-Salam in Targhib Ahl al-Islam (p. 23).

17Nu`aym ibn Hammad, Kitab al-Fitan (1:237, 1:254).

18Narrated from Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas by Muslim, Abu Ya`la in his Musnad (2:118) with a sound chain according to Shaykh Husayn Asad, and al-Tabarani in al-Awsat.

19After the hadith of Mu`awiya narrated by Ahmad with a fair chain and al-Bukhari in his Sahih: “A party of my Community shall remain in charge of Allah’s Order, unharmed by those who betray or desert or oppose them, until the coming of Allah’s order while they are victorious over all people.” Malik ibn Yakhamir al-Saksaki stood up and said: “O Commander of the Believers! I heard Mu`adh ibn Jabal say: `They are the people of al-Shām.'”

20Narrated from Abu Umama by Ahmad and al-Tabarani in al-Awsat as cited in Fath al-Bari (1959 ed. 13:295).

21Al-Nawawi, Sharh Sahih Muslim (1972 ed. 13:68).

22In al-Suyuti, al-Dibaj `ala Sahih Muslim (4:514).

23Narrated from Mu`awiya by Muslim in his Sahih. See also variant versions, n. 14-15.

24Al-Qurtubi, Tafsir, verse (Of every troop of them, a party only should go forth, that they (who are left behind) may gain sound knowledge in religion, and that they may warn their folk when they return to them, so that they may beware( (9:122).

25Baqiy ibn Makhlad ibn Yazid, Abu `Abd al-Rahman al-Qurtubi al-Andalusi, the pious ascetic and worshipful hadith master and student of Yahya ibn Yahya al-Laythi, he compiled a Tafsir and a Musnad in which he narrated from 1,300 Companions according to fiqh sub-headings.

26I could not find such a narration in `Abd ibn Humayd’s Musnad and his narration (p. 115) from Mu`awiya states: “O people of Shām! Al-Ansari [Zayd ibn Arqam] narrated to me that the Prophet – Allah bless and greet him – said: `A party in my Community shall not cease to stand for truth until the coming of Allah’s Order,’ and verily I consider that that party is you, O people of Shām!”

27I could not find such a narration in al-Daraqutni’s Sunan or `Ilal, and the narration from al-Mughira in the latter (7:128) states “A party in my Community shall not cease to be victorious, standing for truth, until the coming of Allah’s Order” without mention of the words “in the Occident.”

28Al-Suyuti, al-Dibaj `ala Sahih Muslim (4:514).

29Ibn Hajar, Fath al-Bari (1959 ed. 13:295).

30Cf. Al-Fayruzabadi in al-Qamus al-Muhit, Ibn al-Athir in al-Nihaya, and Ibn Manzur in Lisan al-`Arab.

31Narrated from al-Nawwas ibn Sam`an al-Kilabi as part of a long hadith by Muslim, al-Tirmidhi (hasan sahīh gharīb), Ibn Majah, and Ahmad; also by Abu Dawud with a sound chain and al-Hakim who said it is sahīh – al-Dhahabi concurred; and from Aws ibn Aws al-Thaqafi by al-Tabarani in al-Kabir (1:186, 19:196) with a sound chain as indicated by al-Haythami (8:205).

32Narrated from `Abd Allah ibn `Amr by Abu Dawud and Ahmad with weak chains because of Shahr ibn Hawshab, but the hadith is also narrated from thus by al-Azdi in his Jami` as appended to `Abd al-Razzaq’s Musannaf (11:377) and from Abu Hurayra by al-Hakim (1:510) with a chain he declared sahīh, al-Dhahabi concurring; however, the latter’s chain is merely fair, due to `Abd Allah ibn Salih al-Juhani.

33As in al-`Azim Abadi’s commentary on this hadith in `Awn al-Ma`bud and others.

34Narrated from Abu Umama by al-Tabarani in al-Kabir (8:171) and al-Hakim (4:509-510, 1990 ed. 4:555) but al-Dhahabi said its sub-narrator `Ufayr ibn Ma`dan is feeble (wāhin) – after al-Mundhiri in al-Targhib (1997 ed. 4:32) – and al-Haythami (10:59) said he is weak. Shaykh Ahmad al-Ghumari in al-Mughir (p. 61) declares him a forger but al-Dhahabi reported no such position from the authorities in the Mizan (3:83 #5679), and Shaykh Ahmad in the same book (p. 104) declares his conviction that even the two Sahihs contain some forged narrations!

35Narrated from Abu Umama by al-Tabarani in al-Kabir (8:194) with a chain containing `Abd al-`Aziz ibn `Ubayd Allah al-Himsi whom al-Haythami (10:59) said is weak. The hadith is cited by al-Suyuti in al-Jami` al-Saghir and by al-Munawi in its commentary Fayd al-Qadir with the wording: Verily, three batches (hathayāt) of my Community shall enter Paradise without reckoning nor punishment.” Shaykh Ahmad al-Ghumari in al-Mughir declared it forged like the precedent narration, but al-Dhahabi in the Mizan (2:632) reported no such grading on `Abd al-`Aziz ibn `Ubayd Allah.

36Cited by al-Munawi in Fayd al-Qadir (4:170-171).

37Cited by Ibn `Abd al-Salam in Targhib Ahl al-Islam (p. 17).

38This is Kathir ibn Ziyad al-Bursani al-Basri al-Balkhi.

39Cited by Ibn `Abd al-Salam in Targhib Ahl al-Islam (p. 18).

Source: Hadith 30-42

Book online | Malik: Al-Muwatta’

By Imam Malik ibn Anas (d. 175 H.)

English Translation by Aisha Bewley (pdf)
(including some corrections and changes to the original translation)

Book online | Nawawi: Riyad al-Salihin

Riyad as-Salihin (The Meadows of the Righteous) 
By Imam Abu Zakaria Yahya Ibn Sharaf al-Nawawī (631–676H.)

English Translation by Aisha Bewley (pdf)

Book | ‘Aqida Tahawiyya

Book | 'Aqida Tahawiyya

Imam al-Tahawi: The doctrine of Ahl al-Sunnah

´Aqida Tahawiyya - Text and Commentaries
الغقيدة الطحاوية
By Imam Abu Ja`far al-Tahawi (d. 321 H.)

Imam Abu Ja`far al-Tahawi (239-321) can be said to represent the creed of both Ash`aris and Maturidis, especially the latter, as he was also an Imam of the Hanafi madhhab. His Statement of Islamic Doctrine, commonly known as the `Aqida Tahawiyya, is representative of the viewpoint of Ahl al-Sunna wa al-Jama`a, and has long been the most widely acclaimed, and indeed indispensable, reference work on Muslim beliefs.
More about its importance

Versions & Commentaries

Recommended commentaries:
– al-Babarti (Maturidi commentary)
– `Abd al-Ghani al-Ghunaymi al-Maydani
– Bajuri’ (Ash`ari commentaries)

Soundfile (rm)

“The Creed of Imam al-Tahawi”
Arabic with transl. of Hamza Yusuf, Zaytuna Institute 2007

Book | Ibn ‘Ajiba: Al-Bahr al-Madid

Sh. Ibn 'Ajiba: Al-Bahr al-Madid

Tafsir of the Glorious Quran
الإمام أحمد ابن عجيبة : البحر المديد في تفسير القرآن المجيد
By Imam Ahmad Ibn ´Ajiba
Arabic printed
PDF on (6 Vols)

Book | Ibn Hajar: Nukhbat al-Fikr & Nazhat al-Nazhr

Nukhbat al-Fikr | Nazhat al-Nazhr

الحافظ ابن حجر العسقلاني : نزهة النظر في توضيح نخبة الفكر في مصطلح أهل الأثر
By Hafízh Ibn Hajar al-'Asqalani


Nukhbat al-Fikar - Arabic text with tashkil

نخبة الفكر في مصطلح أهل الأثر
للحافظ ابن حجر –رحمه الله-

مَتْنُ نُخْبَةِ الْفِكَرِ

قَالَ الْإِمَامُ الْحَافِظُ: أَحْمَدُ بْنُ عَلِيِّ بْنِ حَجَرٍ الْعَسْقَلَانِيُّ – يَرْحَمُهُ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى- :
الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ الَّذِي لَمْ يَزَلْ عَلِيمًا قَدِيرًا ، وَصَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَى سَيِّدِنَا مُحَمَّدٍ الَّذِي أَرْسَلَهُ إِلَى النَّاسِ بَشِيرًا وَنَذِيرًا ، وَعَلَى آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ وَصَحْبِهِ وَسَلَّمَ تَسْلِيمًا كَثِيرًا. أَمَّا بَعْدُ:

فَإِنَّ التَّصَانِيفَ فِي اصْطِلَاحِ أَهْلِ الْحَدِيثِ قَدْ كَثُرَتْ ، وَبُسِطَتْ وَاخْتُصِرَتْ ، فَسَأَلَنِي بَعْضُ الْإِخْوَانِ أَنْ أُلَخِّصَ لَهُمُ الْمُهِمَّ مِنْ ذَلِكَ ، فَأَجَبْتُهُ إِلَى سُؤَالِهِ؛ رَجَاءَ الِانْدِرَاجِ فِي تِلْكَ الْمَسَالِكِ

فَأَقُولُ :
الْخَبَرُ إِمَّا أَنْ يَكُونَ لَهُ: طُرُقٌ بِلَا عَدَدٍ مُعَيَّنٍ ، أَوْ مَعَ حَصْرِ بِمَا فَوْقَ الِاثْنَيْنِ، أَوْ بِهِمَا، أَوْ بِوَاحِدٍ .
فَالْأَوَّلُ: الْمُتَوَاتِرُ: الْمُفِيدُ لِلْعِلْمِ الْيَقِينِيِّ بِشُرُوطِهِ.
وَالثَّانِي: الْمَشْهُورُ، وَهُوَ الْمُسْتَفِيضُ عَلَى رَأْيٍ.
وَالثَّالِثُ: : الْعَزِيزُ ، وَلَيْسَ شَرْطًا لِلصَّحِيحِ خِلَافًا لِمَنْ زَعَمَهُ.
وَالرَّابِعُ: الْغَرِيبُ.
وَكُلُّهَا – سِوَى الْأَوَّلِ – آحَادٌ .
وَفِيهَا الْمَقْبُولُ وَالْمَرْدُودُ؛ لِتَوَقُّفِ الِاسْتِدْلَالِ بِهَا عَلَى الْبَحْثِ عَنْ أَحْوَالِ رُوَاتِهَا دُونَ الْأَوَّلِ.
وَقَدْ يَقَعُ فِيهَا مَا يُفِيدُ الْعِلْمَ النَّظَرِيَّ بِالْقَرَائِنِ عَلَى الْمُخْتَارِ.
ثُمَّ الْغَرَابَةُ: إِمَّا أَنْ تَكُونَ فِي أَصْلِ السَّنَدِ ، أَوْ لَا.
فَالْأَوَّلُ: الْفَرْدُ الْمُطْلَقُ . وَالثَّانِي: الْفَرْدُ النِّسْبِيُّ ، وَيَقِلُّ إِطْلَاقُ الْفَرْدِيَّةِ عَلَيْهِ.

وَخَبَرُ الْآحَادِ بِنَقْلِ عَدْلٍ تَامِّ الضَّبْطِ ، مُتَّصِلِ السَّنَدِ ، غَيْرِ مُعَلَّلٍ وَلَا شَاذٍّ : هُوَ الصَّحِيحُ لِذَاتِهِ . وَتَتَفَاوَتُ رُتَبُهُ بِتَفَاوُتِ هَذِهِ الْأَوْصَافِ .
وَمِنْ ثَمَّ قُدِّمَ صَحِيحُ الْبُخَارِيِّ ، ثُمَّ مُسِلِمٍ ، ثُمَّ شَرْطُهُمَا.
فَإِنْ خَفَّ الضَّبْطُ: فَالْحَسَنُ لِذَاتِهِ ، وَبِكَثْرَةِ طُرُقِهِ يُصَحَّحُ .
فَإِنْ جُمِعَا فَلِلتَّرَدُّدِ فِي النَّاقِلِ حَيْثُ التَّفَرُّدُ ، وَإِلَّا فَبِاعْتِبَارِ إِسْنَادَيْنِ .
وَزِيَادَةُ رَاوِيهِمَا مَقْبُولَةٌ مَا لَمْ تَقَعْ مُنَافِيَةً لِمَنْ هُوَ أَوْثَقُ .

فَإِنْ خُولِفَ بِأَرْجَحَ فَالرَّاجِحُ الْمَحْفُوظُ ، وَمُقَابِلُهُ الشَّاذُّ . وَمَعَ الضَّعْفِ فَالرَّاجِحُ الْمَعْرُوفُ ، وَمُقَابِلُهُ الْمُنْكَرُ.
وَالْفَرْدُ النِّسْبِيُّ: إِنْ وَافَقَهُ غَيْرُهُ فَهُوَ الْمُتَابِعُ، وَإِنْ وُجِدَ مَتْنٌ يُشْبِهُهُ فَهُوَ الشَّاهِدُ .
وَتَتَبُّعُ الطُّرُقِ لِذَلِكَ هُوَ الِاعْتِبَارُ .
ثُمَّ الْمَقْبُولُ: إِنْ سَلِمَ مِنَ الْمُعَارَضَةِ فَهُوَ الْمُحْكَمُ .
وَإِنْ عُورِضَ بِمِثْلِهِ : فَإِنْ أَمْكَنَ الْجَمْعُ فَمُخْتَلِفُ الْحَدِيثِ .
أَوْ لا ، وثَبَتَ الْمُتَأَخِّرُ فَهُوَ النَّاسِخُ ، وَالْآخَرُ الْمَنْسُوخُُ ، وَإِلَّا فَالتَّرْجِيحُ ، ثُمَّ التَّوَقُّفُ .
ثُمَّ الْمَرْدُودُ: إِمَّا أَنْ يَكُونَ لِسَقْطٍ أَوْ طَعْنٍ :
فَالسَّقْطُ: إِمَّا أَنْ يَكُونَ مِنْ مَبَادِئِ السَّنَدِ مِنْ مُصَنِّفٍ، أَوْ مِنْ آخِرِهِ بَعْدَ التَّابِعِيِّ ، أَوْ غَيْرِ ذَلِكَ .

فَالْأَوَّلُ: الْمُعَلَّقُ . وَالثَّانِي : الْمُرْسَلُ . وَالثَّالِثُ : إِنْ كَانَ بِاثْنَيْنِ فَصَاعِدًا مَعَ التَّوَالِي فَهُوَ الْمُعْضَلُ ، وَإِلَّا فَالْمُنْقَطِعُ .
ثُمَّ قَدْ يَكُونُ وَاضِحًا أَوْ خَفِيًّا. فَالْأَوَّلُ: يُدْرَكُ بِعَدَمِ التَّلَاقِي ، وَمِنْ ثَمَّ احْتِيجَ إِلَى التَّأْرِيخِ .
وَالثَّانِي: الْمُدَلَّسُ وَيَرِدُ بِصِيغَةِ تَحْتَمِلُ اللَّقْيَ : كَعَنْ ، وَقَالَ ، وَكَذَا الْمُرْسَلُ الْخَفِيُّ مِنْ مُعَاصِرٍ لَمْ يَلْقَ

ثُمَّ الطَّعْنُ: إِمَّا أَنْ يَكُونَ لِكَذِبِ الرَّاوِي ، أَوْ تُهْمَتِهِ بِذَلِكَ ، أَوْ فُحْشِ غَلَطِهِ ، أَوْ غَفْلَتِهِ ، أَوْ فِسْقِهِ ، أَوْ وَهْمِهِ ، أَوْ مُخَالَفَتِهِ ، أَوْ جَهَالَتِهِ ، أَوْ بِدْعَتِهِ ، أَوْ سُوءِ حِفْظِهِ.
فَالْأَوَّلُ: الْمَوْضُوعُ، وَالثَّانِي: الْمَتْرُوكُ، وَالثَّالِثُ: الْمُنْكَرُ عَلَى رَأْيٍ، وَكَذَا الرَّابِعُ وَالْخَامِسُ.
ثُمَّ الْوَهْمُ: إِنِ اطُّلِعَ عَلَيْهِ بِالْقَرَائِنِ، وَجَمْعِ الطُّرُقِ : فَالْمُعَلَّلُ.

ثُمَّ الْمُخَالَفَةُ: إِنْ كَانَتْ بِتَغْيِيرِ السِّيَاقِ: فَمُدْرَجُ الْإِسْنَادِ، أَوْ بِدَمْجِ مَوْقُوفٍ بِمَرْفُوعٍ: فَمُدْرَجُ الْمَتْنِ، أَوْ بِتَقْدِيمٍ أَوْ تَأْخِيرٍ : فَالْمَقْلُوبُ ، أَوْ بِزِيَادَةِ رَاوٍ: فَالْمَزِيدُ فِي مُتَّصِلِ الْأَسَانِيدِ ، أَوْ بِإِبْدَالِهِ وَلَا مُرَجِّحَ : فَالْمُضْطَّرِبُ .
وَقَدْ يَقَعُ الْإِبْدَالُ عَمْدًا امْتِحَانًا ، أَوْ بِتَغْيِيرٍ مَعَ بَقَاءِ السِّيَاقِ: فَالْمُصَحَّفُ وَالْمُحَرَّفُ .
وَلَا يَجُوزُ تَعَمُّدُ تَغْيِيرِ الْمَتْنِ بِالنَّقْصِ وَالْمُرَادِفِ إِلَّا لِعَالِمٍ بِمَا يُحِيلُ الْمَعَانِي .
فَإِنْ خَفِيَ الْمَعْنَى احْتِيجَ إِلَى شَرْحِ الْغَرِيبِ ، وَبَيَانِ الْمُشْكِلِ .
ثُمَّ الْجَهَالَةُ: وَسَبَبُهَا أَنَّ الرَّاوِيَ قَدْ تَكْثُرُ نُعُوتُهُ فَيُذْكَرُ بِغَيْرِ مَا اشْتُهِرَ بِهِ لِغَرَضٍ ، وَصَنَّفُوا فِيهِ الْمُوَضِّحَ.

وَقَدْ يَكُونُ مُقِلًّا فَلَا يَكْثُرُ الأَخْذُ عَنْهُ ، وَصَنَّفُوا فِيهِ الوُحْدَانَ ، أَوْ لَا يُسَمَّى اخْتِصارًا ، وَفِيهِ المُبْهَمَاتُ ، وَلَا يُُقْبَلُ المُبْهَمُ وَلَوْ أُبْهِمَ بِلَفْظِ التَّعْدِيلِ عَلَى الْأَصَّحِ .

فَإِنْ سُمِّيَ وَانْفَرَدَ وَاحِدٌ عَنْهُ : فمَجْهُولُ الْعَيْنِ ، أَوِ اثْنَانِ فَصَاعِدًا ، وَلَمْ يُوَثَّقْ : فَمَجْهُولُ الحَالِ ، وَهُوَ الْمَسْتُورُ .
ثُمَّ الْبِدْعَةُ : إِمَّا بِمُكَفِّرٍ ، أَوْ بِمُفَسِّقٍ .

فَالْأَوَّلُ : لَا يَقْبَلُ صَاحِبَهَا الْجُمْهُورُ . وَالثَّانِي: يُقْبَلُ مَنْ لَمْ يَكُنْ دَاعِيَةً فِي الْأَصَّحِ ، إلَّا أنْ يَرْوِيَ مَا يُقوِّي بِدْعَتَهُ فَيُرَدُّ عَلَى الْمُخْتَارِ، وَبِهِ صَرَّحَ الْجَوْزَجَانِيُّ شَيْخُ النَّسَائِيِّ .

ثُمَّ سُوءُ الْحِفْظِ: إِنْ كَانَ لَازِمًا فَهُوَ الشَّاذُّ عَلَى رَأْيٍ، أَوْ طَارِئًا فَالْمُُخْتَلِطُ ، وَمَتَى تُوبِعَ سََيْئُّ الْحِفْظِ بِمُعْتَبَرٍ، وَكَذَا الْمَسْتُورُ ، وَالْمُرْسَلُ ، وَالْمُدلَّسُ: صَارَ حَدِيثُهُمْ حَسَنًا لَا لِذَاتِهِ ، بَلْ بِالْمَجْمُوعِ.

ثُمَّ الْإِسْنَادُ: إِمَّا أَنْ يَنْتَهِيَ إِلَى النَّبيِّ -صَلَّى اللَّهُ تَعَالَى عَلَيْهِ وَسِلَّمَ- ، تَصْرِيحًا ، أَوْ حُكْمًا : مِنْ قَوْلِهِ ، أَوْ فِعْلِهِ ، أَوْ تَقْرِيرِهِ.

أَوْ إِلَى الصَّحَابِيِّ كَذَلِكَ وَهُوَ : مَنْ لَقِيَ النَّبيَّ -صَلَّى اللَّهُ تَعَالَى عَلَيْهِ وَعَلَى آَلِهِ وَسَلَّمَ- مُؤْمِنًا بِهِ، وَمَاتَ عَلَى الْإِسْلَامِ ، وَلَوْ تَخَلَّلَتْ رِدَّةٌ فِي الْأَصَحِّ.
أَوْ إِلَى التَّاَّبِعِيِّ : وَهُوَ مَنْ لَقِيَ الصَّحَابِيَّ كَذَلِكَ .

فَالْأَوَّلُ : الْمَرْفُوعُ ، وَالثَّانِي : الْمَوْقُوفُ ، وَالثَّالِثُ : الْمَقْطُوعُُ ، وَمَنْ دُونَ التَّابِعِيِّ فِيهِ مِثْلُهُ، وَيُقَالُ لِلأَخِيرَيْنِ : الْأَثَرُ.
وَالْمُسْنَدُ: مَرْفُوعُ صَحَابِيٍّ بِسَنَدٍ ظَاهِرُهُ الْاتِّصَالُ.

فَإِنْ قَلَّ عَدَدُهُ : فَإِمَّا أَنْ يَنْتَهِيَ إِلَى النَّبِيِّ -صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَعَلَى آَلِهِ وَسَلَّمَ- ، أَوْ إِلَى إِمَامٍ ذِي صِفَةٍ عَلِيَّةٍ كَشُعْبَةَ . فَالْأَوَّلُ : الْعُلُوُّ الْمُطْلَقُ . وَالثَّانِي : النِّسْبِيُّ .
وَفِيهِ الْمُوَافَقَةُ : وَهِيَ الْوُصُولُ إِلَى شَيْخِ أَحَدِ الْمُصَنِّفِينَ مِنْ غَيْرِ طَرِيقِهِ.
وَفِيهِ الْبَدَلُ : وَهُوَ الْوُصُولُ إِلَى شَيْخِ شَيْخِهِ كَذَلِكَ.
وَفِيهِ الْمُسَاوَاةُ : وَهِيَ اسْتِوَاءُ عَدَدِ الْإِسْنَادِ مِنَ الرَّاوِي إِلَى آَخِرِهِ ، مَعَ إِسْنَادِ أَحَدِ الْمُصنِّفِينَ.
وَفِيهِ الْمُصَافَحَةُ: وَهِيَ الْاسْتِوَاءُ مَعَ تِلْمِيذِ ذَلِكَ الْمُصنِّفِ، وَيُُقَابِلُ الْعُلُوَّ بَأَقسامِهِ : النُّزُولُ.

فَإِنْ تَشَارَكَ الرَّاوِي وَمَنْ رَوَى عَنْهُ فِي السِّنِّ وَاللُّقِيِّ فَهُوَ الْأَقْرَانُ ُ. وَإِنْ رَوَى كُلٌّ مِنْهُمَا عَنِ الْآَخَرِ: فَالْمُدْبَجُ.

وَإِنْ رَوَى عَمَّنْ دُونَهُ : فَالْأَكَابِرُ عَنِ الْأَصَاغِرِ ، وَمِنْهُ الْآَبَاءُ عَنِ الْأَبْنَاءِ ، وَفِي عَكْسِهِ كَثْرَةٌ ، وَمِنْهُ مَنْ رَوَى عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ جَدِّهِ.
وَإِنِ اشْتَرَكَ اثْنَانِ عَنْ شَيْخٍ ، وَتَقدَّمَ مَوْتُ أَحَدِهِمَا ، فَهُوَ : السَّابِقُ وَاللَّاحِقُُ.
وَإِنْ رَوَى عَنْ اثْنَيْنِ مُتَّفِقَي الْاسْمِ ، وَلَمْ يَتَمَيْزَا ، فَبِاخْتِصَاصِهِ بِأَحَدِهِمَا يَتَبَيْنُ الْمُهْمَلُ.
وَإِنْ جَحَدَ مَرْوِيَّهُ جَزْمًا : رُدَّ ، أَوْ احْتَمَالًا : قُبِلَ فِي الْأَصَحِّ. وَفِيهِ : “مَنْ حَدَّثَ وَنَسِيَ”.
وَإِنِ اتَّفَقَ الرُّوَاةُ فِي صِيَغِ الْأَدَاءِ ، أَوْ غَيْرَهَا مِنَ الْحَالَاتِ ، فَهُوَ الْمُسَلْسَلُ.

وَصِيَغُ الْأَدَاءِ: سَمِعْتُ وَحَدَّثَنِي ، ثُمَّ أَخْبَرَنِي ، وَقَرَأْتُ عَلَيْهِ ، ثُمَّ قُرِئَ عَلَيْهِ وَأَنَا أَسْمَعُ ، ثُمَّ أَنْبَأَنِي ، ثُمَّ نَاوَلَنِي ، ثُمَّ شَافَهَنِي. ثُمَّ كَتَبَ إِلَيَّ ، ثُمَّ عَنْ ، وَنَحْوَهَا.

فَالْأَوَّلْانِ : لِمَنْ سَمِعَ وَحْدَهُ مِنْ لَفْظِ الشَّيْخِ ، فَإِنْ جَمَعَ فَمَعَ غَيْرِهِ ، وَأَوَّلُهَا : أَصْرَحُهَا وَأَرْفَعُهَا فِي الْإِمْلَاءِ.

وَالثَّالِثُ، وَالرَّابِعُ : لِمَنْ قَرَأَ بِنَفْسِهِ ، فَإِنْ جَمَعَ : فَكَالْخَامِسِ.

وَالْإِنْبَاءُ : بِمَعْنَى الْإِخْبَارُ. إِلّا فِي عُرْفِ الْمُتَأَخِرِينَ فَهُوَ لِلْإِجَازَةِ كَعَنْ ، وَعَنْعَنَةُ الْمُعَاصِرِ مَحْمُولَةٌ عَلَى السَّمَاعِ إِلَّا مِنْ المُدَلِّسٍ وَقِيلَ : يُشْتَرَطُ ثُبُوتُ لِقَائِهِمَا -وَلَوْ مَرَّةً- ، وَهُوَ الْمُخْتَارُ .

وَأَطْلَقُوا الْمُشَافَهَةَ فِي الْإِجَازَةِ الْمُتَلَّفَظُ بِهَا، وَالمُكَاتَبَةُ فِي الْإِجَازَةِ الْمَكْتُوبِ بِهَا ، وَاشْتَرَطُوا فِي صِحَّةِ الْمُنَاوَلَةِ اقْتِرَانُهَا بِالْإِذْنِ بِالرِّوَايَةِ ، وَهِيَ أَرْفَعُ أَنْوَاعِ الْإِجَازَةِ.

وَكَذَا اشْتَرَطُوا الْإِذْنَ فِي الوِجَادَةِ ، وَالْوَصِيِّةِ بِالْكِتَابِ وَفِي الْإِعْلَامِ ، وَإِلَّا فَلَا عِبْرَةَ بِذَلِكَ كَالْإِجَازَةِ الْعَامَّةِ ، وَلِلْمَجْهُولِ ، وَلِلْمَعْدُومِ ، عَلَى الْأَصَحِّ فِي جَمِيعِ ذَلِكَ.

ثُمَّ الرُّوَاةُ إَنِ اتَّفَقَتْ أَسْمَاؤُهُمْ ، وَأَسْمَاءُ آَبَائِهِمْ فَصَاعِدًا ، وَاخْتُلِفَتْ أَشْخَاصُهُمْ : فَهُوَ الْمُتَّفِقُ وَالْمُفْتَرِقُ ، وَإِنِ اتَّفَقَتِ الْأَسْمَاءُ خَطًا ، وَاخْتَلَفَتْ نُطْقًا : فَهُوَ الْمُؤْتَلِفُ وَالْمُخْتَلِفُُ.

وَإِنِ اتَّفَقَتِ الْأَسْمَاءُ وَاخْتَلَفَتِ الْآَبَاءُ ، أَوْ بِالْعَكْسِ : فَهُوَ الْمُتَشَابِهُ ، وَكَذَا إِنْ وَقَعَ الْاتِّفَاقُ فِي الْاسْمِ وَاسْمِ الْأَبِ ، والْاِخْتِلَافُ فِي النِّسْبَةِ، وَيَتَرَكَّبُ مِنْهُ وَمِمَّا قَبْلَهُ أَنْوَاعُ : مِنْهَا أَنْ يَحْصُلَ الْاِتِّفَاقُ أَوْ الْاِشْتِبَاهُ إِلَّا فِي حَرْفٍ أَوْ حَرْفَيْن. أَوْ بِالتَّقْدِيمِ وَالتَّأْخِيرِ أَوْ نَحْوَ ذَلِكَ.

وَمِنَ الْمُهِمِّ : مَعْرِفَةُ طَبَقَاتِ الرُّوَاةِ وَمَوَالِيدِهِمْ ، وَوَفَيَاتِهِمْ ، وَبُلْدَانِهِمْ ، وَأَحْوَالِهِمْ تَعْدِيلًا وَتَجْرِيحًا وَجَهَالَةً.

وَمرَاتِبُ الْجَرْحِ : وَأَسْوَؤُهَا الْوَصْفُ بِأَفْعَلَ ، كَأَكْذَبِ النَّاسِ ، ثُمَّ دَجَّالٍ ، أَوْ وَضَّاعٍ ، أَوْ كَذَّابٍ.
وَأَسْهَلُهَا : لَيْنٌ ، أَوْ سَيِّئُ الْحِفْظِ ، أَوْ فِيهِ مَقَالٌ.

وَمرَاتِبُ التَّعْدِيلِ : وَأَرْفَعُهَا الْوَصْفُ بَأَفْعَلَ : كَأَوْثَقِ النَّاسِ ، ثُمَّ مَا تَأكَدَ بِصِفَةٍ أَوْ صِفَتَيْنِ كَثِقَةٍ ثِقَةٍ ، أَوْ ثِقَةٍ حَافِظٍ وَأَدْنَاهَا مَا أَشْعَرَ بِالْقُرْبِ مِنْ أَسْهَلِ التَّجْرِيحِ : كَشَيْخٍ ، وَتُقْبَلُُ التَّزْكِيَةُ مِنْ عَارِفٍ بَأَسْبَابِهَا ، وَلَوْ مِنْ وَاحِدٍ عَلَى الْأَصَحِّ.

وَالْجَرْحُ مُقَدَّمٌ عَلَى التَّعْدِيلِ إِنْ صَدَرَ مُبَيِنًا مِنْ عَارِفٍ بِأْسْبَابِهِ ، فَإِنْ خَلَا عَنِ التَّعْدِيلِ : قُبِلَ مُجْمَلًا عَلَى الْمُخْتَارِ.

وَمِنَ الْمُهِمِّ مَعْرِفَةُ كُنَى الْمُسَمِّينَ ، وَأَسْمَاءِ الْمُكَنَّيْنَ ، وَمَنِ اسْمُهُ كُنْيَتُهُ ، وَمَنِ اخْتُلِفَ فِي كُنْيَتِهِ ، وَمَنْ كَثُرَتْ كُنَاهُ أَوْ نُعُوتُهُ ، وَمَنْ وَافَقَتْ كُنْيَتُهُ اسْمَ أَبِيهِ، أَوْ بِالْعَكْسِ ، أَوْ كُنْيتُهُ كُنْيَةُ زَوْجَتِهِ ، وَمَنْ نُسِبَ إِلَى غَيْرِ أَبِيهِ ، أَوْ إِلَى غَيْرِ مَا يَسْبِقُ إِلَى الْفَهْمِ ، وَمَنِ اتَّفَقَ اسْمُهُ وَاسْمُ أَبِيهِ وَجَدِّهِ ، أَوْ اسْمُ شَيْخِهِ وَشَيْخِ شَيْخِهِ فَصَاعِدًا، وَمَنِ اتَّفَقَ اسْمُ شَيْخِهِ وَالرَّاوِي عَنْهُ .

وَمَعْرِفَةُ الْأَسْمَاءِ الْمُجَرَّدَةِ ، وَالْمُفْرَدَةِ ، وَالْكُنَى ، وَالْأَلْقَابِ ، وَالْأَنْسَابِ ، وَتَقَعُ إِلَى الْقَبَائِلَ وَالْأَوْطَانِ ، بِلَادًا ، أَوْ ضَيَاعًا أَوْ سِكَكًا ، أَوْ مُجَاوِرَةً. وَإِلَى الصَّنائِعَ وَالْحِرَفِ ، وَيَقَعُ فِيهَا الْاتِّفَاقُ وَالْاشْتَبَاهُ كَالْأَسْمَاءِ ، وَقَدْ تَقَعُ أَلْقَابًا.

وَمَعْرِفَةُ أَسْبَابِ ذَلِكَ ، وَمَعْرِفَةُ الْمَوَالِي مِنْ أَعْلَى ، وَمِنْ أَسْفَلِ ، بِالرِّقِ ، أَوْ بِالْحَلِفِ ، وَمَعْرِفَةُ الْإِخْوَةِ وَالْأَخَوَاتِ.

وَمَعْرِفَةُ آَدَابِ الشَّيْخِ وَالطَّالِبِ ، وَسِنِّ التَّحَمُّلِ وَالْأَدَاءِ ، وَصِفَةِ كِتَابَةِ الْحَدِيثِ وَعَرْضِهِ ، وَسَمَاعِهِ ، وَإِسْمَاعِهِ ، والرِّحْلَةِ فِيهِ ، وَتَصْنِيفِهِ ، إِمَّا عَلَى الْمَسَانِيدِ ، أَوْ الْأَبْوَابِ ، أَوْ الْعِلَلِ ، أَوْ الْأَطْرَافِ.

وَمَعْرِفَةُ سَبَبِ الْحَدِيثِ ، وَقَدْ صَنَّفَ فِيِهِ بَعْضُ شُيُوخِ القَاضِي أبِي يَعْلَى بْنِ الْفَرَّاءِ ، وصَنَّفُوا فِي غَالِبِ هَذِهِ الْأَنْوَاعِ ، وَهِيَ نَقْلٌ مَحْضٌ، ظَاهِرةُ التَّعْرِيفِ ، مُسْتَغْنِيَةٌ عَنِ التَّمْثِيلِ ، وَحَصْرُهَا مُتَعَسِّرٌ ، فَلْتُرَاجِعْ لَهَا مَبْسُوطَاتِهَا.
وَاللَّهُ الْمُوَفِّقُ وَالْهَادِي ، لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا هُوَ.

Book | Nawawi: Tibiyan – Adab with the Quran

Book | Nawawi: Tibiyan - Adab with the Quran

Imam Al-Nawawi: Al-Tibiyan

Adab with the Quran
الإمام النووي : التبيان في آداب حملة القرآن
By Imam Abu Zakaria Yahya ibn Sharaf al-Din Al-Naawi

Book | Sirajuddin: Sharh al-Bayquniyya

Book | Sirajuddin: Sharh al-Bayquniyya

AbdAllah Sirajuddin: Sharh al-Bayquniyya

2009 Dar al-Falah, Halab. Original Language: Arabic
Sirajuddin: Sharh al-Bayquniyya
الشيخ عبدالله سراج الدين الحلبي
Şeyh Abdullah Siracuddin: El-Manzumetu'l Beykuniyye Hadis Istılahları

Book | Suyuti: The Virtues of Ahl al-Bayt

Book | Suyuti: The Virtues of Ahl al-Bayt

Iyhya al-Mayt bi Fada’ il Ahl al-Bayt

إحياء الميت بفضائل أهل البيت للإمام الحافظ جلال الدين السيوطي
Revival of the dead by the virtues of the Ahl al-Bayt
60 hadith on the Merits of Ahl al-Bayt
By Imam Jalalud-Din al-Suyuti


Arabic (Dar al-Ma’arif): View | Dowload
English translation by anonymous: View | Dowload


60 Ahadith Concerning the Meritorious Benefits of the Beloved Ahlul Bayt of
Sayyidinaa wa Mawlaana Muhammad Sall Allahu ‘alaihi wa Aalihi wa sallim
Sall Allahu ‘alaihi wa Aalihi wa sallim.
By Mawlaana Jalaaluddin as Suyuti Rahmatullahi ‘alaihi

Book | Suyuti: ِAl-Hawi lil-Fatawi

Book | Suyuti: ِAl-Hawi lil-Fatawi

Al-Hawi lil-Fatawi

الحاوي للفتاوي للإمام الحافظ جلال الدين السيوطي
Collection of Fatawa
By Imam Jalalud-Din al-Suyuti

Online resources

Arabic online

Arabic online
Part 1 ↗ | PDF
Part 2 ↗ | PDF

Topic: Tasawwuf

The second part of this Collection of Fatawa contains a section on
Topics concerning Tasawwuf:PDF View | Download
  1. On the hadith “Whoever knows himself knows his Lord”
  2. Reports that prove the existence of the Qutb, the Awtad, the Nujaba and the Abdal
  3. About seeing the Prophet and the Angels while awake
    translated into English – see this page

Book | Tirmidhi: Shamail

Book | Tirmidhi: Shamail

Imam al-Tirmidhi: Al-Shamai'il - The description of the Prophet Muhammad (s)

Original language: Arabic. Recommeded edition: Dar al-Gharb 2000.
Tirmidhi: Shamail
الإمام الترمذي : الشمائل المحمدية - دارالكتب العلمية
Editions: Dar al-Gharb - pdf | Dar al-Kutub - pdf | More on
Sharh: Bajuri: Al-Mawahib al-Laduniyyah - pdf
Turkish Editions
Urdu translations:
Arabic/Urdu (transl: Allama Muhammad Siddiq Hazarwi) pdf, high resolution
Arabic/Urdu w/ sharh (Zakariyya Khadhelwi) pdf
English Translations:
Transl. Zakariyya Khandhelwi pdf | Arabic/English Online
Transl. Muhammad Danyal: Compendium of Prophetic Beauty
Utvalda hadither (
"So war der Prophet" Abe al-Hafidh Wentzel (Auszug)
More : Al-Shamail Chapter 1. Explained by His Eminence Shaykh Muhammad al-Yaqoubi Playlist:






(الشمائل النبويّة)

Tirmizî’nin (ö. 279/892) Resûl-i Ekrem’in şemâiline dair eseri.

Tam adı eş-Şemâilü’n-nebeviyye ve’l-hasailü’l-Muśtafaviyye olup şemâil konusunda yapılan ilk çalışmadır ve elli altı başlık altında 424 (bazı neşirlerde 394, 395) hadisten meydana gelmektedir. Bu başlıklarda Resûlullah’ın dış görünüşü, kıyafeti, yemesi içmesi, konuşma şekli, ibadeti, ahlâkı, geçim tarzı ve ölümü ele alınmıştır. Eser tertip ve muhteva bakımından şemâil konusunda yazılan eserlerin en mükemmeli kabul edilmiştir. Tirmizî bu eserine el-Câmiu’ś-śaĥîĥ’inde yer alan şemâille ilgili hadislerin birçoğunu aynen, bir kısmını ihtisar ederek almış, râviler hakkındaki tenkitlerini bazan hiç değiştirmeden, bazan kısaltıp nakletmiştir. eş-Şemâilü’n-nebeviyye’deki hadislerin büyük çoğunluğu sahih, önemli bir kısmı hasen, pek azı zayıf rivayetlerdir. Müellif bazı hadislerden elde edilebilecek fıkhî meselelere de işaret etmiştir. Çeşitli kütüphanelerde pek çok nüshası bulunan eser (Sezgin, I/1, s. 304) Kalküta’da (1252, 1262, 1273), Delhi’de (1303), Leknev’de (1288), Lahor’da (1309), İstanbul’da (1264, 1285), Kahire’de (1273, taşbaskı, 1309, 1375, son iki baskı Bâcûrî’nin eş-Şemâilü’n-nebeviyye üzerine yazdığı el-Mevâhibü’l-ledünniyye adlı hâşiyesinin kenarında, nşr. Tâhâ Abdürraûf Sa‘d, 1988), Bulak’ta (1280, 1290), Fas’ta (1310) ve Humus’ta (nşr. İzzet Ubeyd ed-De‘âs, 1388/1968, Beyrut 1406/1985; nşr. Abdullah eş-Şa‘âr, 1992) yayımlanmıştır.

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Category: Hadith

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Hadith about Sham | أحاديث حول الشام

Hadith about Sham | أحاديث حول الشام

أحاديث حول الشام


Hadith about the merits of Sham


بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
أحاديث حول الشام


عن زيد بن ثابت الأنصاري رضي الله عنه قال: سمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يقول: يا طوبى للشام! يا طوبى للشام ! يا طوبى للشام!قالوا: يا رسول الله وبم ذلك ؟ قال: ( تلك ملائكة الله باسطوا أجنحتها على الشام )

صحيح / فضائل الشام ودمشق


عن عبد الله بن حوالة: قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم: ستجدون أجناداً ، جنداً بالشام ، وجنداً بالعراق ، وجندا ًباليمن

قال عبد الله: فقمت فقلت: خِرْ لي يا رسول الله ! فقال: ( عليكم بالشام ، فمن أبى فليلحق بيمنه ، و ليستق من غدره ، فإن الله عز و جل تكفل لي بالشام و أهله )

قال ربيعة: فسمعت أبا إدريس يحدث بهذا الحديث يقول: ومن تكفل الله به فلا ضيعة عليه .

صحيح جدا / فضائل الشام ودمشق


عن عبد الله بن عمرو رضي الله عنهما قال: قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم: إني رأيت عمود الكتاب انتزع من تحت وسادتي ، فنظرت فإذا هو نور ساطع عُمد به إلى الشام ، ألا إن الإيمان إذا وقعت الفتن بالشام

صحيح / فضائل الشام ودمشق


عن أبي ذر رضي الله عنه قال: قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم: الشام أرض المحشر والمنشر .

صحيح / فضائل الشام ودمشق


عن معاوية رضي الله عنه مرفوعاً ( إذا فسد أهل الشام فلا خير فيكم ، لا تزال طائفة من أمتي منصورين لا يضرهم من خذلهم حتى تقوم الساعة ) صحيح / فضائل الشام ودمشق

وهو مخرج في السلسلة الصحيحة وفي سنن الترمذي وزاد أبو عيسى الترمذي: [ قال البخاري : ( قال علي بن المديني هم اهل الحديث ) ]رواه أحمد وابن حبان


عن عبد الله بن عمر رضي الله عنهما قال: صلّى رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم الفجر ثم أقبل على القوم فقال: اللهم بارك لنا في مدينتنا ، و بارك لنا في مدنا و صاعنا ، اللهم بارك لنا في حرمنا ، وبارك في شامنا فقال رجل: وفي العراق ؟ فسكت . ثم أعاد ، قال الرجل: وفي عراقنا ؟ فسكت . ثم قال: ( اللهم بارك لنا في مدينتنا و بارك لنا في مدنا و صاعنا ، اللهم بارك لنا في شامنا ، اللهم اجعل مع البركة بركة ، و الذي نفسي بيده ما من المدينة شعب و لا نقب إلا و عليه ملكان يحرسانها حتى تقدموا عليها . . .

صحيح / فضائل الشام ودمشق


عن عبد الله بن حوالة أنه قال: يا رسول الله ، اكتب لي بلدا أكون فيه ، فلو أعلم أنك تبقى لم أختر على قربك . قال: عليك بالشام ” ثلاثا ” فلما رأى النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم كراهيته للشام قال: ( هل تدرون ما يقول الله عز وجل ؟ يقول: أنت صفوتي من بلادي ، أدخل فيك خيرتي من عبادي ، ، وإليك المحشر ، ورأيت ليلة أسري بي عموداً أبيض كأنه لؤلؤ تحمله الملائكة ، قلت: ما تحملون ؟ قالوا: نحمل عمود الإسلام ، أمرنا أن نضعه بالشام ، وبينا أنا نائم رأيت كتابا اختلس من تحت وسادتي ، فظننت أن الله تخلى من أهل الأرض ، فأتبعت بصري ، فإذا هو نور ساطع بين يدي ، حتى وضع بالشام ، فمن أبى أن يلحق بالشام فليلحق بيمنه ، وليستق من غُدُره ( الغدر: بضم الغين وضم الدال جمع غدير )، فإن الله تكفل لي بالشام وأهله )

صحيح / فضائل الشام ودمشق


عن عبد الله بن عمر رضي الله عنهما قال: قال لنا النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم الله يوماً: إني رأيت الملائكة في المنام أخذوا عمود الكتاب فعمدوا به إلى الشام ، فإذا وقعت الفتن فإن الإيمان بالشام

صحيح / فضائل الشام ودمشق


عن سالم بن عبد الله عن أبيه رضي الله عنه قال: قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم: ستخرج نار في آخر الزمان من ( حَضْر مَوْت تحشر الناس ) قلنا: بما تأمرنا يا رسول الله ؟ قال: ( عليكم بالشام )

صحيح / فضائل الشام ودمشق


عن بَهْزُ بنُ حَكِيمٍ بن معاوية القشيري ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ ، عَنْ جَدّهِ قَالَ: قلْتُ يا رَسُولَ الله أين تأمرني ؟ فقال: هاهنا وأومأ بيده نحو الشام . قال: ( إِنّكُمْ محْشورُونَ رِجَالاً وَرُكْبَاناً ومجرون علَى وُجُوهِكُم )

صحيح / فضائل الشام ودمشق


عن أبي الدّرْدَاءِ أنّ رَسُولَ الله صلى الله عليه وسلم قالَ: فُسْطَاط المُسْلِمِينَ يَوْمَ المَلْحَمَةِ بالْغُوطَةِ إلَى جَانِبِ مَدِينَةِ يُقَالُ لَهَا دِمَشْقُ مِنْ خَيْرِ مَدَائِنِ الشّامِ

وفي رواية ثانية: قال سمعت النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم يقول: ( يوم الملحمة الكبرى فسطاط المسلمين بأرض يقال لها الغوطة فيها مدينة يقال لها دمشق خير منازل المسلمين يومئذ )

صحيح / فضائل الشام ودمشق

ووجدت رواية أخرى عند أبي داود قال : ( يقال لها دمشق من خير مدائن الشام ) وقد صححهاالألباني رحمه الله

والغوطة هي المنطقة المحيطة بدمشق من شرقها تقريبا وهي في محافظة ريف دمشق الآن


عن أوس بن أوس الثقفي رضي الله عنه أنه سمع رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يقول: ينزل عيسى بن مريم عليهما السلام عند المنارة البيضاء شرقي دمشق

صحيح / فضائل الشام ودمشق


عن أوس ابن أوس الثقفي رضي الله عنه: أنه سمع رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم يقول: ينزل عيسى بن مريم عليه السلام عند بالمنارة البيضاء شرقي دمشق عليه ممصرتان ، كأن رأسه يقطر منه الجُمان

صحيح / فضائل الشام ودمشق


وَعَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ رضي الله عنه: أنه سَمِعْ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَقُولُ: إذا وقعت الملاحم بعث الله من دمشق بعثاً من الموالي أكرم العرب فرساً وأجودهم سلاحا يؤيد الله بهم الدين

حسن/ فضائل الشام ودمشق


عن عوف بن مالك رضي الله عنه قال: أتيت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم وهو في بناء له ، فسلمت عليه . فقال: عوف قلت: نعم يا رسول الله! قال: ( ادخل ) فقلت: كلي أو بعضي ؟ قال: ( بل كلك ) قال: فقال لي: ( اعدد عوف! ستا بين يدي الساعة ؛ أولهن موتي ) ، قال: فاستبكيت حتى جعل رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يسكتني . قال: ( قل: إحدى . والثانية فتح بيت المقدس ، قل اثنين . والثالثة فتنة تكون في أمتي وعظمها . والرابعة موتان يقع في أمتي يأخذهم كقعاص الغنم . والخامسة يفيض المال فيكم فيضاً حتى إن الرجل ليعطي المائة دينار فيظل يسخطها ، قل خمساً . والسادسة هدنة تكون بينكم وبين بني الأصفر يسيرون إليكم على ثمانين راية ، تحت كل راية اثنا عشر ألفا ، فسطاط المسلمين يومئذ في أرض يقال لها: الغوطة ، فيها مدينة و يقال لها: دمشق . )

صحيح / فضائل الشام ودمشق

عن أبي أمامة رضي الله عنه أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم قال : (صفوة الله من أرضه الشام ، وفيها صفوته من خلقه وعباده ، ولتدخلن الجنة من امتي ثلة لا حساب عليهم ولا عذاب .) رواه الطبراني

صحيح / سلسلة الأحاديث الصحيحة


عن سلمة بن نفيل رضي الله عنه أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم قال : (عقر دار المؤمنين بالشام ) رواه الطبراني

صحيح / سلسلة الأحاديث الصحيحة


( ستخرج نار قبل يوم القيامة من بحر حضر موت ، تحشر الناس ، قالوا: يا رسول الله ! فما تأمرنا ؟ قال: عليكم بالشام . ) رواه الترمذي

صحيح / سلسلة الأحاديث الصحيحة


عن ابن حوالة قال:

قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم: “” سيصير الأمر إلى أن تكونوا جنودا مجندة ، جند بالشام وجند باليمن وجند بالعراق “” قال ابن حوالة: خر لي يارسول الله إن أدركت ذلك ، فقال: “” عليك بالشام فإنها خيرة الله من أرضه ، يجتبى إليها خيرته من عباده ، فأما إن أبيتم فعليكم بيمنكم ، واسقوا من غُدُركم ( الغدر: بضم الغين وضم الدال جمع غدير ) ، فإن الله توكل لي بالشام وأهله ”

صحيح / سلسلة الأحاديث الصحيحة


عن زر بن حبيش قال أتيت صفوان بن عسال المرادي فقال : قال النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم المرء مع من أحب يوم القيامة فما زال يحدثنا حتى ذكر بابا من قبل المغرب مسيرة سبعين عاما عرضه أو يسير الراكب في عرضه أربعين أو سبعين عاما قال سفيان قبل الشام خلقه الله يوم خلق السموات والأرض مفتوحا يعني للتوبة لا يغلق حتى تطلع الشمس منه ) رواه الترمذي مطولا وحسنه العلامة الألباني رحمه الله

قال أبو عيسى هذا حديث حسن صحيح .


عن ابن عمر رضي الله عنهما أن مولاة له أتته فقالت اشتد علي الزمان وإني أريد أن أخرج إلى العراق قال فهلا إلى الشام أرض المنشر اصبري لكاع فإني سمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يقول من صبر على شدتها ولأوائها كنت له شهيدا أو شفيعا يوم القيامة ) رواه الترمذي وصححه الألباني رحمه الله

قال أبو عيسى هذا حديث حسن صحيح غريب من حديث عبيد الله .


عن معاوية بن حيدة رضي الله عنه أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم قال : ( إنكم تحشرون رجالا و ركبانا و تجرون على وجوهكم هاهنا – و أومأ بيده نحو الشام ) رواه أحمد والترمذي والحاكم

صحيح / صحيح الجامع الصغير


عن ابن عمر رضي الله عنهما أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم قال اللهم بارك لنا في شامنا وبارك لنا في يمننا قالوا وفي نجدنا قال اللهم بارك لنا في شامنا وبارك لنا في يمننا قالوا وفي نجدنا قال هناك الزلازل والفتن وبها أو قال منها يخرج قرن الشيطان

رواه الترمذي وقال حديث حسن غريب

صحيح / صحيح الترغيب والترهيب


سمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يقول لحذيفة بن اليمان ومعاذ بن جبل وهما يستشيرانه في المنزل فأومأ إلى الشام ثم سألاه فأومأ إلى الشام قال عليكم بالشام فإنها صفوة بلاد الله يسكنها خيرته من خلقه فمن أبى فليلحق بيمنه وليسق من غدره فإن الله تكفل لي بالشام وأهله

صحيح لغيره / صحيح الترغيب والترهيب


وعن عبد الله بن عمرو رضي الله عنهما قال سمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يقول ستكون هجرة بعد هجرة فخيار أهل الأرض ألزمهم مهاجر إبراهيم ويبقى في الأرض شرار أهلها تلفظهم أرضوهم وتقذرهم نفس الله وتحشرهم النار مع القردة والخنازير

رواه أبو داود عن شهر عنه والحاكم عن أبي هريرة عنه وقال صحيح على شرط الشيخين

صحيح لغيره / صحيح الترغيب والترهيب


اللهم أنصرنا على من عادانا وفرق من فرقنا ودمر من محا سماتنا الشامية
من أعدائك أعداء الدين

لا تنسونا من صالح دعاكم

الموضوع منقول


Hadith al-Hilya

Hadith: al-Hilya

In Shamail al-Tirmidhi and Qadi 'Iyad's Shifa

Arabic: in progress....
Türkçe'ye Çeviri: Mehmet Yaşar Kandemir
Urdu transl: Zakariyya Khadhelwi (Shamail)
English transl. Zakariyya w/ commentary Khandhelwi
Svensk översättning: Kultursällskapet Damas; se även
Deutsch (Teil 4): Abdul-Hafizh Wentzel (Warda: So war der Prophet)

Hadith al-Rahma

Hadith al-Rahma

Hadith al-Rahma

al musalsal bil-awwaliyya

الرَّاحِمُونَ يَرْحَمُهُم الرَّحْمن (تبارك وتعالى)
اِرْحَمُوا مَنْ فِي الْأَرْضِ يَرْحَمكُمْ مَنْ فِي السِّمَاء
To those who show mercy, the Merciful will show Mercy.
Show mercy to those on earth, then (the Angels) in heaven will show mercy to you.


View pdf
The hadith of Mercy (Hadith al-Rahma) is normally the first hadith that a teacher of Ahl al-Sunnah transmits to his or her students, in order to remind them of the Mercy of Allah. Mercy is also an attribute of His Messenger, our Master Muhammad (may Allah bless him and salute him), a central aspect of his Sunnah, and of the message of Islam.

Shaykh Muhammad al-Yaqoubi transmits this through the most direct chain that exists in the world. In every link of the chain, it is the first hadith transmitted from the teacher to the student.

The wording of the hadith is as follows:

الرَّاحِمُونَ يَرْحَمُهُم الرَّحْمن (تبارك وتعالى)
اِرْحَمُوا مَنْ فِي الْأَرْضِ يَرْحَمكُمْ مَنْ فِي السِّمَاء
To those who show mercy, the Merciful will show Mercy.
Show mercy to those on earth, then (the Angels) in heaven will show mercy to you.


الراحمون يرحمهم الرحمن، ارحموا من في الأرض يرحمكم من في السماء

“De barmhärtiga kommer den Barmhärtige att visa barmhärtighet. Var barmhärtiga
mot dem som är på jorden, så kommer Himlarnas Herre att vara barmhärtig mot er.”


Merhamet edenlere, Rahman (olan Allah) merhamet eder. Siz yeryüzündekilere merhamet edin ki, semadakiler (melekler) de size merhamet etsin.


الرَّاحِمُونَ يَرْحَمُهُم الرَّحْمن (تبارك وتعالى)
اِرْحَمُوا مَنْ فِي الْأَرْضِ يَرْحَمكُمْ مَنْ فِي السِّمَاء



The Isnad of Hadith al-Rahma
Sh. Muhammad al-Yaqoubi in Dar al-Hikma, Istanbul, 2011
View Youbube

Sh. Muhammad al-Yaqoubi in Dar al-Hikma, Damascus, 1998
View Youbube

Hadith science

Articles on Hadith Science

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Hadith Umm Zara’

Hadith Umm Zara'

In Sahih al-Bukhari, Sahih Muslim, Tirmidhi's Shamail

شرح اإمام السيوظي على حديث أم زرع
Türkçe'ye Çeviri: Mehmet Yaşar Kandemir
Urdu transl. from Sahih Bukhari
English transl. of the sharh of Al-Qazwini (kitaabun)
More : In Sahih Muslim: The Virtues of the Companions-
In Sahih Bukhari: Book of Marriage -
In Tirmidhi's Shamail:  

Hadith: In Poetry is wisdom

Ibn Asakir relates, in his history of Damascus, that a person said to Jamil: “If you read the Qoran, it would be more profitable for you than composing poetry;” to which Jamil replied: “There is Anas Ibn Malik who tells me that the Blessed Prophet (s) said
‘إن من الشعر حكمة’


Matn | Bayquni: Manzhuma

Matn | Bayquni: Manzhuma

Al-Bayqouniyya: A Didactic Poem on Hadith terminology
By Imam ‘Umar ibn Muhammad al-Bayqūnī al-Dimashqi (d. 1080 H)


Mawlid Ayat

Mawlid Ayat

Verses in the Holy Quran

relating to The Messenger of Allah ﷺ
Compiled by bmk for the Damas Cultural Society

English: View | Dowload
Svenska: View | Dowload

Mustalahat al-Hadith: Brief list of Technical Terms

Hadith terminology : Brief list of Technical Terms


Some key concepts in hadith science

A hadith consists of a text content – matn (متن), and a transfer chain sanad (سند).

A hadith may refer to the Prophet Muhammad (Salla Allah’aleihi wasallam) or to any person in the generations after him.The hadith called

  • marfū’ (مرفوع) – if the hadith goes back to the Prophet (s)
  • mawqūf’ (موقوف) – if it stops at a Sahabi
  • maqtū’ (مقطوع) – if it stops at a Tabi’i

Depending on length of the chain of narrators the hadith is called

  • ‘ali (عالي) – high – if the chain consists of few narrators
  • nazil (نازل) – Low – if the chain consists of many narrators

A “high” chain, i.e. a chain consisting of few reliable people, is the most valued.

Depending on the number of narrators at each level of the chain, the hadith is classified as

  • khabar mutawatir (خبر متواتر) – at every level there are so many independent narrators that one can not reasonably believe that they all agreed on a lie.
  • Khabar Ahad (خبر آحاد) – all hadiths that are not mutawatir.
    Khabar Ahad divided in turn into:
    • fard (خبر فرد) – if there is only one narrator in first layer
    • ‘Aziz (خبر عزيز) – if there are only two or three narrators in the first layer, even if there are hundred narrators at the following levels [this is the definition of Ibn Salah and Imam al-Nawawi]
    • mash-how (خبر مشهور) – if at each level there are at least three narrators

With respect to the credibility, hadiths are classified as

  • sahih (صحيح) – sound
  • hasan (حسن) – fair
  • ḍa’īf (ضعيف) – weak

A hadith that is fabricated is called mawḍū’ (موضوع).

Criteria for assessing credibility

When evaluating the credibility of a hadith, many factors are taken into account:

  1. Regarding the completeness of the chain, a hadith is
    • musnad (مسند) – if it can be referred to the Prophet (s) without gaps in the chain.
    • muttaṣil (متصل) – if it can be referred to its source (other than the Prophet (s)) without any gaps in the chain.
    • munqaṭi’ (منقطع) – if there is a gap somewhere in the chain (it can be be anywhere in the chain, and it may a single link or serveral links that are missing). More specifically, a hadith is called
      • mu’ḍal (معضل) – if two or more consecutive links are missing in the chain
      • mursal (مرسل) – if it is narrated by a Tabi’i directly from Prophet (Salla Allah’aleihi wasallam) without the Sahabi being mentioned.
    • mudallas (مدلس) – if the last narrator omits or tries to hide the name of his Sheikh
    • maqlūb (مقلوب) – (a) if the two names misplaced in the chain, or (b) if the entire chain replaced with another chain

  2. The individual narrators. A person is called:
    • ḍābiṭ (ضابط) – if he is precise and has a good memory
    • ‘adl (عدل) – if he is righteous
    • majhūl (مجهول) – if it is not known if he existed, or if his character is unknown
    • It also taken into account when and where the narrators lived. E.g. if two successive narrators lived at the same time, it is reasonable that they met each other, unless it is known that they never met.
    • Furthermore, the circumstaces under which the hadith is narrated are considered. E.g. a person who in his youth is considered to be thiqa (reliable), may have become forgetful at old age. He is then no longer considered to be thiqa.

    A hadith is called

    • mubham (مبهم) – if any person in the chain, or any person mentioned in the hadith, is not mentioned clearly by name.

  3. The content of the matn. A hadith is called
    • shādhdh – when it contradicts one another hadith that is more credible. The more credible hadith is then called maḥfūzh (محفوظ).
    • munkar (منكر) – a weak hadith is rejected because it goes against a more credible hadith. The opposite is Ma’ruf (معروف).
    • mudraj (مدرج) – if any of the words of the re-narrator is accidentally incorporated in hadith
  4. Overall assessment. A hadith called
    • mu’allal (معلل) – if the hadith has some subtle weakness, which only hadith scholars with great insight are able to detect
    • muḍṭarib (مضطرب) – if different hadith scholars have variying but equally strong opinions about the status of chain or the content content of the hadith.
    • matrūk (متروك) – a weak hadith, which is narrated by a single unreliable person, and whcih is rejected unanimously by hadith scholars.

A brief description of how haidth are classified:

To categorize a hadith, the scholars would begin by verifying the names of all the people who passed on the hadith, and the time when they lived, so as to see if it is reasonable that they met. If a name is missing, or if the names do not match, there will be a gap in the chain. This will affect the rank of the hadith, but it will not automatically classified as false.

If the full list of narrators is complete, and names, years, places, etc. etc. are consistent, still, this is not enough to establish that the hadith is true. Now the next step will be to examine whether each person in the chain is reliable. E.g. if a person in the chain is known to be an imaginative person or a swindler, or if he is forgetful, or he is publicly known as sinners – this will reducee the rank of hadith.

This goes until the rank of the hadith is finally established. One should bear in mind that scholars have varied in their assessment of hadith, and this is also a factor to be taken into account when stating its status.

Laymen and non-experts should not attempt to classify hadith – they should rely on the judgement of acknowledged hadith scholars.


Några centrala begrepp i hadithvetenskapen

Av bmk

En hadith består av en text – matn (متن), och en överföringskedja sanad (سند).

Olika typer av hadither

En hadith kan referera till Profeten Muhammad (salla Allah ´aleihi wa sallam) eller till någon av person i generationerna efter honom. Hadithen kallas

  • marfū´ (مَرْفُوْع) – om hadithen går tillbaka till Profeten (själv)
  • mawqūf´ (مَوْقُوْف) – om det den stannar vid en Sahabi
  • maqtū´ (مَقْطُوْع) – om det den stannar vid en Tabi´i

Beroende på berättarkedjans längd kallas den

  • ´ālī (عالي) – hög – om kedjan består av få återberättare
  • nāzil (نازل) – låg – om kedjan består av många återberättare

En “hög” kedja, dvs. en kedja som består av få tillförlitliga personer, är den som värderas högst.

Indelning i mutawatir och ahad

Beroende på antalet berättare i varje led i kedjan klassas hadithen som

  • khabar mutawātir (خبر متواتر) – i varje led finns så manga oberoende berättare att man inte rimligtvis kan tro att de alla enats om att ljuga.
  • khabar āḥād (خبر آحاد) – alla hadither som inte är mutawatir
    Khabar ahad indelas i sin tur i:
    • fard (خبر فرد) – om det endast finns en enda berättare i första ledet
    • ´azīz (خبر عزيز) – om det endast finns två eller tre berättare i första ledet, även om det därefeter finns hundra återberäqttare [detta är Ibn Salahs och Imam al-Nawawis definition]
    • mash-hūr (خبر مشهور) – om det i varje led finns minst tre återberättare

Klassificering efter trovärdighet

Med avseende på trovärdighet klassas Hadither som

  • ṣaḥīḥ (صحيح) – sunda
  • ḥasan (حسن) – goda
  • ḍaʻīf (ضعيف) – svaga

En hadith som är fabricerad kallas mawḍū´ (موضوع).

Kriterier för bedömning av trovärdighet

Vid bedömning av en hadiths trovärdighet tar man hänsyn till många olika faktorer:

Berättarkedjans fullständighet
  1. Berättarkedjans fullständighet. Hadithen är
    • musnad (مسند) – om den kan återföras utan luckor till Profeten (själv).
    • muttaṣil (مُتَّصِل) – om hadithen kan återföras till källan utan luckor i berättarkedjan.
    • munqaṭiʻ (مُنْقَطِع) – om det finns en lucka någonstans i berättarkedjan. Luckan kan vara vara som helst i kedjan, och det kan bara ett eller flera led som saknas. Specifikt kallas hadithen
      • muʻḍal (معضل) – om det två eller fler led efter varandra saknas i kedjan
      • mursal (مرسل) – om den berättas av en Tabi´i direkt från Profeten (salla Allah ´aleihi wa sallam), utan att Sahabin nämns.
    • mudallas (مدلَّس) – om hadithens sista återberättare utelämnar eller försöker dölja sin Sheikhs namn
    • maqlūb (مقلوب) – (a) om två namn kastas i kedjan, eller (b) om hela kedjan bytts ut mot en annan kedja

    De enskilda berättarna
  2. De enskilda berättarna. En person kallas:
    • ḍābiṭ (ضابط) – om han är nogrann och har gott minne
    • ʻadl (عدل) – om han är rättfärdig
    • majhūl (مجهول) – om det inte är känt om han funnits, eller om hans karaktär är okänd
    • Man tar även hänsyn när och var berättarna levde, t.ex. om två på varandra följande berättare levde vid samma tid, om det är rimligt att de träffat varandra, eller om det är känt att de aldrig träffade varandera.
    • Vidare beaktar man under vilka omtständigheter hadtihen berättats. Om t.ex. en person som i sin ungdom gäller som thiqa (tilförlitlig) på ålderdomen blir glömskt, gäller han vid det senare tillfället inte längre som thiqa.

    En hadith kallas

    • mubham (مبهم) – om någon person i kedjan, eller någon person som omtalas i hadithen, inte nämns entydligt vid namn
    Hadithens innehåll

  3. Hadithens innehåll (matn). Hadithen är
    • shādhdh – en hadith som motsäger en en annan hadith som är mera trovärdig. Den mera trovärdiga hadithen kallas maḥfūzh (محفوظ).
    • munkar (منكر) – en svag hadith som avvisas för att en motsäger en mera trovärdig hadith. Motsatsen är ma´rūf (معروف).
    • mudraj (مدرج) – om något av en återberättares ord av misstag införlivats i hadithen
    Övergripande bedömnng
  4. Övergripande bedömnng. Hadithen kallas
    • mu´allal (معلل) – om den har någon subtil svaghet, som endast hadithlärda med stor insikt kan upptäcka
    • muḍṭarib (مضطرب) – om de olika hadithlärda har lika starka men oföreniga åsikter om kedjans eller innehållets status
    • matrūk (متروك) – en svag hadith, som endast återverättas av en enda otillförlitlig person, och som de hadithlärda enhälligt avvisar.

När en hadith kategoriseras börjar man med att kontrollera namnen på alla de personer som förmedlat hadithen, och tiden då de levde, så att man kan se att det är rimligt att de kan ha träffats. Skulle något namn saknas, eller om något namn inte stämmer, så blir det en lucka i kedjan. Det på verkar då trovärdigheten på hadithen, men den blir inte automatisk klassad som falsk.

Om hela listan med berättare är komplett, med namn, årtal, platser, etc. etc. som överensstämmer, räcker det dock inte föratt fastställa att hadithen är sann. Nu blir nästa steg att man undersöker om varje person är tillförlitlig. Om en person N. i kedjan t.ex. är känd för att vara en fantasifull person eller en skojare, eller om man han är glömsk, eller är öppet känd som syndare – då minskar rangen av hadithen.

Så fortsätter det tills man vågar bestämma vilken trovärdighetsrang hadithen slutligen får. Detta kan vara en komplicerad process. Det är kanske därför man inte helt vill förkasta de hadither som klassats svaga eller falska, eftersom det kan ha gjorts en felaktig bedömning.

Detta var en kortfattad beskrivning så man får en överblick över vad en hadith är.


Klassificering av haditherI Imam M. Muslim Eneborg (

Search terms

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  1. Sheikh Abd Allah Siraj al-Din: Sharh al-Manzhumati al-Bayquniyya
  2. Imam al-Nawawi: al-Taqrib
  3. Imam al-Suyuti’s comment: Al-Tadrib
    التقريب والتيسير لمعرفة سنن البشير والنذير للإمام النووي

Recital of Sahih Muslim 1428

Recital of Sahih Muslim 1428

Recital of Sahih Muslim

with Sheikh Muhammad al-Yaqoubi in Damascus, Rajab 1428 (July 2007)

ختمت بحمد الله جامع مسلم *** بجوف دمشق الشام جوف الإسلام

Khutimat bi hamdiAllah-i Jami’u Muslim
bi-jawfi Dimashq al-Sham, jawf al-Islam.

The book of Muslim has been completed, praise be to Allah
in the heart of Damascus of Sham, the heart of Islam.

Ten yeas ago…

Those who regularly attend the classes of al-Sayyid al-Sharif Sheikh Abul Huda Muhammad ibn Ibrahim al-Yaqoubi in the Mosque of Sheikh Muhuy al-Din Ibn al-Arabi in Damascus, will have heard him mentioning time upon time: “The recital of the books of Hadith is a tradtion that must be revived. ”

Ten years ago, in Ramadan 1418 H., Sheikh Muhammad al-Yaqoubi (may Allah preserve him and raise his rank) completed the recitatal of Imam al-Bukhari’s Jami` al-Sahih (commonlyh known as “Sahih a-Bukhari”) on the 19th of Ramadan, followed by the recital of Imam Muslim’s Al-Musnad al-Sahih (known as “Sahih Muslim”) which he completed on the 29th of Ramadan, then Al-Shama’il al-Muhammadiyya of Imam al-Tirmidhi. This was a private recital. Sheikh Mustafa Turkmani (who later became the khalifa of Sheikh Abd al-Rahman al-Shaghouri, may Allah have mercy on them both) was among those who attended the triple khatam, which was celebrated with a mawlid at the end. After ‘Eid, Sheikh Muhammad continued reciting Al-Muwatta’ of Imam Malik and one forth of the Sunan of Abu Dawud.

At this time, he was witnessed in a dream, sharing out a huge mount of gold on top of the Mosque of al-Sheikh al-Akbar.

Sheikh Muhammad Abul Huda recited

  • Sahih al-Bukhari and al-Muwatta’ in the Zaytuna Institute in California in 2000 (1421) – this was the first time ever that these books were recited in the West.
  • He recited Sahih al-Bukhari in the Hounslow Mosque in London in December 2003 (1424 H.)
  • He recited Sahih al-Bukhari in a private home in Damascus in summer 2004 (Sha’ban 1425 H.)
  • He recited al-Muwatta’ in his own home in Dimas outside Damascus in 2005 (1426)
  • He recited Imam al-Tirmidhi’s al-Shama’il al-Muhammadiyya in the Central Mosque of Manhattan, New York in Ramadan 2004 (1425), and after `Eid again in Pittsburg, US; then the following summer 2005 (1426) in the Rihla program in Madina, then he began teaching and commenting upon it in the Mosque of Sheikh Muhyi al-Din Ibn al-‘Arabi in Damascus from the beginning of year 1428 and onwards.

Rajab 1428

Then in Rajab 1428, he recited Imam Muslim’s Al-Musnad al-Sahih in Damascus, hosted by none less than al-Sheikh al-Akbar, Sheikh Muhyi al-Din Ibn al-`Arabi, may Allah ta’ala be pleased with him, in al-Jami’ al-Salimiyy. the mosque annexed to his burial place.

This was a historical event, since Imam Muslim’s Musnad has not been recited publicly in its entirety for 130 years. The last time this occurred was in 1290, when Ahmad Musalla ibn ‘Abd al-Rahman al-Kuzbari recited it under Qubba al-Nasr in Damascus in 1290 H., and before that by al-Amir ‘ Abd al-Qadir al-Jaza’iri (the famous mujahid, who was also a muhaddith) in the maqam of Sayyiduna al-Husayn in the Ummawi mosque – may Allah ta’ala find pleasure in them all and accept their deeds.

Tabaqat – that is the traditon of registering the attendants and the details of which parts of the recital each person listened to or was absent from – have not been done for 200 years. The last person to set up tabaqat of hadith recition was Murtada al-Husayn al-Zabiydi (d. 1205 H.)

The recital was completed in 9 days, beginning after fajr – after reciting Hizb al-Nur, one of the Shadhili awrad – and continuing until ‘isha with breaks for prayer, food and rest. It was attended by some 400 persons, men and women, and lists of attendence (tabaqat) where established. About half of the attendees were visitors from other coutries – Malaysia, Singapore, Turkey, US, Britain, Canada, Egypt, Jordan, Saudi Arabia etc. A group of munshids, directed by Sheikh Abul Huda, refreshed the spririts during breaks. and made the travel easy and pleasant.

The recital was accompanied by several miracles as befits the dignity of the occasion:

  • Sheikh Muhammad Abul Huda one morning related dream he had the night before: He saw himself reciting the Musnad of Imam Muslim in the presence of two of Imam Muslim’s Shuyukh, Abu Bakr ibn Abi Shayba and Ishaq ibn Ibrahim. Upon hearing this, one of the attendees got up and said: “I had exactly the same dream.”
  • In one of the sessions, a young student of Sheikh Turkmani shared a dream he had of his Sheikh, directing him to “go to Sheikh Abu al-Huda.”
  • As for logistics, nothing was planned, everythinge was improvised. At times, there would be electricity black-outs, upon which the Sheikh continued the recitation at impovised lights, without micophones. The entire event was served by only two people, who vonunteered to serve food and coffe during the breaks.

However the greatest miracle is problably the voice of Sheikh Muhammad Abul Huda, by which – despite severely reduced lung capacity – Allah ta`ala has once more allowed us to inhale a fresh breath from the speach of His most beloved Prophet (sallAllah `alehi wa Alihi wa sallam).

Wa al-hamduli Allah Rabb al-`Alamin.

Khatam and Ijazat

The khatam took place on Sunday the 15th of Rajab, coinciding with the day of passing of Imam Muslim, and was attended by as many people as the mosque could hold, including some 40 top scholars of Damascus and visitors from other countries, among them:

  • Al-Sayyid al-Sharif Sheikh Fatih al-Kettani hafizhahu Allah ta’ala, son of the great muhaddith Muhammad al-Makki ibn Ja`far ibn Idris al-Kettani rahimahu Allah ta’ala, whose valuable ijazat are sought by many, but rarely given. On this occasion, he gave general ijaza to all those present at the khatam to pass on his isnads, which are the highest existing today.
  • Sheikh Muhammad TaHa Sukar hafizhahu Allah ta’ala, chief senior qari’  of Damascus, who made a long du`a.
  • Sheikh Hasan al-Hindi (one of Damascus’ great experts on Hanafi fiqh)
  • Sheikh Yahya al-Ghuthani, a famous qari’ from Saudi-Arabia, who gave general ijaza to all those present at the khatam;
  • Sheikh Munawwar `Atiq, who is serving as a Mufti for the community of Birmingham, UK’
  • etc. etc.

Finally Sheikh Muhammad ibn Ibrahim al-Ya’qubi – may Allah ta`ala spread his light and incline hearts to his guidance – made du`a and gave ijaza to all those present to narrate Sahih Muslim, under the conditons that the recipient must follow it up by acquiring precision and correctness in recitation, and submit to guidance and suluk.

Such ijazat are not a proof of qualification of the recipient, but may be used in future if the person acquires qualifications. Sheikh Muhammad al-Yaqoubi even encouraged children to attend the sama’ (hearing),  giving several examples of how great scholars attained ijazat in their childhood that later were valued because of their “highness’. He quoted as an example his own hearing at the age of ten  from sheikh Muhammad al-Makki al-Kettani, a link that contributes to the highness of his own chains of transmission today.


The khatam is over. however, the recital of hadith has only just begun.

“Haddathana Yahya bnu Yahya al-Tamimiyy… Haddathana Abu Bakri bnu Abi Shaybah… Haddathana Ishaqu bnu Ibrahima…Haddathana Qutaydatu bnu Sa`id…. Haddathna… ” The names of the narrators keep reverberating throughout Damasucus, as, at this time of writing, dozens of hadith work shops are taking place all over the city. How come?

Many of the attendees were attracted by the hope of being given ijaza by one of the greatest Hadith scholars’ of our time. However, certaiin conditions are attached to this, as the Sheikh detailed in connection with the recital sessions:

1. Sheikh Abul Huda stressed at the very beginning of the recital that the ijaza is not valid except to persons belonging to Ahl al-Sunna wa al-Jama’a, i.e. those who adhere to the Ash’ari-Maturidi ‘aqida, and the four schools of fiqh, and acknowledge the sufi turuq which conform thereto. – This caused some attendees to leave, while others were led to reconsider their own stance.

2. To show full adab towards Allah ta`ala, His Messenger (blessings and peace be upon him and his family), the mosque, the books (they belong to Allah, and are given as an amana) and the Sheikh, listening in silence, sitting in front of the Sheikh in a position like in tashahhud, giving him respect and complying with his requests. In this way the recital sessions became a practical course of adab, that no book can possibly replace.

3. Attendance of the entire recital. The Sheikh required any parts missed to be made up by listening or reading in front of attendees that he appointed.

This last point in particular contains a lot of wisdom. It has resulted in the recital being followed up by dozens of halaqas of hadith all over Damascus, where people recite to each other to make up for missed parts, exerting themselves, and thereby increasing their love for the hadith and their appreciation of the effort involved in performing this type of recital.

In general, the impact of the event can hardly be underestimated, and its fruits are already showing.

  • The envolvment of scholars of all ranks, seekers of Sacred Knowledge and commoners, in completing this recital has raised the consciousness of the value of upholding the tradition carrying on the chains of transmission.
  • The fame of Damascus and its scholars, as the treasurers of the science of hadith is flying over the Muslim world.
  • The subtle blessings of reciting the reports of Allah’s Messenger (may He send blessings and peace over him and his family) can not in any way be enumerated – but maybe some of it is conveyed in a dream that one of the attendees witnessed during the course of the recital. He said:
“A wali informed me last night of a great disaster approaching Damascus,
but because of this recital, it was averted.”

Praise and thanks be to Allah who grants us His favours. May our deeds meet with His pleasure and acceptance. May He preserve the People Hadith, its Keepers and Servants and Lovers. May He keep us all under the shade of Protection he grants us through them, and never stop the showers of Mercy sent down at their hands. May he tie us firmly, by word an deed and spirit, to the Sunna of His Most Beloved – upon whom be the blessings and salutations of Allah most Hign, as well as over his Noble Family and Companions. Amin.

bmk 2007

Special Ayat

Special Ayat:
1- Ayat for healing – Ayat al-Shifa html
2- Ayat for warding off calamities
3- Du`at from the Quran beginning with Rabbana
4- Du`at from the Quran beginning with Rabbi

Tajwid – Recitals


of use for tajwid students

Dr Samir Nass
[Fatiha] [Mulk] [Muzzamil][Waqiyya] [Rahman] [Yaseen]

Juz Amma Sura no:
[078] [079] [080] [081] [082] [083] [084] [085] [086] [087] [088] [089] [090] [091] [092] [093] [094] [095] [096] [097] [098] [099] [100] [101] [102] [103] [104] [105] [106] [107] [108] [109] [110] [111] [112] [113] [114]


Textkit: Hadith

Articles on Hadith science
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Textkit: Islamic Knowledge

Textkit: Islamic Knowledge

Hadith about seeking knowledge

Kathir ibn Qays said: “I was sitting with Abu al-Darda’ in the mosque of Damascus. A man came to him and said: Abu al-Darda’, I have come to you from the city of Allah’s Messenger for a narration I have heard that you relate from the Prophet (s). I have come for no other purpose.” He said: I heard Allah’s Messenger (s) say:
“If anyone travels on a road in search of knowledge, Allah will cause him to travel on one of the roads of Paradise, the angels will lower their wings from good pleasure with one who seeks knowledge, and the inhabitants of the heavens and the earth and the fish in the depth of the water will ask forgiveness for the learned man. The superiority of the learned man over the ordinary believer is like that of the moon on the night when it is full over the rest of the stars. The learned are the inheritors of the Prophets, and the Prophets have neither dinar nor dirham, leaving only knowledge, and he who takes it takes an abundant

Abu Dawud narrated it in his Sunan as the first hadith of the book of `Ilm, also Ibn Majah and Darimi in the muqaddima of their Sunan, all of them with a weak chain which, however, is strengthened by the fact that Bukhari in his Sahih, Tirmidhi in his Sunan, Ahmad in his Musnad, Bayhaqi in his Sunan all narrate various parts of this hadith.