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Table of Bios

Chronological: century Hijri
Sahaba
1
2 3 4
5 6
7
8 9 10 11 12 13 14
15

Name Date Place of passing
Sahaba
Amir al-Mu’minin Abu Bakr al-Siddiq | gfh |
1st of the Rightly guided khalifas
d. 13 H. Madina
Dirar b. al-Azwar al-Asadi (sahabi) | damas |
“The naked warrior”
d.14? H. Damascus
Khalid b. Sa`id (sahabi)
Salama b. Hisham (sahabi)
d. 14 H Damascus
Sa`d b. `Ibadah (sahabi) d. 14 H Damascus Mliha
shuhada Harmala b. Wa’il (sahabi)
Jâbir b.Mas`ud (sahabi)
d. 14 H Damascus Masjid Shuhada
Shurahbil b. Hasanah (sahabi) d. 18 H. Damascus
al-`Abbas b. Mardas Abi `Amir al-Salmi (sahabi)
son of Khansa’ the poetress
d. 18 H. Damascus
Yazid b. Abi Sufyan (sahabi) | damas | d. 18 or 19 H Damascus
Bilal al-Habashî (sahabi) | damas | d. ≤ 20 H Damascus
Hafaf b. Nadb (sahabi) | damas |
cousin of Khansa’
d. 20 H Damascus
Amir al-Mu’minin ´Umar b. al-Khattab | gfh |
2nd of the Rightly guided khalifas
d. 24 H Madina
Aws b. Aws al-Thaqafi(sahabi) | damas |
d. towards the end of the caliphate of Sayyiduna `Uthman
d. … H. Damascus
Sahl b. al-Hanzhaliah  (sahabi ) d. ~ 30 H Damascus
أبو الدرداء عويمر بن عامر الأنصاري الخزرجي Abu Darda’ (sahabi) | sunnah (alim online) | damas | d. 32 H. Damscus
´Abd Allah b. Mas´ud (sahabi) | awhamid | d. 33/34 H Madina
Amir al-Mu’minin ´Uthman b. al-´Affan (sahabi) | gfh |
3rd of the Rightly guided khalifas
d. 35 H Madina
Khawla bint al-Azwar (sahabiyyah or tabi`iyya) d. 35 H Damascus
Salman al-Farisi (sahabi) | damas | awhamid | d. 33/35 H. Mada’in Arabia
Amir al-Mu’minin ´Ali ibn Abi Talib | gfh |
4th of the Rightly guided khalifas
the Lion of Allah, Door to the City of Knowledge, Subduer  of Khaybar, Imam of Imams, Abu Turab, Prince of the Believers
may Allah ennoble his face
d. 40 H. Kufa
Dihya al-Kalbi (sahabi) | damas | d. 45 H Damascus
Abu Shayba al-Khudri | d. 49 H. Istanbul
Sayyiduna al-Hasan ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (sahabi)
5th of the Rightly guided khalifasthe First of the Qutbs, Master of the People of Islam, Grandson of the Beloved of Allah
d. 50 H. al-Madina
buried in al-Baqi’
Hujr b. `Adî and his companions (sahabis) | damas | d. 51 H. outside Damascus
Abu Ayyub al-Ansari (sahabi) | awhamid | d. 52/54 H Constantinople Istanbul, Turkey
Fadâlatu b. `Ubayd (sahabi) | damas | d. 53 H Damascus
Sayyiduna al-Husayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (sahabi)
Sayyid al-Shuhada, Grandson of the Beloved of Allah
b. 4 – d. 61 H. Karbala
his noble head is buried in Damascus
Mu`ayiah b. Abi Sufyan (sahabi) d. 61 H Damascus
`Awf b. Malik al-Ashja´i (sahabi) | damas | d. 73 H Damascus
Wâthilah b. al-Asqa` (sahabi) | damas | d. 83 H Damascus
أبو ذر الغفاري Abu Dharr al-Ghafari | damas |
visited Damascus
Abu `Ubayda b. Jarrah | damas | wiki | awhamid (sunnah) |
visited Damascus
d. 18 H. (640 CE) Jordan
Sham`ûn b. Khanâfah (sahabi)
Rauq b. Dathar  (sahabi)
Jabal b. Mu`adh (sahabi)
Ibân b. Ibân  (sahabi)
Abu Barz al-Azlami (sahabi)
Umm Maktum (sahabiya)
undated Damascus
Sahaba – (place of burial disputed):
`AbdAllah ibn Mas`ud
`Abd al-Rahman b. Abu Bakr al-Siddiq
Abu b. Ka`b
Kanâz al-Ghanawi
`Amir b. Malik, brother of Sa`d b. Abi Waqqas
Wives of the Prophet (s)
Hafsa
Umm Habiba | aa |
Umm Salamah | awhamid |
Damascus Bab Saghir
Fidda (servant of Fatima Zahra) Damascus Bab Saghir
^ 1st century Hijri
Abu Idris al-Khawlani (tabi`i) | damas | d. 80 Damascus
Jamil b. ´AbdAllah b. Ma´mar (tabi´i) | damas |
known as Jamil Buthayna
d. 82 H Egypt
Zayn al-‘Abidin Ali ibn al-Husayn (tabi’i) 94 Madina Baqi’
أبو مسلم الخولاني Abu Muslim al-Khawlani (tabi`i) | damas | d. …H. Damascus
أبو الوليد عبد الملك بن مروان بن الحكم بن أبي العاص بن أمية القرشي `Abd al-Malik b. Marwan | damas | d. 87 H. Damascus
Sa’id b. al-Musayyab (tabi’i) | abewley | d. 94 H. Madina
al-Walid b. `Abd al-Malik | damas | d. 96 H. Damascus Bab Saghir
عبد الله بن جعفر بن أبي طالب `Abd Allah b. Ja`far b. Abi Talib | damas | d. … H. Damascus
Makhul | damas | d. –100 H. Damascus
Mu`awiyah b. Yazid b. Mu`awiyah | damas | d. … H. Damascus Bab Saghir
^ 2nd century Hijri
Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz (tabi’i) [AB]
“The fifth rightly guided khalifa”
b. 63 – d. 101 H. Madina – Halab
Qasim b. Muhammad b. Abu Bakr | sunnah | bewley |
one of the 7 fuqaha of Madina
d. 107/8/9 H. Qudayd between Madina and Makka
Hasan al-Basri | gfh (damas) | d. 110 H. Baghdad
Muhammad al-Baqir, Abu Ja’far b. 57 – d. 114 H. Madina
الفرزدق : أبو فراس همام بن غالب الدارمي التميمي Al-Farazdaq | damas | d. 149 H. Damascus
Ja’far al-Sadiq, Abu ‘Abd Allah b. 83 – d. 148 H. Madina
AbdAllah b. Ja`far al-Sadiq | damas | d. 149 H. Damascus
Imam Abu Hanifa al-Nu’man (tabi´i) | gfh (damas) | b. 80 – d. 150 H. Baghdad
Al-Awza’i | gfh (damas) | d. 158 H.
Ibn Abi ‘Abla (tabi’i) d. 151/2 H.
Dawud al-Ta’i | gfh | qushayri | d. 160/165 H.
Ibrahim b. Adham | damas | d. 161 H.
Sufyan al-Thawri | gfh damas | sunnah |
“faqih of the Sufis”
Sufian al-Thawri said: “When righteous people are mentioned, mercy descends from the heaven onto the earth.”
b. 97 – d. 161 H.
Imam Malik b. Anas b. Malik | damas | b. 93 – d. 179 H. Madina
buried in al-Baqi’
´Abd Allah ibn al-Mubarak | damas |
author of Kitab az-zuhd wa al-raqai’q
b. 118 – d.181 H. in Hit
Qadi Abul Yusuf | ghf (damas) | d. 182 H.
Al-Fudayl ibn `Iyad | damas | d. 187 H. Makka
Muhammad Hasan al-Shaybani | gfh (damas) | d. 189 H.
Habib ibn Mohammad al-‘Ajami al-Basri |
early sufi, companion of Hasan al-Basri and Ibn Sirin
d. 2nd century H.
^ 3rd century Hijri
Ma`ruf al-Karkhi | damas | d. 200/201 H. Baghdad
Imam al-Shafi’i, , Muhammad b. Idris | gfh (damas) | b. 150 H. – d. 204 H. Ghazza – Cairo
Al-Sayyida Nafisa | damas بالعربية | d. 208 H. Cairo
سيدنا ومولانا إدريس الأزهر Moulay Idris al-Azhar d. 213 H. Fas
أبو سليمان عبد الرحمن بن عطية الداراني Abu Sulayman al-Darani | damas | d. 215H. Dara near Damascus
Bishr al-Hafi (“The Barefoot”) | qushayri | d. 227 H. Baghdad
Ibn Abi Shayba | damas | d. 235 H.
Sahnun b. Sa’id b. Habib al-Tanukhi | ab (damas) |
author of “Al-Mudawwana”
b. 160 – d. 240 Magrib
Imam Ahmad b. Hanbal | gfh (damas) | d. 241
Harith al-Muhasibi | qushayri |
companion of al-Junayd
b. 165 – d. 243 H. Basrah – Baghdad
Abu al-Fayd Dhul-Nun al-Misri | damas | d. 245
Sari al-Saqati | damas | d. 251/253 H. Baghdad
Abu Yazid al-Bistami d. 261 H. Bistam (Iraq) or Damascus
Imam Muslim | gfh (sunnah) | b. 202 – d. 261 H.
Imam al-Bukhari | gfh (sunnah) | b. 194 – d. 265 H. Bukhara
Imam Abu Dawud | gfh (sunnah) | b. 202 – d. 275 H.
Ibn Qutayba | gfh (sunnah) | d. 276 H.
Imam al-Tirmidhi | gfh (sunnah) | b. 209 – d. 279 H.
Sahl al-Tustari | damas | d. 283 H,
Abul Qasim Al-Junayd al-Baghdadi | damas | d. 297 H. Baghdad
^ 4th century Hijri
Muhammad b. `AbdAllah | damas |
descentdant of Ja`far al-Sadiq
d. – 300 H. Damascus
Abu Ja’far Al-Tabari | gfh (damas) | d. 310 H.
Abu Bakr al-Ajurri | wiki | marifa | d. 320 H. Makka
أبو عبد الله محمد بن علي بن الحسين الترمذي Al-Hakim al-Tirmidhi | d. 320 H.
Imam Abu Ja`far al-Tahawi | damas | d. 321 H. Cairo
Abul Hasan al-Ash’ari | gfh (damas) |
his students | sunnah |
b. 260 – d. 324 H. Baghdad
أبو الدحداح، أحمد بن محمد بن إسماعيل التيمي الدمشقي الصالحي Abul Dahdâh al-Salihi | damass | d. 328 H. Damascus
Muhammad al-Maturidi | gfh (damas) | d. 333 H. Samarkand
Abul-Husayn al-Khiraqi | damas | d. 334 H. Damascus
Abu Bakr al-Shibli | damas | b. 247 – d. 334 H. Baghdad
Al-Najjad al-Baghdadi al-Hanbali | damas | d. 348 H.
Bundar ibn al-Husayn al-Asha’ari | damas | d. 353 H.
Ibn `Adi | gfh (sunnah) | d. 365 H.
Ibn Mujahid al-Ta’i al-Asha’ari | damas |
Companion of Imam al-Ash’ari in Sham
d. 368 H.
al-Asha’ari | damas Al-Dummal |
Companion of Imam al-Ash’ari in Sham
d. ? H.
Ibn Khafif al-Asha’ari | kabbani | d. 371 H.
^ 5th century Hijri
Ibn al-Baqillani | damas | d. 403 H.
Al-Hakim al-Naysaburi | damas | b. 321 – d. 405 H.
Ibn Furak | damas | d. 406 H. Hira, Nisabur
Al-Sulami | damas | b. 325 – d. 412 H. Nisabur
Abul Hasan al-Quduri | damas | d. 428 H. Baghdad
Abd al-Qahir al-Baghdadi | gfh (damas) | d. 429 H.
الخفظ أبو نعيم الأصبهاني Abul Nu’aym al-Asbahani | sMa | b. 336 – d. 430 H.
Abu ‘Uthman al-Sabuni d. 449 H.
Abul Hasan Al-Mawardi | damas |
b. ~362 – d. 448 H.
in Basra – Baghdad
Imam al-Bayhaqi al-Naysaburi, Abu Bakr | gfh | marifa | b. 384 – d. 458 H.
الخطيب البغدادي‎‎ Al-Khatib al-Baghdadi | gfh (damas) | sunnah | d. 463 H. Baghdad
أبو الوليد الأندلسي القرطبي Abul Walid al-Baji al-Qurtubi al-Maliki | gfh (damas) | Abu Al-Walid Al-Baji b. 403 – d. 474 H. al-Andalus
Ibn al-Juwayni, Abul Ma’ali | damas |
also known as  Imam al-Haramayn, teacher of al-Ghazali
b. 419 – d. 478 H.
Al-Juwayni, Abu Muhammad al-Ta’i | gfh (damas) |
father of Imam al-Haramayn
d. 483 H.
Sheikh Nasr  al-Maqdisi | damas d. 490 H.
^ 6th century Hijri
Imam Abu Hamid al-Ghazali [GFH] b. 450 – d. 505 Tus
Sheikh Rislan al-Dimashqi | damas | d. ~540 H. Damascus
Qadi Abul Bakr b. al-‘Arabi [ABewley] [Dar-sirr] d. 543 H.
Qadi ‘Iyad | d. 544 H. Marakesh
Abul Hassan Ali ibn Harzihim | d. 544 H. Fas Bab al-Futuh
Al-Hasan b. Masmâr al-Hilali | damas | d. 546 H. Damascus
أبو البيان نبأ بن محمد بن محفوظ القرشي الدمشقي Abul-Bayan | damas | d. 551 H. Damascus
Ahamd b. Quddama | damas | d. 558 H. Damascus
`Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani d. 561 H. Baghdad
Abu Najib Dia’ al-Din al-Suhrawardi |
Author of Adab al-Muridin
b. 490 – d. 563 H. Baghdad
Ibn `Asakir al-Dimashqi | damas | gfh | d. 571 H. Damascus
أبو المعالي نسعود بن محمد بن مسعود النيسابوري Abu al-Ma`ali al-Nisaburi | damas | d. 578 H. Damascus
Ahmad al-Rifa’i | b. 512 – d. 578 H. Umm 3Abida a village in BaTa’iH
السلطان أبو القاسم نور الدين محمود ين أبي سعيد زنكي Nur al-Din b. Zanki | damas | d. 579 H. Damascus
الشيخ أبو مدين شعيب بن الحسن الأندلسي التلمساني Abu Madyan Shu`ayb | damas | d. 594 H. Tlimsan or Egypt
Ibn Rushd (Averroes) gfh (sunnah) d. 595 H.
Ibn al-Jawzi | damas | d. 597 H. Baghdad
`Abd al-Rahman al-`Attar (Al-Zayyat) al-Madani | damas | ~600 Madina
Abu `Umar b. Ahmad b. Qudama | damas | d. .. H.
^ 7th century Hijri
Sh. Ibrahim al-Desuqi | damas | d. 675 H. Egypt
Fakh al-Din al-Razi | damas/gfh | b. 543 – d. 606 H.
Al Fakhr b. `Asakir [ZaSH p. 35] d. 620 H. Damascus
Ibn Quddamah Al-Maqdisi | damas | d. 620 H. Damascus
القطب المُنير سيدي الشيخ عبد السلام بن مشيش Sh. ´Abd al-Salam ibn Mashish | damas | 622 H. Maghrib
الشيخ شهاب الدين أبو حفص عمر السهروردي البغدادي Shihab al-Din `Umar Abu Hafs al-Suhrawardi |
author of Awarif al-Ma`arif
b. 539 – d. 632 H. Baghdad
Sh. ´Umar ibn al-Farid b. 576 – d. 632 H. Egypt
Muhyi al-Din ibn al-`Arabi | damas | gfh |
known as Al-Sheikh al-Akbar
d. 638 H. Damascus
Taqi al-Din b. al-Salah [ZaSH p. 37] d. 643 H. Damascus
Diya’ al-Din al-Maqdisi | damas | d. 643 H. Damascus
Ibn Qadi al-`Askar al-Hanafi | damas | d. 651 H. Damascus
Sibt ibn al-Jawzi | damas | d. 654 H. Damascus
`Abd al- Rahman b. Nuh [ZaSH p. 36] d. 654 H. Damascus
سيدي الإمام أبو الحسن الشاذلي الحسني Imam Abul Hasan al-Shadhili al-Hasani | damas | d. 656 H. Humaythira Egypt
Yusuf al-Qamini | damas | d. 657 H. Damascus
al-`Izz ibn `Abd al-Salam al-Sulami | gfh |
“Sultan of the Scholars”
d. 660 H.
الإمام عبد الرحمان بن إسماعيل بن إبراهيم عثمان المقدسي ثم الدمشقي، المعروف بأبي شامة Abu Shama damas | d. 665 H. Damascus
Ibn Malik damas |
sahib al-Alfiyyah
d. 672 H. Damascus
`Abd Allah Ibn Abi Jamra | damas | 675 H. Cairo
Ahmad al-Badawi | damas | d. 675 H. Tanta, Egypt
Imam al-Nawawi | damas | d. 676 H. Damascus
Ibrahim al-Dasuqi d. 676 H.
Shams al-Din b ‘Umar b. Quddama | damas | d. 682 H. Damascus
Imam al-Busiri al-Shadhili | damas |
author of Qasida al-Burda
d. 684 H. Alexandria Egypt
الشيخ سيدى الإمام أحمد أبو العباس المرسى Sh. Abul-‘Abbas al-Mursi al-Shadhili | damas | marifa | d. 686 H. Alexandria Egypt
Ibn Malik the younger | damas | d. 686 H. Damascus
Taj al-Din al-Fazari “al-Farkah” | damas | d. 690 H. Damascus
Ibrahim ibn al-Muhaddith | damas | d. 695 H. Damascus
Abu Bakr al-`Arudiki | damas | born 584 – d. … H. Damascus
^ 8th century Hijri
Sh. Yaqut al-`Arshi al-Shadhili | damas |
Teacher of Ibn `Ata Allah al-Sakandari after Sheikh Abul `Abbas al-Mursi
b. 627 – d. 707 H. Alexandria Egypt
Imam Ibn Daqiq al-Id | d. 702 H. Cairo
الشيخ أحمد ابن عَطاء اللهِ السَّكَنْدَري Sh. Ahmad Ibn `Ata Allah al-Sakandari | damas | d. 709 H. Cairo
Sadr al-Din Suleyman ibn Hilal | damas d. 725 H. Damascus
Sh. Dawud b. Makhila (al-Bakhili) al-Shadhili | d. 732/735 H. Alexandria Egypt
Ahmad al-Tabrizi al-Hanafi | damas | d. 735 H. Damascus Kafar Susa
Ibrahim b. Sultan al-Hanafi | damas | d. 738 H. Damascus
Shams al-Din al-Dhahabi | damas | gfh | d. 748 H. Damascus
Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya | damas | d. 751 H. Damascus
The Subki family brief | extended
Taqi al-Din al-Subki | damas |
Taj al-Din al-Subki | by David W. Myhram |
 
d. 756 H.
d. 771 H.
 
Cairo
Damascus Qasiun
Ibn Kathir | damas | d. 774 H. Damascus
Muhammad b. al-Harr al-Hanafi | damas | d. 789 H. Damascus
^ 9th century Hijri
Sh. Shams al-Din al-Hanafi al-Shadhili | b. 775 – d. 847 H. Egypt
Ibn Hajar al’Asqalani | damas | b. 733 – d. 852 H. Cairo
Sh. Abul Mawahib al-Shadhili | d. 881 / after 850 H. Cairo
`Abd al-Rahman al-`Ayni | damas | d. 893 H. Damascus Salihiyya
سيدي الإمام أحمد زروق الفاسي Sh. Ahmad Zarruq al-Fasi | damas | d. 899 H. Misrata, Libya/td>
^ 10th century Hijri
Abu Ishaq Ibrahim al-Naji | damas | d. 900 H. Damascus
Shams al-Din Muhammad al-Sakhawi
His Sufi teachers | gfh (sunnah) |
b. 831 – d. 902 H. Cairo – Madinah
Imam Jalal al-Din al-Suyuti | damas |
Writings |
d. 911 H. Cairo
Ahmad b. Badr al-Din al-Hanafi | damas | d. 934 H. Damascus
Sayyidi Sh. ´Ali al-Khawas al-Shadhili
The Shaykh of Imam al-Sha´rani
d. 949 H. Cairo
Ibn Sultan al-Hanafi | damas | d. 950 H. Damascus
Imam `Abd al-Wahhab al-Sha`rani |
Writings |
d. 973 H. Cairo
Sharaf Al-Din Al-Hijawi
Imam Sharaf Al-Din Abi Al-Munja Musa bin Ahmad bin Musa bin Salim bin `Isa bin Salim Al-Hijawi, originally from Quds and then settled in Salihyah Damascus. [musa]
d. 978 H. Damascus
^ 11th century Hijri
Mulla ‘Ali al-Qari kabbani | marifa d. 1014 H.
^ 12th century Hijri
Al-Sayyid Muhammad b. ´Abd al-Rasul al-Barzanji | marifa |
Chief Shafi´i Mufti of Madina
b. 1040 – d. 1103 H. Madina
Sh. Abd al’Aziz al-Dabbagh | darsirr | b. 1095 – d. 1131/2 H. (1719 CE) Fas
`Abd al-Ghani al-Nabulsi | damas | d. ~1150 H./1731 CE Damascus
Sh. ´Ali al-´Amarani al-Jamal al-Hasani Shaykh of Imam ´Arabi al-Dirqawi d. 1194 Fas
^ 13th century Hijri
سيدي الشيخ أحمد ابن عجيبة الحسني 
Sh. Ahmad ibn ´Ajiba al-Hasani took the Shadhili Path from Sh. M. ibn Ahamd al-Buzidi Writings |
d. 1224 H East of Tetuan
Sh. Muhammad Ibn Ahmad Al-Buzidi | took the Shadhili Path from Imam al-Dirqawi d. 1229 H.
الشيخ السيد العربي بن أحمد الدِرقاوِي الحسني Mawlaya al-`Arabi al-Dirqawi al-Hasani | damas | d. 1239 H near Fas
Sheikh Khalid al-Baghdadi | ghf (damas) b. 1193 – d. 1242 Damascus
سيدي الشيخ محمد أمين بن عمر بن عبد العزيز عابدين الحنفي الحسيني الدمشقي Sh. Muhammad Amin `Abidin | damas |
known as Ibn `Abidin, author of al-Hashia
d. 1252 Damascus
Sh.Muhammad Harraq |
took the Shadhili Path from Imam al-Dirqawi
d. 1261 Tetuan
الشيخ محمد بن حسن ظافر بن حمزة ظافر Sh. Muhammad ibn Hamza ibn Zhafir al-Madani | damas | d. 1262 Mistrata, Libya
Muhammad al-Mahdi al-Saklawi | damas | d. 1278 Damascus
الشيخ محمد بن مسعود المغربي الفاسي Sh. Muhammad ibn Mas´ud al-Fasi | damas | 1289 Makka
^ 14 – 15th century Hijri
Al-Amir Sh. `Abd al-Qadir al-Jaza’iri al-Hasani | damas |
the famous mujahid against french colonizers
d. 1300 H. Damascus
الشيخ علاء الدين محمد بن (محمد أمين المعروف بابن عابدين) بن عمر بن عبد العزيز عابدين الحنفي الحسيني الدمشقي Sh. `Ala al-Din `Abidin | damas | marifa | d. 1306 H. Damascus
الشيخ السيد محمد الطيب الحسني Sh. Muhammad al-Tayyib al-Hasani al-Shadhili | damas | d. 1313 H. Damascus
Sh. Muhammad Zhafir (the son) | 1321 H. Istanbul
الشيخ السيد محمد المبارك الحسني Sh. Muhammad al-Mubarak al-Hasani al-Shadhili | damas | d. 1330 H. Damascus
Imam Ahmad Rada Khan | d. 1340 H. (1921 CE.) Bareilly, India
Qadi Yusuf al-Nabhani | gfh (damas) | b. 1265 – d. 1342 H. Beirut
Sheikh Muhammad ibn Yallis al-Tlimsani | damas | d. 1346/7 H. Damascus
محدث الشام الأكبرالشيخ محمد بدر الدين بن يوسف الحسني المغربي الاصل الدمشقي Sheikh Badr al-Din al-Hasani | damas |
known in Sham as “al-muhaddith al-akbar”
d. 1354 H. Damascus
Sh. Sharif al-Yaqoubi | damas | b. 1282 – d. 1362 H. Damascus
الشيخ السيد إسماعيل اليعقوبي الحسني Sh. Isma`il al-Yaqoubi | damas | d. 1380 H. Damascus
Sh. Muhammad al-Hashimi | damas | marifa | b. 1298 d. 1381 H. (1880–1961 CE) Damascus
الشريف الشيخ محمد أبو اليسر بن محمد عابدين الحسيني Sh. Abul Yusr `Abidin | damas |
Hanafi Mufi of Damascus
d. 1401 H. Damascus
الشيخ السيد إبراهيم اليعقوبي الحسني Sh. Ibrahim al-Yaqoubi | damas | marifa | d. 1406 H.(1985 CE) Damascus
Sheikh Muhammad Sukkar | marifa | d. 1429 H. Damascus
Sh Ahmad Habbal al-Rifa’i | d. 1430 H. / 2009 CE Damascus
Sh. ´Abd al-Razzaq ak-Halabi | marifa | b.1343 – d.1433 H. (1925-2012 CE) Damascus Dahdah cemetery
Sh. Shukri Luhafi al-Shadhili | marifa | b. 1338 – d. H./ 2015 CE Damascus
Sheikh Muhammad al-Ya`qubi | damas |
may Allah preserve him for the benefit of the ummah
b. 1382 H./ 1961 CE – Damascus
^ Scholarly families
The Yaqoubi Family |
Family tree | Burial places in Damascus
Shaykh Muhammad al-Siddiq  (d. 1307)
Sheikh Muhammad al-Sharif  (d. 1362) |
Sheikh Isma`il al-Yaqoubi (d.1380) | damas |
Shaykh Muhammad ‘Arabi  (d. 1384)
Sheikh Ibrahim al-Yaqoubi (d.1406) | damas |
Sheikh Muhammad al-Ya`qubi (born 1382) | damas | ]
The Kettani family:
Sheikh Muhammad b. Ja`far (d. 1345 in Fas)
Sheikh Muhammad al-Makki (d. 1393)
The ‘Abidin family | Overview |
Sh. Muhammad Amin `Abidin (d. 1252) | damas |
known as Ibn `Abidin, author of al-HashiaSh. `Ala al-Din `Abidin (d. 1306) | damas | marifa |
Sh. Abul Yusr `Abidin (d. 1401) | damas |
The Kettani family:
Sheikh Muhammad b. Ja`far (d. 1345 in Fas)
Sheikh Muhammad al-Makki (d. 1393)
The ‘Abidin family:
Sheikh Muhammad b. Ja`far (d. 1345 in Fas)
Sheikh Muhammad al-Makki (d. 1393)

^

Reference works

RB : الروض البهية في فضائل دمشق للصيادي
Reference works:
Links to on-line Biograpical Encyclopedia:
Imam Subki: Tabaqat al-Shafi’iyya
Ibn Khalikan: Wafayat al-A’lam
Ibn Hajar: Taqrib al-Tahdhib
Ibn Hajar: Al-Isaba
Ibn Athir: Usd al-Ghaba fi ma’rifati al-Sahaba
Ibn Kathir: Al-bidaya wa al-Nihaya
Al-Wafidi: Futuh al=Sham
Al-Suyuti: Lubb al-Lubab (spelling of names)
Al-Qalqashnadi: Ansab al-“Arab
Taj al-Din al-Subki: Tabaqat al-Shafi´iyya al-Kubra

Original pages
Index of Scholars, Saints and notables
Index of Damascene scholars

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‘Abdullah ibn al-Mubarak

أبو عبد الرحمن عبد الله بن المبارك
b. 118 H. in Merv – d. 181 H. in Hit (736 -797 CE)
radiya Allah anhu

A renowned Khorasani scholar, hadtih narrator and ascetic
 

Biography

from Tartib al-Madarik by Qadi ‘Iyad’s
translated by Aisha Bewley – From Aisha Bewley’s Homepage

Intro
Concerning his position in knowledge and praise of him
The beginning of his quest, the reason for his asceticism and the sum of his virtues and knowledge
Some of his wisdoms, poetry and wit
Concerning his position in riwaya and hadith


Intro
He was the client of the Banu Tamim, then the Banu Hanifa. His kunya was Abu ‘Abdu’r-Rahman.

He listened to Ibn Abi Layla, Hisham ibn ‘Urwa, al-A’mash, Sulayman at-Tamimi, Humayd at-Tawil, Yahya ibn Sa’id, Ibn ‘Awn, Musa ibn ‘Uqba, the two Sufyans, al-Awza’i, Ibn Abi Dhib, Malik, Ma’mar, Shu’ba, and Haywa ibn Shurayh, and he studied with Abu ‘Amr ibn al-‘Ala’, al-Layth and others.

Ibn Mahdi, ‘Abdu’r-Razzaq, Yahya ibn al-Qattan, Ibn Wahb and others related from him.

Ibn Wahb said, “Ibn al-Mubarak listened to all our shaykhs except ‘Amr ibn al-Harith.”

Ash-Shirazi said, “He learned fiqh with Malik and ath-Thawri, and he was the first of Abu Hanifa’s companions. Then he left him and abandoned his madhhab.”

Ibn Waddah said, “In the end, he avoided mentioning Abu Hanifa in his books, and he did not read his work to people.”


Concerning his position in knowledge and praise of him
Abu Ishaq al-Fazzari said, “Ibn al-Mubarak was the Imam of the Muslims.” Al-Fazzari used to sit in front of him and ask him questions.”

Ibn Mahdi said, “I met four fuqaha’: Malik, Shu’ba, Sufyan and Ibn al-Mubarak. (One of them had ‘Hammad’ in place of Shu’ba.) I did not see anyone with better counsel for the community than Ibn al-Mubarak. If Ibn al-Mubarak did not acknowledge a hadith, we would not acknowlege it.”

Ibn Mahdi was asked about him and and ath-Thawri and which of them was better. He said, “Ibn al-Mubarak.”

He was asked, “And if the people disagree with you?” He replied, “The people have not made any tests. I have not see the like of Ibn al-Mubarak.”

He said, “Ibn al-Mubarak related to us, and he was unique.”

When Sufyan ibn ‘Uyayna was told that Ibn al-Mubarak had died, he said, “May Allah have mercy on him. He was a man of fiqh, knowledge, worship, asceticism, and generosity. He was courageous and a poet.”

He also said, “No one has come to us like Ibn al-Mubarak and Ibn Abi Ziyada.”

Muhammad ibn al-Mu’tamir said, “When ath-Thawri died, I asked my father, ‘Who is the faqih of the Arabs?” He replied, “Ibn al-Mubarak.”

Al-Awza’i said to Abu ‘Uthman al-Kalbi about him, “If I had seen him, I would have been delighted.”

An-Nasa’i said, “There was not known in the time of Ibn al-Mubarak anyone more glorious or excellent than him nor anyone who had more virtues than he possessed.”

Salam ibn Muti’ said, “No one like him came in the east afterwards. I prefer Ibn al-Mubarak to ath-Thawri.”

Ibn Waddah said, “I listened to a group of the people of knowledge relate, ‘Knowledge, taqwa, hadith, recognition of the men, poetry, generosity, worship and scrupulousness were comibined in Ibn al-Mubarak.


The beginning of his quest, the reason for his asceticism and the sum of his virtues and knowledge

Qadi Abu’l-Fadl said that as-Sadafi mentioned, “When Ibn al-Mubarak came of age, his father sent him 50,000 to use for commerce. He sought after knowledge until he had spent the money. When it was gone, his father met him and said, ‘What have you bought?’ He brought out his books for him and said, ‘This is my trade.’ His father went into the house and gave him 30,000 dirhams more and said, ‘Take this and follow your trade with them,’ and he spent them.”

Ibn al-Mubarak said, “I studied adab for thirty years and I studied knowledge for twenty years.”

Ibn Hanbal said, “In the time of Ibn al-Mubarak, there was no one who sought after knowledge more than him. He went to the Yemen, Egypt, Syria, the Hijaz, Basra and Kufa, and whoever related knowledge and was worthy of it. He wrote from young men and old men. He omitted what was rare. He gave hadiths from books.”

Ibn Waddah said, “Ibn al-Mubarak related about 25,000 hadiths. He was asked, ‘Up until when did you study knowledge?’ He said, ‘I hope that you will find me doing that until I die.”

Yahya ibn Yahya al-Laythi said, “A man with good deportment came one day to Malik. I used to see Malik say to him, ‘Come here.’ Then he made room for him in his assembly, and I did not see Malik make room for anyone else. He sat Ibn al-Mubarak near him. Sometimes Malik was asked about a question and he answered it. Then he would lean over to the man and say to him, ‘What do your companions say about it?’ The man would reply softly so we could not hear or understand. I saw him do that for some days, and I admired the adab of the man. I did not see him ask about anything until he departed. He was content with what he heard and Malik told us, ‘This is Ibn al-Mubarak, the faqih of Khorasan.'”

One day Ibn al-Mubarak prayed at the side of Abu Hanifa. Ibn al-Mubarak began to lift his hands in each takbir. Abu Hanifa said to him, ‘Do you want to fly?’ He replied, ‘If I had wanted to, I would have flown in the first one.'”

He said, “The ascetic is the one who is not happy when he gets this world and is not sad if he lacks it.”

Ibn Shahin said, “Ibn al-Mubarak was with Hammad ibn Zayd and greeted him. The people of hadith went to Hammad to ask Ibn al-Mubarak to give them hadith. Ibn al-Mubarak said, ‘Glory be to Allah! Shall I give hadith while you are present?’ He said, ‘I beg you to do it,’ or words to that effect. He said, ‘Abu Isma’il Hammad ibn Zayd related to us,’ and did not give any hadith except from him.”

Ibn al-Mubarak used to say, “The beginning of knowledge is the intention, then listening, then understanding, then action, then preservation, and then spreading it.”

It was said, “He went on hajj one year and raiding the next year. Whenever he came to Madina, he said to its shaykhs among the people of knowledge and decrease. Whoever wants to go on hajj, come out with me. Their provision is enough for them. He did the same when he went on raids.”

Al-Fasawi the worshipper said, “I was with Ibn al-Mubarak raiding on a cold, rainy night. He wept and I said, ‘Are you weeping for the like of this?’ He said, ‘I am weeping for the previous nights which did not have the like of this hardship so that we could be rewarded for them.'”

Ibn al-Musayyab said, “Ibn al-Mubarak sent 70,000 dirhams to Abu Bakr ibn ‘Ayyash and said, ‘Use it to stop the lack of censure of you.'”

Nu’aym ibn Hammad said, “Ibn al-Mubarak used to stay in his house a lot. He was asked, ‘Are you isolating yourself?’ He said, ‘How can I isolate myself when I am with the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and his Companions?'”

He related that Iblis came to Ibn al-Mubarak when he was doing wudu’ and said, “You did not wipe.'” He said, “I did wipe.” He said, “You did not wipe.” He said, ‘You are a claimant, so present your proof.'”

Ibn al-Mubarak said to one of his companions, “Do not neglect a day which Allah has mentioned in 63 places in His Book.”

A man said to Ibn al-Mubarak, “Yesterday I read the entire Qur’an in a single rak’at.” Ibn al-Mubarak said, “But I know a man who did not cease to recite ‘Rivalry’ (102) yesterday until the Subh prayer. He could not get past it,” i.e. himself.

He and another man mentioned that Ibn al-Mubarak was asked about the beginning of his quest for knowledge. He said, “I was a young man who drank nabidh-wine, loved wealth and rejoiced in those foul things. I invited some brothers of mine to a garden when the apples and other fruits were ripe, and we ate and drank until we were overcome by drunkenness and sleep. I woke up at the end of the period before dawn. I took up the lute which I played and composed:

Is it not time that you had mercy on us
and defied the critics and censors?

“Then I could not make it rhyme as I wished. When I repeated it to it, the lute spoke to me as a man speaks, ‘Is it not time that the hearts of those who believe should be humbled to the remembrance of Allah?’ (57:15) I said, ‘Yes, Lord.’ I broke the lute and spilled out the nabidh, and repentance came by Allah’s favour with its realities, and I turned to knowledge and worship.”

He related that ‘Abdullah ibn al-Mubarak entered Kufa when he was intending to go on the hajj. There was a woman sitting on a rubbish-heap plucking a duck. It occurred to him that it was carrion. He stopped on his mule and said to her, ‘Women! Is this duck carrion or sacrificed?’ She said, ‘Carrion.’ He said, ‘Then why are you plucking it?’ She said, ‘So that my family and I can eat it.’ He said, ‘Woman! Allah Almighty has forbidden you carrion while you are in a land like this!’ She said, ‘Man, go away.’ They continued to exchange words until he said to her,’Where in Kufa do you live?’ She said, ‘In the quarter of the Banu so-and-so.’ He said, ‘By what is your house known?’ She said, ‘The Banu so-and-so.’ He left her and went to the inn. Then he asked about the tribe and they directed him to it. He said to a man, ‘You have a dirham if you come with me to the place.’
“He went until he came to the tribe which the woman had mentioned. He said to the man, ‘Go.’ Then he went to the door and knocked on the door with a stick that he had. The old woman said, ‘Who is it?’ He said to her, ‘Open the door.’ She opened it part way. He said, ‘Open it all the way.’ Then he got off his mule and hit it with the stick and the mule went into the house. Then he said to the woman, ‘This mule and the provision, money and clothes on it is yours, and you will have what is halal from it in this world and the Next.’
“Then Ibn al-Mubarak remained hidden until the people returned from the hajj. Some of the people of his land came to him to greet him and congratualate him on the hajj. He turned to say to them, ‘I had an illness and did not go on hajj this year.’
“One of them said, ‘Glory be to Allah! Did I not leave you my goods with you while we were at Mina and we were going to ‘Arafat?’ Another said, ‘Did you not buy for me in the same way?’ He turned to say, ‘I do not know what you are saying. As for myself, I did not go on hajj this year.’

“He dreamt of someone saying in the night to him, ”Abdullah, rejoice! Allah accepted your sadaqa and He sent an angel in your form who performed the hajj for you.'”


Some of his wisdoms, poetry and wit
He said:

Fight your tongue. The tongue is quick to kill a man.
The tongue is the posting of the heart. It shows man his intellect.

He said,

I see that some people are content with the least of the deen,
but I do not see them pleased with meagerness in this life.

Be rich with Allah, independent of the world of the kings
as the kings are free of the deen with their worldly things.

He said:

People’s enjoyment of worship and taqwa is the sweetest bliss,
not the pleasure of the wine.

Their sources enjoy it for all their lives, and they, by Allah,
have provision until they reach the graves.

In a moment they obtain might and taqwa.
Does not the enjoyment of life lie in piety and steadfastness?

He said:

I see every life as unhappy and miserable
except for planting the spear in the shade of the horse

And standing in the dark nights, vigilant,
guarding the people in the furthest outpost.

A man came to Ibn al-Mubarak and said to him, “May Allah be pleased with you! Describe for me those who are wild and distracted by love of Allah. He replied, “They are as I will tell you:

Alert, on mounts as if they were a caravan desiring to pass,
that is how they are moved.

Their limbs are restrained from every foul action.
Truthfulness is their school, as well as zuhd and fear.

Another person asked him to describe the fearful. He said:

When the night is darkest, they endure it,
and it travels from them while they are still bowing.

Fear dispelled their sleep, so they stood alert while the people of security
in this world were sleeping peacefully.

While they are prostrating under the cloak the darkness,
their groan pierces their ribs.

They are mute in the day by the length of their silence.
They have tranquillity from their humility.

He also composed:

Seize the two rak’ats of nearness if you are free and at rest.

When you desire to speak about the false, put glorification in its place.

Seizing silence is better than plunging,
even if you are eloquent in speech.

Ibn al-Mubarak has a lot of poetry in more than one subject. He had a short poem in rajaz-metre on the Companions and the Followers and long qasidas on constancy and jihad which are famous. He has the Kitab ar-Raqa’iq which is famous, and The Book of the Objectives of Jihad.

Ibn al-Mubarak was asked, “Who are the people?” “The scholars,” he replied He was asked, “Who are the kings?” He said, “The men of detachment (zuhd).” He was asked, “Who are the rabble?” “Harthima and Khuzayma ibn Hazim,” he answered. It was said, “Who are the fools?” He said, “The one who sells the Next World for the worldly portion of someone else.”

He used to say, “The trace of ink on the garment of the master of hadith is better than the perfume on the bride’s garment.”

He was asked, “Which person has the best state?” He said, “The one who devotes himself to his Lord.”

Ibn al-Mubarak said, “I passed by a weaver when I had broken the throng of my sandal and he gave me with a strap. I asked, ‘Did you do it for pay?’ He said, ‘Yes.’ When I passed by him, I leaned towards him and greeted him. Then I missed him and found that he had closed his shop. I asked one of the neighbours about him. I said, ‘If he is sick, I will visit him. If he is busy, I will help him. If he is poor, I will share with him.’

“They said, ‘We have no knowledge of him.’ I asked permission to enter his house and he came out to me. I asked him, ‘What has kept you from your shop?’ He said to me, ‘You, Ibn al-Mubarak. People see you inclining to me, so they have put a shirt on me which I do not deserve.’

“I took his sleeve and went with him to the graves. I said, ‘This is the grave of so-and-so. His business was such-and-such. This is the grave of so-and-so. His business was such-and-such.’

“He said to me, ‘Ibn al-Mubarak, I do not know what you are saying. The man is not all the man whom the tongues describe and the man is not all the man whom the eyes see. The man is the one whom Allah veils in his life and makes him enter the grave veiled and then He brings him out on the Day of Rising when there is no abasement or rebellion on him. That is the man.'”

Abu Bakr al-Khatib related that al-Hasan ibn ‘Isa ibn Masrajis used to pass by Ibn al-Mubarak while he was a Christian. Al-Hasan had a very beautiful face. Ibn al-Mubarak asked about him and was told, “He is a Christian.” He said, “O Allah, provide him with Islam.” Allah answered his supplication and al-Hasan became an excellent Muslim. He was one of the scholars of the Community and one of those who travelled in quest of knowledge and the Sunna in all regions and people studied with him. He possessed scrupulousness, intellect and reliability.

One of the men who kept the company of Ibn al-Mubarak inclined to this world and kept the Sultan’s company. He met him one day and greeted him. He said to him, “My brother!

All is from rice, wheat and barley bread,
And it crushes. O person! Allah has guided you from the amir’s abode,

So do not visit it! Avoid it it! They are false sparks.
It takes away the deen and brings you near to great wrong action.”

The man was ashamed and left the Sultan’s company and returned to his company.


Concerning his position in riwaya and hadith
One of the Sufis who had heard him say that one of the transmitters of hadith was weak, said to him, “Abu ‘Abdu’r-Rahman, do you slander?” He said, “Be quiet. If we do not clarify, who will know the true from the false?”

Ibn al-Mubarak died in Hit, returning from a naval expedition and was buried in Hit in Ramadan in 181.

Al-Bukhari said that he was born in 118.

When he was near death, he told Nasr, his client, “Put my head on the earth.” Nasr wept. He said, “Why do you weep?” He said, “I remember what you had in it of blessing and now you are dying a stranger and a pauper.” He told him, “Be quiet. I asked Allah to let me live the life of the rich and to make me die the death of the poor.” Then he said, “Put me down and do not address me again unless I speak again. Put me down so that it is my last words.”

Refs

Damas Cultral Society © 2007
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Bio: 'Amr ibn al-'As

‘Amr ibn al-‘As

عمرو بن العاص
d. ? H. in Egypt
radiya Allah anhu

A sahaba …

English

Abu Dharr al-Ghafari

Scanned from “Companions of The Prophet”, Vol. 1, By: Abdul Wahid Hamid. View on sunnah.org | damas

Jundub ibn Junadah, nicknamed Abu Dharr, was a member of the Ghifari tribe that lived in the Waddan valley outside Makka. He was known for his courage, his calmness and his far-sightedness …

… During the caliphate of Uthman, he stayed in Damascus and saw the Muslims’ concern for the world and their consuming desire for luxury. He was saddened and repelled by this. So Uthman asked him to come to Madinah. At Madinah he was also critical of the people’s pursuit of worldly goods and pleasures and they were critical in turn of his reviling them. Uthman therefore ordered that he should go to Rubdhah, a small village near Madinah. There he stayed far away from people, renouncing their preoccupation with worldly goods and holding on to the legacy of the Prophet and his companions in seeking the everlasting abode of the Hereafter in preference to this transitory world. …

Türkçe

Hz. Ebu Zerr Gifari (r.a.)

Ebu Zer Gifari hazretleri ilk müslüman olanlardandır(5. dir)Allah Resulu onunla ilgili şu sözü buyurmuşlardır ;” Allah Ebu zer’e acısın ki , O,yalnız yaşar ,yalnız ölür ve yalnız haşr olur.” Gerçekten de Ebu Zer hz i yalnız yaşayıp yalnız vefat etmiştir.

Ebû Zer Gıfârî hazretleri, Eshab-ı kiramın meşhurlarından olup, zahidliği, yalnızlığı ve sözünde durmadaki sadakatiyle meşhurdur. Resûlullah efendimize bi’at ederken “Hak teâlânın yolunda hiçbir kötüleyicinin kötülemesine aldanmıyacağına, ne kadar acı olursa olsun daima doğru sözlü olacağına” söz vermişti. Ömrünün sonuna kadar hep böyle kaldı. Bu hususta Resûlullah efendimiz, “Dünyaya Ebû Zer’den daha sadık kimse gelmedi” buyurmuşlardır.

Ebû Zer, dünyaya hiç değer vermezdi. Son derece kanaatkâr, fakir ve yalnız yaşardı. Peygamber efendimiz bu sebeble ona “Mesîh-ül-islâm” lâkabını vermişti. Peygamberimize tam bağlanıp, O’nun sevip, beğendiğini seven, Onun sevmediğini ve beğenmediğini sevmeyen Ebû Zer, Resûlullahın vefâtında da yanında bulunmuştur. Peygamberimizin vefâtından sonra Şam’a çekilip, son derece mahzun ve yalnız yaşadı.ebu zerr 4

Tebük muharebesinde Ebû Zer Gıfârî hazretlerinin devesi pek zayıf ve dayanıksız olduğu için geride kalmıştı. Yolun ortasıda devesi çöküp kalınca, devesinden indi. Eşyasını sırtına yükleyerek orduya yetişti. Alnız başına tenha bir yere oturdu. Peygamberimiz , Hz. Ebû Zer’i böyle tenhada görünce “Allahü teâlâ, yalnız başına yürüyen, yalnız başına vefât edecek olan ve yalnız başına haşrolunacak olan Ebû Zer’e rahmet eylesin” buyurmuşlardır.

Şüphelilerden ve haramlardan son derece sakınırdı. Evinde bir günlük nafakasından fazlasını bulundurmaz, hep fakirlere dağıtırdı. Herkesin böyle yapmasını isterdi. Fakat oranın zenginleri Ebû Zer’in bu durumunu beğenmediler. Oradan gitmesi için Hz. Osman’a mektup ile bildirdiler. Böylece Medine-i Münevvre’ye davet edildi.

Hz. Osman, Şam halkının kendisinden şikayet sebebini sordu. Ebû Zer de hâdiseyi olduğu gibi anlattı. Bunun üzerine Hz. Osman “Yâ Ebâ Zer, halkı zühd yoluna zorla sokmak imkânsızdır. Benim vazifem, onlar arasında Hak teâlâ hazretlerinin emriyle hükmetmek ve onları çalışma, iktisat tarafına teşvik eylemektir.” buyurdu. Sonra Ebû Zer, Resûlullah bana “Binalar Seldağı’na ulaştığı zaman, sen Medine’den ayrıl” diye emretmişlerdi. İzin verirseniz, ben Medine’den gideyim dedi.Hz. Osman müsaade buyurdular ve bir deve sürüsü ile, iki köle verdiler. Yetecek miktarda yiyecek ve hediyeler ile Medine-i Münevvereye yakınlarındaki (ebeze) adındaki köye gitmesini söylediler. Ailesi de Şam’dan buraya gönderildi. Ebû Zer Gıfâr hazretleri buraya bir mescit yaptırdı. Vefât edinceye kadar, gelenlere İslâm dînin öğretti. Adîs-i şerîfler rivâyet eyledi. Kalan ömrünü burada geçirdi ve orada da vefât etti.

“Bana elbise değil kefen lâzım”

Ebû Zer Gıfârî hazretlerinin yalnız, garip bir hayatı oldu. Hayatı gibi vefâtı pek garip oldu. Vefatına yakın hanımı, kendisinin doğru dürüst giyecek bir elbisesi ılmadığı için ona bir elbise aradığında, “Bana elbise değil kefen lâzım” deyip, Resûlullahın kendisine nasıl vefât edeceğini söylediğini bildirdi. “İyi bir haber var, yakında Resûlullaha kavuşacağım” ve “Ey ölüm çabuk gel ruhum Rabbime kavuşmak sevgisiyle çırpınıyor” dedi.ebu zerr 3

Sonra, kızı veya hanımına dönüp, “Dışarıdan gelen olup olmadığını” sordu. Dışarı çıkıp baktıklarında bir şey görünmediğini bildirdiler. Bunun üzerine “Vefât zamanım henüz gelmedi. Şimdi siz bir koyun kesip hazırlayın. Cenazemde sâlih bir topluluk bulunacak. Onlara ikrâm edersiniz. Yemeden gitmemelerini benim tenbih ettiğimi söylersiniz” buyurdu.

Arzusu yerine getirildi. Tekrar kızına veya hanımına dışarı çıkıp gelenlerin olup, olmadığına bakmasını isteyince, dışarı çıktılar. Uzaktan bir topluluğun gelmekte olduğunu görünce içeri grip haberi verdiler.

Bunun üzerine kendisinin kıbleye karşı çevrilmesin istedi. Kıbleye döndükten sonra Hz. Ebû Zer, “Bismillahi ve billahi ve alâ milleti Resûlullah” diyerek ruhunu Hak teâlâya teslim etti. Gelen misafirler karşılanıp Ebû Zer Gıfârî’nin vefât ettiği bildirildi.

Bunlar, “Böyle mübarek bir zâtın cenazesinde bulunmak, Allahü teâlanın bize hususi bir kerem ve lütfudur”, diyerek, Ebû Zer’i gasl, techiz ve tekfin edip namazını kıldılar ve defnettiler. Tam gitmek üzereyken, Ebû Zer Gıfârî size selâm etti, yemek yemeden gitmemenizi tenbih eyeldi diye bildirilince, hepsi oturup yemek yediler. Sonra durumu gidip halifeye bildirdiler. Ebû Zer vefât ettiğinde bir evi, üç koyunu ve birkaç keçisinden başka malı yoktu.

Ebû Zer Gıfârî hazretleri, Peygamberimizden bizzat işiterek ikiyüzseksenbir hadîs-i şerîf rivâyet etmiştir.

Ebu Zer Gifari hz ‘i ; Hz. Osman devrinde 652 senesinde Medine civarında rebeze denilen köyde vefat etmiştir. İstanbul da Ayvansaray da bulunan yer ise Ebu Zer hz’nin makamıdır.Bu makam Sadrazam Şehid Ali Paşa tarafından 1716 yılında bir rüyadaki işaretle inşa edilen Çınarlıçeşme Mescidinin bitişiğine yaapılmıştır.

Sultan II. Mahmut Han’ın annesi Nakşidil Valide Sultan bu mescid ve makamı 1812 yılında yeniden yaptırmış, burası için bir de vakıf tahsis etmiştir. Bu sebeple buraya Valide camii veya Nakşidil Valide mescidi de denmektedir.Üstü açık bir kabirdir. Yanında türbedarı medfundur. Kapı üzerindeki kitabe de şunlar yazılıdır :

” Habib-i Hazret-i Mevla’nın AShab-ı Güzin’inden
Cenab-ı Bu Zerr-i Gifari nam bir zat-ı alişanebu zerr 6
Stanbul feth olunmazdan mukaddem fi-sebilillah
Gazaya azm ü niyyet eyleyüp ol server-i merdan
Kılup küffara şirane hücum ahir reh-i Hak’da
Şehadet şerbetin nuş eyleyüp kıldı feda-yı can
Makam u medfen-i ashab ba’d-ez feth-i İstanbul
Olup keşfeylediler her birinin kabrini abadan
Mürur-ı ezmineyle bu güzide zat-ı valanın
Der ü divar u sakf-ı medfeni olmuştu pek viran
Olup tevfika mazhar bu makam u mescid-i paki
Yeniden kıldı inşa Valide Sultan-ı Mahmud Han
Resulullah’a ta’zimen kılup ashabına hürmet
Zehi hayr eyledi ol mehd-i ulya-yı kerem bünyan
Huda hem zatını hem nur-ı çeşmi Han Mahmud’u
Kıla her halde mahfuz u setr-i dide udvan
O şahın sayesin dur etmeyüp fark-ı ibadından
Serir-i saltanatda müstedam-ı ömr ede Sübhan
Sezadır yazsa Vasıf bendesi bir mısra-ı tarih
Bu ali meşhedi yaptırdı ra’na Valide Sultan
1227 ”

Mezar taşındaki kitabde de şu satırlar yazılıdır ;

” Haza merkad-i şerif
Ashab-ı Kiramdan olan
Hazret-i Ebu Zerr-i Gifari
Radıyallahu Teala anh bi -şefa’atihi
Ebu Zerr-i Gifari asitanı
Ziyaret eyle adabile anı
Dahi her kim bu nazm-ı dil-güşaya
Nazar ide elin açup duaya
Şurütiyle dua eylese bir kul
Ede ol Kaziyü’l-hacat makbul ”

Kaynaklar :
İslam Alimleri Ansiklopedisi , Türkiye Gazetesi
İstanbul’da Bulunan Ashab-ı Kiram kabir ve makamları ; Cafer E. Babadağlı ; Sarayburnu Kitaplı

عربي

أبو ذر الغفاري
أبو ذر واسمه جندب بن جنادة الغفاري الكناني (صلى الله عليه وسلم) أحد أكابر أصحاب رسول الله وهو رابع وقيل خامس من دخل في الإسلام وهو أول من حيا رسول الله بتحية الإسلام وأحد الذين جهروا بالإسلام في مكة قبل الهجرة ولقي في ذلك بلاء عظيما من قريش.

النسب
هو جندب بن جنادة بن سفيان بن عبيد بن حرام من غفار بن مليل بن ضمرة بن بكر بن عبد مناة بن كنانة بن خزيمة بن مدركة بن إلياس بن مضر بن نزار بن معد بن عدنان، الغفاري الكناني من بني غفار من قبيلة بني كنانة ويجتمع نسبه مع الرسول محمد بن عبد الله في كنانة بن خزيمة. واختلف في اسمه فقيل أنه جندب بن السكن و قيل بريرة بن جنادة ولكن المشهور أنه جندب بن جنادة.

قبل الإسلام
كان أبو ذر ذو بصيرة، وممن يتمردون على عبادة الأصنام، ويذهبون إلى الايمان بإله خالق عظيم، فما أن سمع عن الدين الجديد حتى شد الرحال إلى مكة.

المظهر و الشكل
كان أبو ذر آدم طويلا أبيض الرأس واللحية، أسمر اللون نحيفًا [1].

إسلامه
أسلم بمكة قديما وقال كنت في الإسلام رابعًا ورجع إلى بلاد قومه فأقام بها حتى مضت بدر وأحد والخندق ثم قدم المدينة.

ويروي أبو ذر قصة إسلامه في الحديث الذي رواه البخاري عن ابن عباس (صلى الله عليه وسلم) قال: ألا أخبركم بإسلام أبي ذر؟ قال: قلنا بلى. قال: قال أبو ذر : قد صليت قبل أن ألقى رسول الله — . بثلاث سنين .قلت : لمن ؟ قال : لله . قلت : أين توجه ؟ قال : حيث وجهني الله ، أصلي عشاء حتى إذا كان من آخر الليل ألقيت كأني خفاء حتى تعلوني الشمس وقد كنت رجلا من غفار فبلغني من أخي أنيس أن رجلا قد خرج بمكة يزعم أنه نبي فقلت لأخي انطلق إلى هذا الرجل كلمه وإتني بخبره فانطلق فلقيه ثم رجع فقلت ما عندك فقال والله لقد رأيت رجلا يأمر بالخير وينهى عن الشر قلت : فما يقول الناس ؟ قال : يقولون : شاعر ، كاهن ، ساحر . قال : وكان أنيس أحد الشعـراء ، فقال : لقد سمعت قول الكهنة ، وما هو بقولهم ، ولقد وضعت قوله على أقوال الشعراء فما يلتئم على لسان أحد أنه شعر ، والله إنه لصادق ، وإنهم لكاذبون ! فقلت له: لم تشفني من الخبر فأخذت جرابًا وعصا ثم أقبلت إلى مكة فجعلت لا أعرفه وأكره أن أسأل عنه وأشرب من ماء زمزم وأكون في المسجد قال فمر بي علي فقال كأن الرجل غريب قال: قلت: نعم. قال فانطلق إلى المنزل قال فانطلقت معه لا يسألني عن شيء ولا أخبره فلما أصبحت غدوت إلى المسجد لأسأل عنه، وليس أحد يخبرني عنه بشيء. قال فمر بي علي فقال: أما آن للرجل أن يعرف منزله بعد. قال: قلت لا. قال: انطلق معي قال: فقال ما أمرَّك وما أقدمك هذه البلدة؟ قال: قلت له إن كتمت عليَّ أخبرتك قال: فإني أفعل، قال: قلت له بلغنا أنه قد خرج ها هنا رجل يزعم أنه نبي فأرسلت أخي ليكلمه فرجع ولم يشفني من الخبر فأردت أن ألقاه.

فقال له: أما إنك قد رشدت هذا وجهي إليه فاتبعني ادخل حيث أدخل فإني إن رأيت أحدا أخافه عليك قمت إلى الحائط كأني أصلح نعلي وامض أنت فمضى ومضيت معه حتى دخل ودخلت معه على النبي فقلت له: اعرض علي الإسلام فعرضه فأسلمت مكاني فقال لي يا أباذر اكتم هذا الأمر وارجع إلى بلدك فإذا بلغك ظهورنا فأقبل فقلت والذي بعثك بالحق لأصرخن بها بين أظهرهم فجاء إلى المسجد وقريش فيه فقال يا معشر قريش إني أشهد أن لا إله إلا الله وأشهد أن محمدا عبده ورسوله، فقالوا قوموا إلى هذا الصابئ فقاموا فضربت لأموت، فأدركني العباس فأكب علي ثم أقبل عليهم فقال: ويلكم تقتلون رجلا من غفار ومتجركم وممركم على غفار؟! فأقلعوا عني فلما أن أصبحت الغد رجعت فقلت مثل ما قلت بالأمس فقالوا قوموا إلى هذا الصابئ فصنع بي مثل ما صنع بالأمس وأدركني العباس فأكب علي وقال مثل مقالته بالأمس قال فكان هذا أول إسلام أبي ذر.

تركت هذه الحادثة أثراً سلبياً على نفسية أبي ذر، وعاهد نفسه أن يثأر من قريش، فخرج وأقام بـ”عسفان”، وكلما أقبلت عير لقريش يحملون الطعام، يعترضهم ويجبرهم على إلقاء أحمالهم، فيقول أبو ذر لهم: لا يمس أحد حبة ‏حتى تقولوا لا إله إلا الله، فيقولون لا إله إلاّ الله، ويأخذون ما لهم.‏

أهم ملامح شخصيته
الزهد الشديد والتواضع
كان من أوعية العلم المبرزين في الزهد والورع والقول الحق سئل علي عن أبي ذَرّ فقال ذلك رجل وعى علما عجز عنه الناس ثم أوكأ عليه فلم يخرج شيئا منه… وروى عن النبي أنه قال: ” أبو ذَرّ في أمتي شبيه عيسى بن مريم في زهده “. وبعضهم يرويه: “من سره أن ينظر إلى تواضع عيسى بن مريم فلينظر إلى أبي ذَرّ”

ومرّ فتى على عمر بن الخطاب ، فقال عمر: نعم الفتى، فتبعه أبو ذَرّ فقال: يا فتى استغفر لي، فقال: يا أبا ذَرّ أستغفر لك وأنت صاحب رسول الله ، قال: استغفر لي، قال: لا أو تخبرني، فقال: إنك مررت على عمر فقال: نعم الفتى، وإني سمعت رسول الله يقول: “إن الله جعل الحق على لسان عمر وقلبه”

وقيل لأبي ذرٍّ ألا تتخذ أرضا كما اتخذ طلحة والزبير؟ فقال: وما أصنع بأن أكون أميرا وإنما يكفيني كل يوم شربة من ماء أو نبيذ أو لبن وفي الجمعة قفيز من قمح.

وعن أبي ذَرّ قال: “كان قوتي على عهد رسول الله صاعا من التمر فلست بزائد عليه حتى ألقى الله”.

صدق اللهجة
قال أبو ذَرّ: قال لي رسول الله : “ما تقلّ الغبراء ولا تظل الخضراء على ذي لهجة أصدق وأوفي من أبي ذَرّ، شبيه عيسى بن مريم” قال: فقام عمر بن الخطاب فقال: يا نبي الله أفنعرف ذلك له قال: “نعم فاعرفوا له”.

الحرص على الجهاد رغم الصعوبات
عن عبد الله بن مسعود قال: لما سار رسول الله إلى تبوك جعل لا يزال يتخلف الرجل فيقولون يا رسول الله تخلف فلان فيقول دعوه إن يك فيه خير فسيلحقه الله بكم وإن يك غير ذلك فقد أراحكم الله منه حتى قيل يا رسول الله تخلف أبو ذَرّ وأبطأ به بعيره فقال رسول الله دعوه إن يك فيه خير فسيلحقه الله بكم وإن يك غير ذلك فقد أراحكم الله منه فتلوم أبو ذَرّ على بعيره فأبطأ عليه فلما أبطأ عليه أخذ متاعه فجعله على ظهره فخرج يتبع رسول الله ماشيا ونزل رسول الله في بعض منازله ونظر ناظر من المسلمين فقال يا رسول الله هذا رجل يمشي على الطريق فقال رسول الله كن أبا ذَرّ فلما تأمله القوم قالوا يا رسول الله هو والله أبو ذَرّ فقال رسول الله رحم الله أبا ذَرّ يمشي وحده ويموت وحده ويبعث وحده…

وفاته
وقد ورد أنه خرج مع رسول الله في غزوة تبوك وكانت راحلته كبيرة فتأخرت في السير فتركها وحمل متاعه وسار خلف الركب فلما أبصره رسول الله قال : رحم الله أبا ذر يمشي وحده ويموت وحده ويدفن وحده ويبعث وحده.

فبقي في (الربذة) حتى جاءت سكرات الموت لأبي ذر الغفاري، وبجواره زوجته تبكي، فيسألها: (فيم البكاء والموت حق؟)… فتجيبه بأنها تبكي: (لأنك تموت، وليس عندي ثوب يسعك كفنا !)… فيبتسم ويطمئنها ويقول لها: لا تبكي، فاني سمعت رسول الله ذات يوم وأنا عنده في نفر من أصحابه يقول: (ليموتن رجل منكم بفلاة من الأرض، تشهده عصابة من المؤمنين). وكل من كان معي في ذلك المجلس مات في جماعة وقرية، ولم يبق منهم غيري، وهأنذا بالفلاة أموت، فراقبي الطريق فستطلع علينا عصابة من المؤمنين، فاني والله ما كذبت ولا كذبت) وروي أنه قال لزوجته وغلامه: ((اغسلاني وكفناني وضعاني على قارعة الطريق ، فأول ركب يمر بكم قولوا : هذا أبو ذر ، فأعينونا عليه)). وبعد أن فاضت روحه إلى الله، فعلوا ما أمرهم به ولم ينتبهوا إلا وصاحب رسول الله عبد الله بن مسعود الهذلي يمر عليهم في نفر معه فلما رآه عبد الله بكى واسترجع وقال : صدق رسول الله: تمشي وحدك ، وتموت وحدك ، وتبعث وحدك ومن ثم صلوا عليه وواروه الثرى [1].

توفي أبو ذر سنة اثنتين وثلاثين 32 هـ بالربذة وقيل بشهر ذي الحجة وقيل سنة 31 هـ ، وصلى عليه عبد الله بن مسعود؛ ثم حمل عياله إلى عثمان بن عفان بالمدينة، فضم ابنته إلى عياله، وقال: يرحم الله أبا ذر.

________________________

[1] بن سعد : الطبقات الكبرى eman.com

Maqams

Maqam in Damascus

 
null Mosque of Sayyiduna Abu Dharr in Shaghour
ziarat bmk ~2010


Maqams in other places

 
Abu Dharr, Egypt Maqam of Sayyiduna Abu Dharr al Ghafari in Egypt
Photo and more info in Arabic: msobieh.com


Maqam in Jordan
Photo from: petra.gov.jo
لصحابي الجليل أبو ذر الغفاري الذي يركن مقامه( مكان عبادته) في منطقة (السحيلة) إلى الغرب من بلدة ذيبان في محافظة مأدبا ، والذي أقام فيه عند عودته من الشام عدة سنوات بقصد التعبد ، ولم يرافقه في هذا المكان سوى زوجته إلى أن غادره إلى الجزيرة العربية عندما اشتد عليه المرض عام (41هـ)


Abu Dharr, Istanbul

Abu Dharr, Istanbul

Maqam in
Istanbul
Photo:
evliyalar.net



Ziyarat damas 2017

Refs

Istanbul Ziyarat: evliyalar.net

Damas Cultural Society © 2007, 2017

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Abu al-Bayan

أبو البيان نبأ بن محمد بن محفوظ القرشي الدمشقي
d. 551 H. in Damascus
radiya Allah anhu

Nabâ ibn Muhammad ibn Mahfûzh al-Qurashi al-Dimashqi
Scholar of language and fiqh, murshid. He used to study shafi`i fiqh together with Sheikh Rislan in a mosque in the grand suq near Bab Sharqi.

Buried in Bab al-Saghir.

References: Ziarat al-Sham

© Damas Cultural Society 2007 — Latest update:
Original site: damas-original.nur.nu

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Abu al-Ma`ali al-Nisaburi

أبو المعالي النيسابوري
d. 578
radiya Allah anhu

أبو المعالي نسعود بن محمد بن مسعود النيسابوري
orator, preacher, shafi`i scholar, lived in damascus, buried in the sufi graveyard

References: [Ziarat al-Sham p.334-5] – Damas Cultural Society © 2007

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Bio: Abu Ayyub al Ansari

Abu Ayyub al Ansari

أبو أيوب الأنصاري
d. 54 H. in Istanbul, Turkey (674 CE) sahaba
radiya Allah anhu

Sahabah from the people of Madina, buried in Istanbul

English

Abu Ayyub al-Ansari

Khalid ibn Zayd ibn Kulayb from the Banu Najjar was a great and close companion of the Prophet ﷺ. He was known as Abu Ayyub (the father of Ayyub) and enjoyed a privilege which many of the Ansar in Madinah hoped they would have.

When the Prophet, peace and blessings of God be on him, reached Madinah after his hijrah from Makkah, he was greeted with great enthusiasm by the Ansar of Madinah. Their hearts went out to him and their eyes followed him with devotion and love. They wanted to give him the most generous reception anyone could be given.

The Prophet ﷺ first stopped at Quba on the outskirts of Madinah and stayed there for some days. The first thing he did was to build a mosque which is described in the Quran as the “mosque built on the foundation of piety (taqwa)”. (Surah At-Tawbah 9: 1O8).

The Prophet ﷺ entered Madinah on his camel. The chieftains of the city stood along his path, each one wishing to have the honor of the Prophet alighting and staying at his house. One after the other stood in the camel’s way entreating, “Stay with us, O Rasulullah.” “Leave the camel,” the Prophet ﷺ would say. “It is under command. ”
The camel continued walking, closely followed by the eyes and hearts of the people of Yathrib. When it went past a house, its owner would feel sad and dejected and hope would rise in the hearts of others still on the route.
The camel continued in this fashion with the people following it until it hesitated at an open space in front of the house of Abu Ayyub al-Ansari . But the Prophet, upon whom be peace, did not get down. After only a short while, the camel set off again, the Prophet leaving its reins loose. Before long, however, it turned round, retraced its steps and stopped on the same spot as before. Abu Ayyub’s heart -Allah be pleased with him- was filled with happiness. He went out to the Prophet ﷺ and greeted him with great enthusiasm. He took the Prophet’s baggage in his arms and felt as if he was carrying the most precious treasure in the world.

A story: I do not like to be above you
Abu Ayyub’s house had two stories. He emptied the upper floor of his and his family’s possessions so that the Prophet could stay there. But the Prophet, peace be on him, preferred to stay on the lower floor.
Night came and the Prophet retired. Abu Ayyub -Allah be pleased with him- went up to the upper floor. But when they had closed the door, Abu Ayyub -Allah be pleased with him- turned to his wife and said:

“Woe to us! What have we done? The messenger of God is below and we are higher than he! Can we walk on top of the messenger of God? Do we come between him and the Revelation (Wahy)? If so, we are doomed.”

The couple became very worried not knowing what to do. They only got some peace of mind when they moved to the side of the building which did not fall directly above the Prophet ﷺ. They were careful also only to walk on the outer parts of the floor and avoid the middle.
In the morning, Abu Ayyub -Allah be pleased with him- said to the Prophet ﷺ: “By God, we did not sleep a wink last night, neither myself nor Umm Ayyub.” “Why not, Abu Ayyub?” asked the Prophet ﷺ. Abu Ayyub -Allah be pleased with him- explained how terrible they felt being above while the Prophet was below them and how they might have interrupted the Revelation. “Don’t worry, Abu Ayyub,” said the Prophet ﷺ. “We prefer the lower floor because of the many people coming to visit us.” “We submitted to the Prophet’s wishes,” Abu Ayyub -Allah be pleased with him- related, “until one cold night a jar of ours broke and the water spilled on the upper floor. Umm Ayyub and I stared at the water We only had one piece of velvet which we used as a blanket. We used it to mop up the water out of fear that it would seep through to the Prophet ﷺ. In the morning I went to him and said, ‘I do not like to be above you,’ and told him what had happened. He accepted my wish and we changed floors.”

Relationship Between Them
The Prophet ﷺ stayed in Abu Ayyub’s house for almost seven months until his mosque was completed on the open space where his camel had stopped. He moved to the roots which were built around the mosque for himself and his family. He thus became a neighbor of Abu Ayyub. What noble neighbor to have had!
Abu Ayyub -Allah be pleased with him- continued to love the Prophet with all his heart end the Prophet also loved him dearly. There was no formality between them. The Prophet continued to regard Abu Ayyub’s house as his own. The following anecdote tells a great deal about the relationship between them.

Abu Bakr -Allah be pleased with him- once left his house in the burning heat of the midday sun and went to the mosque. Umar -Allah be pleased with him- saw him and asked, “Abu Bakr, what has brought you out at this hour? Abu Bakr -Allah be pleased with him- said he had left his house because he was terribly hungry and Umar -Allah be pleased with him- said that he had left his house for the same reason. The Prophet ﷺ came up to them and asked, “What has brought the two of you out at this hour?” They told him and he ﷺ said,

“By Him in Whose hands is my soul, only hunger has caused me to come out also. But come with me.”

They went to the house of Abu Ayyub al-Ansari -Allah be pleased with him-. His wife opened the door and said, “Welcome to the Prophet and whoever is with him.”
“Where is Abu Ayyub?” asked the Prophet ﷺ. Abu Ayyub, who was working in a nearby palm grove, heard the Prophet’s voice and came hurriedly.
“Welcome to the Prophet and whoever is with him,” he said and went on “O Prophet of God, this is not the time that you usually come.” (Abu Ayyub used to keep some food for the Prophet every day. When the Prophet did not come for it by a certain time, Abu Ayyub would give it to his family.) “You are right,” the Prophet ﷺ agreed.
Abu Ayyub -Allah be pleased with him- went out and cut a cluster of dates in which there were ripe and halfripe dates. “I did not want you to eat this,” said the Prophet ﷺ. “Could you not have brought only the ripe dates?” “O Rasulullah, please eat from both the ripe dates (rutb) and the half ripe (busr). I shall slaughter an animal for you also. ” “If you are going to, then do not kill one that gives milk,” cautioned the Prophet ﷺ. Abu Ayyub -Allah be pleased with him- killed a young goat, cooked half and grilled the other half. He also asked his wife to bake, because she baked better he said.
When the food was ready, it was placed before the Prophet ﷺ and his two companions -Allah be pleased with them-. The Prophet ﷺ took a piece of meat and placed it in a loaf and said,

“Abu Ayyub, take this to Fatima. She has not tasted the like of this for days.”

When they had eaten and were satisfied, the Prophet ﷺ said reflectively: “Bread and meat and busr and rutb!” Tears began to flow from his eyes as he continued:
“This is a bountiful blessing about which you will be asked on the Day of judgment. If such comes your way, put your hands to it and say, Bismillah (In the name of God) and when you have finished say, Al hamdu lillah alladhee huwa ashbana wa anama alayna (Praise be to God Who has given us enough and Who has bestowed his bounty on us). This is best.”

Warier
These are glimpses of Abu Ayyub’s live during peace time. He also had a distinguished military career. Much of his time was spent as a warrior until it was said of him, “He did not stay away from any battle the Muslims fought from the time of the Prophet to the time of Muawiyah unless he was engaged at the same time in another.”

Passing Away
The last campaign he took part in was the one prepared by Muawiyah and led by his son Yazid against Constantinople. Abu Ayyub -Allah be pleased with him- at that time was a very old man, almost eighty years old. But that did not prevent him from joining the army and crossing the seas as a ghazi in the path of God. After only a short time engaged in the battle, Abu Ayyub -Allah be pleased with him- fell ill and had to withdraw from fighting. Yazid came to him and asked:
“Do you need anything, Abu Ayyub?” “Convey my salaams to the Muslim armies and say to them: “Abu Ayyub urges you to penetrate deeply into the territory of the enemy as far as you can go, that you should carry him with you and that you should bury him under your feet at the walls of Constantinople.” Then he -Allah be pleased with him- breathed his last.

The Muslim army fulfilled the desire of the companion of the Messenger of God ﷺ. They pushed back the enemy’s forces in attack after attack until they reached the walls of Constantinople. There they buried him -Allah be pleased with him-.

Türkçe

Hazreti Ebû Eyyûb-i Ensârî

Peygamberimizin (aleyhisselâm) mihmandarı, Eshâb-ı kiramın büyüklerinden. Ensârdandır. Türkiye’de “Eyyûb Sultân” olarak tanınır. Künyesi Eyyûb’dur. İsmi Hâlid olup, babasınınki Zeyd bin Kelîb, annesininki Hind binti Rebi’a bin Kâ’b idi. Baba tarafından, Ebû Eyyûb bin Zeyd bin Kelîb bin Salebe bin Abdi Avf bin Ganem bin Mâlik bin Neccâr; anne tarafından da Hind binti Rebi’a bin Kâ’b bin Amr bin İmrü’l-Kays bin Salebe bin Kâ’b’ın nesliyle Hazreti Muhammed (aleyhisselâm) ile birleşir. Hazrec kabilesine mensûbtur. Doğum târihi kesin olarak bilinmemesine rağmen, Medine’de Melik Tübbe’nin evinde doğdu. Melik Tübbe, Hazreti İbrâhim’in dininden olup, Yemen’de Resûlullah’tan (aleyhisselâm) yediyüz sene önce yaşadı. Son Peygamber Hazreti Muhammed’in (aleyhisselâm) Medine’ye geleceğini devrin büyük âlimlerinden öğrenip, buraya gelerek, yerleşti. Resûlullah (aleyhisselâm) için dahi binalar yaptırıp, îmân ettiğini bildiren bir mektûb yazarak, bıraktı. Hazreti Resûlullah, Hicret-i Nebevî’den sonra Medine-i Münevvere’ye teşrîf edince, vaktiyle Melik Tübbe’nin yaptırdığı ve Hazreti Hâlid’in ikâmet ettiği evin bahçesine devenin çökmesiyle bu mektûb çıkarılıp, Peygamberimize (aleyhisselâm) arz edildi. Resûlullah (aleyhisselâm) bir hadîs-i şerîfte “Tübbe’ye sövmeyiniz, çünkü O mü’min idi.” buyurdu.
Hazreti Ebû Eyyûb-i Ensârî, Bi’setin onbirinci senesi (m. 620) Hac mevsiminde îmân ederek müslüman oldu. Bi’setin onikinci senesinde (m. 621) Hac mevsiminde ikinci Akabe Biatinde bulunarak, Resûlullahın (aleyhisselâm) sohbeti ile şereflendi. Eshâb-ı kiram ve Ensâr-ı kiramdan oldu. Hanımı Ümmü Eyyûb de (radıyallahü anha) Müslüman olup, Peygamberimize (aleyhisselâm) hizmet ile şereflendi. Üç erkek, bir kız çocuğu vardı. Eyyûb, Abdurrahmân, Hâlid erkek; Amre de kız çocuğudur.

“Deveyi kendi haline bırakınız”
Resûlullah (aleyhisselâm) Hicret’ten sonra ondört gün Kubâ denen yerde kaldı. Buradan Medine’ye hareket etmek üzere ana tarafından akrabası ve dayıları olan Neccâroğulları’na haber gönderdi. Neccâroğulları kılıçlarını kuşanıp geldi. Resûlullah (aleyhisselâm), Cuma namazını kılıp, Medine’ye hareket ettiler. Medine’ye geldiklerinde yolun iki tarafını dolduranlar “Resûlullah geldi! Resûlullah geldi!” deyip, sevinç gözyaşları döküyorlardı. Medine uluları Peygamberimizin devesi Kusva’nın yularına sarılarak: “Yâ Resûlallah, bize buyurunuz! Size yabancı olmayan, hürmet eden, düşmanlarınızla mücadeleye gücü yeten ailemizde misâfir olunuz!” diyorlardı. Resûlullah da “Deveyi kendi haline bırakınız. Çünkü, o me’murdur. Emîr olunduğu yere gider; ona yol veriniz!” diye onlara teşekkür ediyordu. Onlar da deveyi bırakıyorlardı. Deve, sonunda Neccâroğulları yurduna gelip çöktü. Peygamberimiz, “Akrabamız evlerinden hangisinin evi daha yakındır?” diye sorunca Neccâroğullarından Ebû Eyyûb-i Ensârî: “Yâ Nebîyyallah! Benim evim yakındır, işte şu evim, bu da kapı”, diye göstererek Resûlullahı evine davet etti. Peygamberimiz (aleyhisselâm) Ebû Eyyûb-i Ensârî hazretlerinin evinde Mescid-i Nebevî, hücreler ve odalar bitinceye kadar kaldı. Ebû Eyyûb-i Ensârî, O’nun gece bekçiliğini ve muhafızlığını yaptı. Kendisi, hanımı Ümmü Eyyûb Fâtıma ve annesi Hind (radıyallahü anha) gece-gündüz, Resûlullah’a (aleyhisselâm) hizmet ettiler. Böylece Mihmandarlık makamı, Hazreti Âdem’den (aleyhisselâm) kıyâmet gününe kadar, hiç kimseye nasip olmayan bir şeref, Hazreti Ebû Eyyûb-i Ensârî’ye nasip ve ihsân olundu. Evlerinde, şahıslarına pek çok hadîs-i şerîf söylenmiştir. İlk gün Medine ahalisi, Hazreti Ebû Eyyûb-i Ensârî’nin evine geldi. Gelenlerin içinde Musevî âlimlerinden Abdullah İbn-i Selâm da vardı: Abdullah bin Selâm, Hazreti Muhammed’in (aleyhisselâm) cemâl-i şerîfine bakıp; “Bu yüz yalancı yüzü değildir” diyerek, hemen müslüman oldu.

Yemek sanki hiç el sürülmemiş gibi
Buyurdular ki: Bir defasında Resûlullah (aleyhisselâm) ile Hazreti Ebû Bekir’e yetecek kadar yemek hazırlayıp, huzûrlarına götürdüm. Resûlullah (aleyhisselâm) “Yâ Ebâ Eyyûb! Ensâr’ın eşrafından otuz kişiyi davet et” buyurdu. Ben yemeğin azlığını ve belki Resûl-i ekrem (aleyhisselâm) bu yemeği çok zannettiler diye düşünürken tekrar, “Yâ Ebâ Eyyûb! Kureyş’in eşrafından otuz kişiyi davet et” buyurdular. Binlerce düşünce ile Kureyş’ten otuz kişi davet ettim, geldiler. O yemekten yediler, doydular. Bir mucize olduğunu anlayıp, imânları kuvvetlendi ve bir daha bîat ettiler. Gittiler sonra “Altmış kişi davet et” buyurdular. Ben mucize, olarak yemeğin azalmadığını gördüğümden, daha ziyâde sevinerek altmış kişiyi Hazreti Resûlullah’ın huzûruna davet ettim. Geldiler, o yemeklerden yediler. Hepsi Hazreti Resûlullahın mucizesini tasdîk ederek döndüler. Ardından: “Ensârdan doksan kişi çağır” buyurdular. Çağırdım, geldiler. Resûlullah’ın (aleyhisselâm) emri üzerine onar onar o sofraya oturup, yediler hepsi de bu büyük mucizeyi görüp, gittiler. Yemek ise benim götürdüğüm kadar, sanki hiç el sürülmemiş gibi duruyordu.

Fakat, onda elinin izini göremedim
Yine anlattılar; “Resûlullah’a (aleyhisselâm) dâima akşam yemeği yapıp, gönderirdik. Kalanını, bize geri gönderdiği zaman, ben ve Ümmü Eyyûb, Hazreti Resûlullah’ın elinin değdiği yerleri araştırarak, oralardan yer ve bununla bereketlenirdik. Yine bir gece, yapıp gönderdiğimiz soğanlı veya sarımsaklı yemeği Resûlullah geri çevirmişti. Onda elinin izini göremeyince, feryâd ederek yanına gittim. “Yâ Resûlallah! babam, anam sana feda olsun! Siz akşam yemeğini geri çevirdiniz. Fakat, onda elinin izini göremedim. Halbuki ben ve Ümmü Eyyûb, geri çevirdiğin yemekte elinin değdiği yerleri araştırmakta ve bununla bereketlenmekteydik.” dedim. Resûlullah (aleyhisselâm) buyurdular ki; “Bu sebzede bir koku his ettim. Ondan yemedim. Ben melekle konuşan bir kişiyim.” “O yemek haram mıdır?” diye sorunca, “Hayır! Fakat ben kokusundan dolayı ondan hoşlanmadım.” buyurunca; “Senin hoşlanmadığın şeyden ben de hoşlanmam!” deyince Peygamberimiz (aleyhisselâm), “Siz onu yiyiniz.” buyurdu. “Bunun üzerine biz de ondan yedik ve bir daha Resûlullah’a (aleyhisselâm) o sebzeden yemek yapmadık.” Peygamberimizin Herise (keşkek) yemeğini çok sevdiğini Hazreti Eyyûb-i Ensârî hazretleri rivâyet etmiştir.

“Bu ni’metler şükür ister.”
Resûlullah (aleyhisselâm) Medine-i Münevvere’de bir kuşluk vakti, müslümanların iki gözbebeği Hazreti Ebû Bekr-i Sıddîk ve Hazreti Ömer-ül-Fârûk ile karşılaştı. Üçü beraber Ebû Eyyûb-i Ensârî hazretlerinin evine gittiler. Evde olmadığını öğrenince, nerede olduğunu sordular. Bahçede çalışmakta olan Ebû Eyyûb-i Ensârî hazretleri, Resûlullah’ın (aleyhisselâm) sesini işitip koşarak eve geldi. “Merhaba Yâ Resûlallah! Hoş geldiniz. Arkadaşlarınızla beraber safa geldiniz” diyerek karşıladı. Bahçede çalıştığını beyan edip, hurma ağacından bir salkım kopararak geldi. Salkımda üç çeşit hurma vardı. Hazreti Resûlullah “Yâ Ebâ Eyyûb! Bu salkımdaki kuru hurmaları ayır” buyurunca; “Yâ Resûlallah! Emîr sizindir. Ancak, size hayvan kesip, et ikram edeceğim.” Resûlullah da; “Eğer hayvan keseceksen, sütlü hayvan kesme” buyurdu. Eyyûb-i Ensârî (radıyallahü anh) oğlak kesip, Ümmü Eyyûb (radıyallahü anha) da yarısını söğüş, diğer yarısını da kızarttı. Sıcak bir ekmek hazırladı. Etleri ekmeğin üzerine koyup, sofraya getirdi. “Yâ Resûlallah, buyurunuz” deyince, Resûlullah (aleyhisselâm); “Yâ Ebâ Eyyûb! Bu ekmek ile etten bir parça da kızım Fâtıma’ya götür, çünkü ben biliyorum ki; epey zamandan beri Fâtıma bu yemeği yememiştir.”Emîr yerine getirilip, sofra kalktıktan sonra Peygamberimiz “Bütün bu ni’metler, ekmek, et, hurma, taze hurma ne güzel. Bu ni’metler şükür ister.” buyurup ağladılar.“Nefsim, yed’i kudretinde olan Allahü teâlâya yemîn ederim ki, bu ni’metler yüzünden, yarın kıyâmet gününde siz suâl olunacaksınız” buyurduktan sonra ilâve ettiler;“Ancak, sağlığınızda elinize geçen ni’metleri yemeğe başlarken “Bismillah”, doyduğunuz zaman da “Elhamdülillahillezi eşbaanâ ve en âme aleynâ fe efdâle” diyerek Cenâb-ı Hakk’a şükür ve duâ ediniz. Zira, Cenâb-ı Hakk’ın verdiği rızık, bu sebeple, size kifâyet eder.” Gitmek üzereyken, “Yâ Ebâ Eyyûb! Yarın da sen bize gel” buyurarak davet etti. Davete icabet edip, Resûlullahın yanına gitti. Resûlullah (aleyhisselâm) Ebû Eyyûb-i Ensârî (radıyallahü anh) hazretlerini çok sevdiğinden, mükâfat olarak, o’na bir câriyesini ihsân edip, “Yâ Ebâ Eyyûb! Bu câriye hakkında Allahü teâlâdan hayır iste. Çünkü, bu câriye bizim yanımızda bulunduğu müddetçe, bundan hayırdan başka birşey görmedik” buyurunca, Resûlullah (aleyhisselâm) yanından ayrıldıkta; “Ben Fahr-i âlem hazretlerinin vasıyyetlerinde hayır görüyorum. O hayır da ancak bu câriyeyi âzad etmektir.” deyip âzad etti. Ebû Eyyûb-i Ensârî (radıyallahü anh) Peygamberimiz (aleyhisselâm) için, hergün bir sofra hazırlamak âdetiydi. Bu izzet ve ikramıyla derecesi çok yükseldi.

Katıldığı Muharebeler
Hazreti Ebû Eyyûb-i Ensârî hazretlerinin Ensâr-ı kiram, Eshâb-ı kiram, Mihmandâr-ı Nebevî ve Hazreti Muhammed (aleyhisselâm) ve yakın arkadaşlarına ev sahipliği gibi üstünlüklerinin yanında daha pekçok hâlleri vardır. Bedir, Uhud, Hudeybiyye ve diğer bütün gazvelerde (harplerde) Resûlullahın yanında bulundu ve Resûlullahın hayır duâlarına kavuşdu. Bir çok muharebelerde sancakdarlık hizmeti ile şereflendi. Bu sebeple kendisine (Sancaktâr-ı Resûlullah) ünvanı verildi. Resûlullah (aleyhisselâm) efendimiz, Eshâb-ı kiram arasında âhiret kardeşliği sözleşmesi yaptırırlarken, Hâlid bin Zeyd ile Mus’ab bin Umeyr hazretleri arasında da âhiret kardeşliği akdi yaptırmıştır. Hâlid bin Zeyd hazretleri Cemel ve Sıffînvakalarında, Hazreti Ali’nin yanında bulundu. Kumandanları arasında yer aldı. Hazreti Ali şehîd oluncaya kadar hep yanında bulundu. Suriye, Filistin muharebelerinde Mısır ve Kıbrıs’ın fethinde de bulundu. Gayet şecaatli ve pek kahraman idi. Bir muharebede bir özründen dolayı bulunamadığı için hep üzülürdü.

Cömetliği, İlmi ve Takvası
Çok cömert idi. Evi herkese açıkdı. Eline geçeni Allah yolunda verirdi. Köleleri ve câriyeleri âzâd eder, onlara ihsânda bulunurdu. Sünnet-i seniyyeye çok bağlı idi. Dünyayı sevmez, dünyalıktan hoşlanmazdı. Resûlullah’ın (aleyhisselâm) vefâtından sonra sık sık Ravda-i mutahhara’ya gidip, ağlardı. Bir defa imâm olup, yanındakilere namaz kıldırdıktan sonra, arkadaşlarına: “Şeytân kalbime vesvese etti ve bana, bu insanların arasında imamlığa müstehak senden başka bir ferd yoktur. Sen şimdi insanların hepsinden efdalsin, bu açık bir hâldir dedi ve bundan sonra mecbûr olmadıkça imamlık yapmayacağıma kalbimi ucub ve riyadan koruyacağıma söz verdim” buyurdu.
Ebû Eyyûb-i Ensârî aynı zamanda ilim ve takvâda da çok ileri idi. Vahiy kâtipliğinde bulunmuştur. Hemen birçok Sahâbî kendisinden ilim ve hikmet dersleri almış, Kur’ân-ı kerîmin ve hadîs-i şerîflerin doğru anlaşılmasında kendisine müracaatta bulunmuştur. Kurra-i Kirâm’dan yani, Kur’ân-ı kerîmi ezbere bilenlerin meşhûrlarından olup, Tabiînin kırâat âlimi idi. O her gittiği yerde “Mihmandâr-ı Nebevî” olarak büyük alâka ve hürmet görmüştür.
Hazreti Ali’nin, hilâfeti zamanında Basra vâlisi Abdullah bin Abbas’ın (radıyallahü anh) yanına gitmişti. İbn-i Abbas kendisini görünce ona pek çok hürmet etmiş ve konağını ailesine tahsis etmiştir. Basra’dan ayrılırken de, konağın bütün kıymetli eşyaları hediyye edildi. Yirmi bin, veya kırk bin dirhem gümüş ve yirmi veya kırk köle ihsân ve takdim edilmişse de, o köleleri âzâd etti ve paraları da onlara dağıttı.

Mısır Yolculuğu
Onun Mısır seyahatinin asıl sebebi bir hadîs-i şerîfi, vâliden tahkîk etmekti. Resûl-i Ekrem’den (aleyhisselâm) rivâyet edilen hadîsi bizzat Peygamberden (aleyhisselâm) duyan Hazreti Ukbe’den başkası hayatta kalmamıştı. Ebû Eyyûb-i Ensârî, durumu Ukbe’ye bildirip, kendisini dinlemek istediğini söyledi. Ukbe mezkûr hadîs-i şerîfi şu şekilde anlattı: Resûl-i Ekrem (aleyhisselâm) buyurdu ki: “Her kim bu dünyâda bir mü’minin kusurunu örterse, Cenâb-ı Hak da kıyâmet gününde onun kusurunu örter.” Hazreti Ebû Eyyûb böylece bir hadîsi tahkîk etmenin gönül huzûru ile Medine’ye dönmüştür. Onun için, Allah yolunda cihâd için cepheye gitmek ne ise, bir hadîs için de uzun yolları katetmek aynı derecede mukaddes bir vazîfeydi.

Konstantiniyye Seferi ve Vefatı
Hazreti Ebû Eyyûb, dört halife devrini de idrak ederek nihâyet Hazreti Muâviye’nin İstanbul fethi için teşkil ettiği orduya da yetişmiştir. Resûlullahın (aleyhisselâm) İstanbul fethi için verdiği müjdeyi kalbinin derinliğinde bir sır gibi saklıyordu. Yaşı ilerlemesine rağmen bu müjdeye kavuşma şerefi ve heyecanıyla dolu idi. Hicretin ellinci (m. 670) senesinde Mısır’a gelerek bizzat katıldığı bu ordu ile İstanbul önlerine kadar gelen Hazreti Ebû Eyyûb-i Ensârî, çarpışmalar sırasında hastalandı ve yatağa düştü. Hasta yatağından harbin seyrini takip ediyor ve bir an önce iyileşip, savaşmayı arzuluyordu. Ordu kumandanı Yezîd bin Muâviye kendisini bizzat gelip ziyâret etti. İyi olması temennisinde bulundu. Yezîd’in ziyâretinden memnun olan Ebû Eyyûb-i Ensârî ecelinin yaklaştığını hissederek, Peygamber efendimizin şu hadîs-i şerîfini rivâyet ederek “Kostantiniyye’de kalenin yanında bir recul-i sâlih defn olunacaktır” vasıyyette bulundu: “Şayet burada vefât edersem, cenâzemi hemen defn etmeyin. Ordunun gidebileceği yerin en ileri noktasına kadar götürün ve beni oraya defn edin.” Mihmandâr-ı Nebevî, demek ki, manevî olarak defn edileceği yeri görmüş ve müslümanların hayâli olan İstanbul fethine bir adım daha yakınlaşmak istemişti. Gerçekten bir müddet sonra Hazreti Ebû Eyyûb-i Ensârî rûhunu Rahmân’a teslim eyledi. Vasıyyeti üzerine askerler nâşını elleri üzerinde ordunun vardığı en uç noktaya taşıdılar. Tekbir ve duâlarla defn ettiler.

Kabr-i Şerifinin Keşfi
Bundan sonra İstanbul üzerine daha pek çok sefer tertip edilmiştir. Ancak her defasında muhkem kalelerle korunan şehir feth edilememiş, bu şeref Osmanlı Padişahı Fâtih Sultan Mehmed Hân ve askerlerine nasip olmuştur. Osmanlı Sultanı Fâtih Sultan Mehmed Hân (1429-1481) İstanbul’un fethini gerçekleştirdikten sonra devrin büyük âlim ve gönül sultanlarından Akşemseddîn hazretlerine: “Ey benim muhterem Hocam! Târih kitaplarının yazdığına göre, Peygamberimiz Muhammed Mustafa (aleyhisselâm) efendimiz hazretlerinin mihmandarı Ebû Eyyûb el-Ensârî’nin (radıyallahü anh) mübârek kabri, burada (İstanbul) kalenin yakın bir yerindeymiş. Himmetinizle kabr-i şerîfin yerini bulmak ve bilmek arzusundayım” buyurunca Akşemseddîn, Sultana hitaben; “Sultanım ben geceleri şu semtte bir yere nûr inmekte olduğunu görüyorum. Zan ederim ki, o nûrun indiği yerde, o mübareğin kabr-i şerîfi olsa gerektir” buyurdu. Beraber bugünkü türbenin bulunduğu yere geldiler. Akşemseddîn hazretleri bir müddet teveccühte bulunduktan sonra: “Evet, Hazreti Ebû Eyyûb el-Ensârî’nin rûh-u şerîfi ile şimdi mülakat ettim, İstanbul’un fethini tebrik edip, “Beni zulmet-i küfürden kurtardın.” buyurarak ferah ve sürürünü belirtti buyurunca, Fâtih Sultan Mehmed Hân ve Akşemseddîn ile maiyeti hep beraber, işâret edilen yere geldiler. Sultan Fâtih, Akşemseddîn hazretlerine; “Efendim! Kabri şerîfin yerini tayin buyurunuz ki, üzerine türbe yapalım” dedi. Akşemseddîn hazretleri şimdiki türbenin bulunduğu yerde bir müddet teveccüh ve murâkabede bulunduktan sonra, mezarın baş tarafından bir yeri göstererek: “Burasını kazınız. İnşâallahü teâlâ, iki arşın sonra yazılı bir mermer çıkacaktır. İşte orası Hazreti Mihmandâr-ı Ebû Eyyûb el-Ensârî’nin kabr-i şerifidir” buyurdu. İşâret edilen yer kazıldı. Buyurduğu gibi yazılı mermer bulundu. Sultan Fâtih, Akşemseddîn hazretlerinin kerâmetine hayran kalıp, ziyadesiyle memnun oldu. Fâtih Sultan Mehmed Hân, Ebû Eyyûb-i Ensârî hazretlerinin kabri üzerine bir türbe, Akşemseddîn ve ailesine mahsûs odalar ile bir de câmi-i şerîf bina ettirdi. Burası bütün müslümanların ziyâretgâhı haline geldi. Câmi-i şerîfe 1136 (m. 1723) senesinde iki uzun minare yapıldı. Osmanlı Sultanı Üçüncü Selim Hân 1203 (m. 1789), 1223 (m. 1807) Eyyûb Sultan Câmii’ni 1215 (m. 1800) senesinde yeniden yaptırdı. İlk Cuma namazında Sultan Selim Hân da bulundu. Eyyûb Sultan Câmii’nin son tamirini 1380 (m. 1960) senesinde devrin başvekîli Adnan Menderes yaptırdı. Türbenin son tamirini Osmanlı Sultanlarından ikinci Mahmud Hân 1255 (m. 1808), 1223 (m. 1839) yaptırdı. Sanduka üzerindeki yazılar, Sultan’ın el yazısıdır. Türbedeki asılı levhadaki iki beyti Sultan Üçüncü Selim Hân söyleyip, devrin meşhûr hattadı Yesârîzâde yazmıştır.
Alemdâr-ı Kerîmi şâh-ı iklimi risâletsin
Muinim ol benim, dâim, bâhakkı Hazret-i Bari
Selîm ilham i her dem, yüz sürer bu Ravza-i Pâke
Şefaatle kerem kıl, yâ Ebâ Eyyûb el-Ensârî

Rivayet ettiği Hadis-i Şerifler
Hazreti Ebû Eyyûb el-Ensârî, Peygamber efendimizden bizzat işiterek 150 hadîs-i şerîf rivâyet etti. Bunlardan bazıları şunlardır:
Bir gün Hazreti Hâlid bin Velîd’in oğlu Abdurrahmân muharebe sırasında yakaladığı dört esîrin katlini emretmişti. Dördünün de atılacak oklarla can vermesini istemişti. Ebû Eyyûb bunu haber alınca Abdurrahmân’ı ikaz etmiş ve “Resûl-i Ekrem’den (aleyhisselâm) işkenceli ölümleri nehy ettiğini duydum” diyerek bir hadîs-i şerîf nakletmiştir.
Bir başka rivâyetinde:
Bir adam Resûlullaha gelerek, “Yâ Resûlallah, bana veciz şekilde nasîhat eder misin?” dedi. Bunun üzerine Resûlullah (aleyhisselâm) nasîhat isteyen o adama şöyle dedi:“Namazını kıldığın zaman, sanki dünyâya veda ediyormuşsun gibi ol, yarın özür dileyeceğin bir sözü söyleme, insanların elindekinden ümidini kes.”
“Ramâzan-ı şerîf ayında tamamen oruç tuttuktan sonra, şevval ayında altı gün daha oruç tutan kimse, bütün sene oruç tutmuş gibi olur.”
“Kim Allaha ortak koşmadan ibâdet eder, namazı kılar, zekâtı verir. Ramazan ayında oruç tutar ve büyük günahlardan sakınırsa, muhakkak onun için Cennet vardır.” Eshâb-ı kiram, “Yâ Resûlallah! Büyük günahlar nelerdir?” diye sordular. Resûlullah buyurdu ki: “Allah’a ortak koşmak, müslüman bir kimseyi öldürmek ve cihâddan kaçmaktır.”
“Kılınan her namaz hatalara bir set çeker.”
“Sizden birisi helaya gittiğinde kıbleye yönelmesin ve kıbleye dönmesin.”
“Akşam namazına, yıldızlar doğmadan önce acele ediniz.”
“Sadakanın efdali, (en faziletlisi) akrabaya verilendir.”
“Bir müslümana, din kardeşini, üç günden daha fazla terk etmek, karşılaştıklarında birbirinden yüz çevirmek helâl olmaz. Bunların en hayırlısı ilk önce selâm verendir.”
“Bir mücâhidin, fî sebilillah, düşmana hücum ve garat (akın) etmek üzere hareket ve faaliyette iken, üzerine güneşin doğması ve yine akşam üzeri harb meydanında karargâhına (gecelemek için) dönmesi Allahü teâlâ indinde, güneşin üzerlerine doğup, battığı bütün dünyâ mal ve mülkünden daha efdal, daha hayırlı ve sevâbdır.”

_____________________

1) Tabakât-ı İbn-i Sa’d cild-3, sh. 49
2) Taberî Târîhi cild-3, sh. 2324
3) Üsûd-ül-gâbe cild-5, sh. 143
4) Hadikat-ul-cevâmi cild-1, sh. 243
5) Sahîh-i Müslim cild-1, sh. 243
6) Ensâb-ül-eşrâf cild-1, sh. 267
7) Semhudî Vefâ-ül-vefâ cild-1, sh. 190
8) Tam İlmihâl Se’âdet-i Ebediyye sh. 998

عربي

أبو أيوب الأنصاري

نسبه
هو: خالد بن زيد بن كليب بن ثعلبة بن عبد بن عوف بن غنم بن مالك بن النجار، واسمه تيم الله بن ثعلبة بن عمرو بن الخزرج الأكبر، أبو أيوب الأنصاري الخزرجي النجاري.
أمه: هند بنت سعيد بن عمرو بن امرئ القيس بن مالك بن ثعلبة بن كعب بن الخزرج بن الحارث بن الخزرج.[1]

حياته
وصول الرسول إلى المدينة
قدم الرسول -صلى الله عليه وسلم- المدينة يوم الجمعة، وسار وسط جموع المسلمين وكل منهم يريد أن أن ينزل الرسول الكريم عنده، فيجيبهم باسما شاكرا لهم: «خلوا سبيلها [عن ناقته] فإنها مأمورة» حتى وصلت إلى دار بني مالك بن النجار فبركت، فلم ينزل الرسول -صلى الله عليه وسلم- فوثبت الناقة ثانية، فسارت غير بعيد ثم التفتت إلى خلفها فرجعت وبركت مكانها الأول، فنزل الرسول -صلى الله عليه وسلم-، وتقدم أبو أيوب الأنصاري رضي الله عنه وحمل رحل الرسول -صلى الله عليه وسلم- فوضعه في بيته، فأقام الرسول الكريم في بيت أبي أيوب الأنصاري رضي الله عنه حتى بني له مسجده ومسكنه. وحين نزل الرسول – صلى الله عليه وسلم – بيت أبي أيوب الأنصاري رضي الله عنه نزل في السفل، وأبو أيوب في العلو، فأهريق ماء في الغرفة، فقام أبو أيوب رضي الله عنه وأم أيوب بقطيفة لهم يتتبعون الماء شفقاً أن يخلص إلى رسول الله -صلى الله عليه وسلم-، فوجدها أبو أيوب رضي الله عنه لعظيمة فنزل إلى رسول الله -صلى الله عليه وسلم- فقال: « يا رسول الله ، بأبي أنت وأمي، إني لأكره وأعظم أن أكون فوقك وتكون تحتي، فاظهر أنت فكن في العلو، وننزل نحن فنكون في السفل» وألح على الرسول -صلى الله عليه وسلم- حتى قبل.

جهاده
شهد أبو أيوب الأنصاري رضي الله عنه المشاهد كلها مع الرسول -صلى الله عليه وسلم-، ولم يتخلف عن أي معركة كتب على المسلمين خوضها بعد وفاة الرسول -صلى الله عليه وسلم- إلا مرة واحدة تخلف عن جيش أعطى الخليفة أمارته لشاب من المسلمين لم يقتنع أبو أيوب بامارته، ومع هذا بقي الندم ملازما له دوما، فيقول: «ما علي من استعمل علي؟»

حب الرسول
قال أبو أيوب الأنصاري رضي الله عنه للرسول -صلى الله عليه وسلم- : ( يا رسول الله ، كنت ترسل إليّ بالطعام فانظر ، فإذا رأيتُ أثر أصابعك وضعتُ يدي فيه ، حتى كان هذا الطعام الذي أرسلتَ به إلي ، فنظرت فيه فلم أرَ فيه أثر أصابعك ؟!) فقال رسول الله -صلى الله عليه وسلم- : ( أجل إنّ فيه بصلاً ، وكرهتُ أن آكله من أجل الملَكَ الذي يأتيني ، وأمّا أنتم فكلوه )
كان رسول الله -صلى الله عليه وسلم- يطوفُ بين الصفا والمروة ، فسقطت على لحيتِه ريشةٌ ، فابتدر إليه أبو أيوب رضي الله عنه فأخذها ، فقال له النبي -صلى الله عليه وسلم- :«نزع الله عنك ما تكره»

نزول الرسول محمد في بيته
لما خرج رسولُ الإسلام محمدٌ من مكة مهاجراً، أقام بقباء في بني عمرو بن عوف، يوم الاثنين والثلاثاء والأربعاء والخميس، وأسس مسجده، ثم خرج من بين أظهرهم يوم الجمعة. فأتاه عتبان بن مالك، وعباس بن عبادة بن نضلة في رجال من بني سالم بن عوف، فقالوا رضي الله عنهم: “يا رسول الله، أقم عندنا في العدد والعدة والمنعة”، قال: «خلوا سبيلها، فإنها مأمورة»، لناقته، فخلوا سبيلها.

فانطلقت حتى إذا وازنت دار بني بياضة، تلقاه زياد بن لبيد، وفروة بن عمرو، في رجال من بني بياضة فقالوا رضي الله عنهم: “يا رسول الله، هلم إلينا، إلى العدد والعدة والمنعة”، قال: «خلوا سبيلها فإنها مأمورة»، فخلوا سبيلها. فانطلقت، حتى إذا مرت بدار بني ساعدة، اعترضه سعد بن عبادة، والمنذر بن عمرو، في رجال من بني ساعدة، فقالوا رضي الله عنه: “يا رسول الله، هلم إلينا إلى العدد والعدة والمنعة”، قال: «خلوا سبيلها، فإنها مأمورة»، فخلوا سبيلها.
فانطلقت، حتى إذا وازنت دار بني الحارث بن الخزرج، اعترضه سعد بن الربيع، وخارجة بن زيد، وعبد الله بن رواحة، في رجال من بني الحارث بن الخزرج فقالوا رضي الله عنهم: “يا رسول الله هلم إلينا إلى العدد والعدة والمنعة”، قال: «خلوا سبيلها، فإنها مأمورة»، فخلوا سبيلها. فانطلقت، حتى إذا مرت بدار بني عدي بن النجار، وهم أخواله دنياً (أم عبد المطلب سلمى بنت عمرو إحدى نسائهم)، اعترضه سليط بن قيس، وأبو سليط، أسيرة بن أبي خارجة، في رجال من بني عدي بن النجار، فقالوا: “يا رسول الله، هلم إلى أخوالك، إلى العدد والعدة والمنعة”، قال: «خلوا سبيلها فإنها مأمورة»، فخلوا سبيلها.

فانطلقت، حتى إذا أتت دار بني مالك بن النجار، بركت على باب مسجده (المسجد النبوي)، وهو يومئذ مربد (الموضع الذي يجفف فيه التمر) لغلامين يتيمين من بني النجار، ثم من بني مالك بن النجار، وهما في حجر معاذ بن عفراء، سهل وسهيل ابني عمرو. فلما بركت، والرسولُ عليها لم ينزل، وثبت فسارت غير بعيد، والرسولُ واضع لها زمامَها لا يثنيها به، ثم التفتت إلى خلفها، فرجعت إلى مبركها أول مرة، فبركت فيه، ثم تحلحلت وزمت ووضعت جرانها (وهو ما يصيب الأرض من صدر الناقة وباطن حلقها)، فنزل عنها الرسولُ محمدٌ . فاحتمل أبو أيوب الأنصاري رحله، فوضعه في بيته، ونزل عليه الرسولُ محمدٌ ، وسأل عن المربد لمن هو، فقال له معاذُ بن عفراء رضي الله عنه: “هو يا رسول الله لسهل وسهيل ابني عمرو، وهما يتيمان لي، وسأرضيهما منه، فاتخذه مسجداً”، فأمر به الرسولُ أن يبنى مسجداً، ونزل الرسولُ على أبي أيوب رضي الله عنه حتى بنى مسجده ومساكنه، فعمل فيه الرسولُ ليرغِّب المسلمين في العمل فيه، فعمل فيه المهاجرون والأنصار، ودأبوا فيه.[3][4] وقد اختُلف في مدة مقام الرسول بدار أبي أيوب الأنصاري رضي الله عنه ، فقال الواقدي: “سبعة أشهر”، وقال غيره: “أقل من شهر والله أعلم”.[5]

وفي رواية عن موسى بن عقبة رضي الله عنه قال: «وكانت الأنصار قد اجتمعوا قبل أن يركب رسول الله صلَّى الله عليه وسلَّم من بني عمرو بن عوف، فمشوا حول ناقته لا يزال أحدهم ينازع صاحبه زمام الناقة شحاً على كرامة رسول الله صلَّى الله عليه وسلَّم وتعظيماً له، وكلما مر بدار من دور الأنصار دعوه إلى المنزل فيقول صلَّى الله عليه وسلَّم: «دعوها فإنها مأمورة فإنما أنزل حيث أنزلني الله»، فلما انتهت الناقة إلى دار أبي أيوب بركت به على الباب، فنزل فدخل بيت أبي أيوب حتى ابتنى مسجده ومساكنه».[6]

أقام الرسولُ محمدٌ في بيت أبي أيوب رضي الله عنه حتى بُني له مسجدُه ومساكنُه، ثم انتقل إلى مساكنه من بيت أبي أيوب، وها هو أبو أيوب يروي قصةً وقعت له عندما كان الرسولُ محمدٌ في بيته فيقول:

لما نزل علي رسول الله صلَّى الله عليه وسلَّم في بيتي، نزل في السفل، وأنا وأم أيوب في العلو، فقلت له: “يا نبي الله، بأبي أنت وأمي، إني لأكره وأعظم أن أكون فوقك وتكون تحتي، فاظهر أنت فكن في العلو، وننزل نحن فنكون في السفل”، فقال: “يا أبا أيوب، إن أرفق بنا وبمن يغشانا، أن نكون في سفل البيت”. قال: فكان رسول الله صلَّى الله عليه وسلَّم في سفله، وكنا فوقه في المسكن، فلقد انكسر حب (أي جرة) لنا فيه ماء، فقمت أنا وأم أيوب بقطيفة لنا، ما لنا لحاف غيرها، ننشف بها الماء، تخوفاً أن يقطر على رسول الله صلَّى الله عليه وسلَّم منه شيء فيؤذيه. قال: وكنا نصنع له العشاء، ثم نبعث به إليه، فإذا رد علينا فضله تيممت أنا وأم أيوب موضع يده، فأكلنا منه نبتغي بذلك البركة، حتى بعثنا إليه ليلة بعشائه وقد جعلنا له بصلاً أو ثوماً، فرده رسول الله صلَّى الله عليه وسلَّم، ولم أر ليده فيه أثراً، قال: فجئته فزعاً، فقلت: “يا رسول الله، بأبي أنت وأمي، رددت عشاءك، ولم أر فيه موضع يدك، وكنت إذا رددته علينا، تيممت أنا وأم أيوب موضع يدك، نبتغي بذلك البركة”، قال: “إني وجدت فيه ريح هذه الشجرة، وأنا رجل أناجي، فأما أنتم فكلوه”. قال: فأكلناه، ولم نصنع له تلك الشجرة بعد.[7]

كما روي عن أبي أيوب الأنصاري رضي الله عنه أنه قال: «صنعت لرسول الله صلَّى الله عليه وسلَّم ولأبي بكر طعاما قدر ما يكفيهما فأتيتهما به، فقال رسول الله صلَّى الله عليه وسلَّم: «اذهب فادع لي ثلاثين من أشراف الأنصار»، قال: فشق ذلك علي، ما عندي شئ أزيده. قال: فكأني تثاقلت، فقال صلَّى الله عليه وسلَّم: « اذهب فادع لي ثلاثين من أشراف الأنصار»، فدعوتهم فجاؤوا فقال صلَّى الله عليه وسلَّم:«اطعموا»، فأكلوا حتى صدروا، ثم شهدوا أنه رسول الله ثم بايعوه قبل أن يخرجوا، ثم قال صلَّى الله عليه وسلَّم: «اذهب فادع لي ستين من أشراف الأنصار»، قال أبو أيوب رضي الله عنه: فو الله لأنا بالستين أجود مني بالثلاثين، قال: فدعوتهم، فقال رسول الله صلَّى الله عليه وسلَّم: «تربعوا»، فأكلوا حتى صدروا، ثم شهدوا أنه رسول الله وبايعوه قبل أن يخرجوا، قال صلَّى الله عليه وسلَّم: «فاذهب فادع لي تسعين من الأنصار»، قال: فلأنا أجود بالتسعين والستين مني بالثلاثين، قال: فدعوتهم فأكلوا حتى صدروا، ثم شهدوا أنه رسول الله وبايعوه قبل أن يخرجوا، قال: فأكل من طعامي ذلك مائة وثمانون رجلا كلهم من الأنصار».[8][9]

حراسته للرسول محمد صلَّى الله عليه وسلَّم
بعد فتح خيبر، أعرس الرسولُ محمدٌ بصفية بنت حيي بن أخطب، وذلك بخيبر أو ببعض الطريق، وهي ابنة زعيم بني النضير حيي بن أخطب الذي قتله الرسول بعد غزوة بني قريظة، وكانت التي جمَّلتها للرسولِ محمدٍ ومشطتها وأصلحت من أمرها أم سليم بنت ملحان، أم أنس بن مالك، فبات بها الرسولُ محمدٌ في قبة له، وبات أبو أيوب الأنصاري متوشحاً سيفه، يحرس الرسولَ محمداً ، ويطيف بالقبة، حتى أصبح الرسولُ محمدٌ ، فلما رأى مكانه قال: «مالك يا أبا أيوب؟»، قال: “يا رسول الله، خفت عليك من هذه المرأة، وكانت امرأة قد قتلت أباها وزوجها وقومها، وكانت حديثة عهد بكفر، فخفتها عليك”، فقيل أن الرسول محمداً قال: «اللهم احفظ أبا أيوب كما بات يحفظني».[10][11] وقد كان بعض المنافقين يحضرون المسجد فيستمعون أحاديث المسلمين، ويسخرون ويستهزءون بدينهم، فاجتمع يوماً في المسجد منهم ناس، فرآهم الرسولُ يتحدثون بينهم، خافضي أصواتهم، قد لصق بعضهم ببعض، فأمر بهم الرسولُ فأُخرجوا من المسجد إخراجاً عنيفاً، فقام أبو أيوب الأنصاري إلى عمر بن قيس، أحد بني غنم بن مالك بن النجار، وكان صاحب آلهتهم في الجاهلية، فأخذ برجله فسحبه، حتى أخرجه من المسجد، وهو يقول: “أتخرجني يا أبا أيوب من مربد بني ثعلبة”، ثم أقبل أبو أيوب أيضاً إلى رافع بن وديعة، أحد بني النجار، فلببه بردائه ثم نتره نتراً شديداً، ولطم وجهه، ثم أخرجه من المسجد، وأبو أيوب يقول له: “أف لك منافقاً خبيثاً، أدراجك يا منافق من مسجد رسول الله صلَّى الله عليه وسلَّم”، أي ارجع من الطريق التي جئت منها، قال الشاعر:[12] فولى وأدبر أدراجه وقد باء بالظلم من كان ثم

قتاله في غزوة بدر
كان أبو أيوب الأنصاري من الصحابة الذين شهدوا غزوة بدر،[13] فقد روي عنه أنه قال: «قال رسول الله صلَّى الله عليه وسلَّم ونحن بالمدينة: «إني أخبرت عن عير أبي سفيان أنها مقبلة فهل لكم أن نخرج قبل هذه العير لعل الله يغنمناها؟»، فقلنا: “نعم”، فخرج وخرجنا فلما سرنا يوماً أو يومين قال لنا: «ما ترون في القوم فإنهم قد أخبروا بمخرجكم؟»، فقلنا: “لا والله ما لنا طاقة بقتال القوم ولكنا أردنا العير”، ثم قال: «ترون في قتال القوم؟»، فقلنا مثل ذلك. فقام المقداد بن عمرو فقال: “إذا لا نقول لك يا رسول كما قال قوم موسى لموسى «اذهب أنت وربك فقاتلا إنا ههنا قاعدون»”، قال: فتمنينا معشر الأنصار لو أنا قلنا مثل ما قال المقداد أحب إلينا من أن يكون لنا مال عظيم، فأنزل الله عز وجل على رسوله:﴿ كَمَا أَخْرَجَكَ رَبُّكَ مِنْ بَيْتِكَ بِالْحَقِّ وَإِنَّ فَرِيقًا مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ لَكَارِهُونَ﴾ ».[14]

وروي عنه أيضاً أنه قال: «صفنا رسول الله صلَّى الله عليه وسلَّم يوم بدر فبدرت منا بادرة أمام الصف، فنظر إليهم النبي صلَّى الله عليه وسلَّم فقال: «معي معي»».[15] وأَسَرَ أبو أيوب الأنصاري أبا العاص بن الربيع، وهو رجل من بني أمية ممن منَّ الرسولُ محمدٌ عليهم من الأسارى بغير فداء.[16]

حادثة الإفك
خلال حادثة الإفك ، قالت أم أيوب لأبي أيوب الأنصاري : ( ألا تسمع ما يقول الناسُ في عائشة ؟) قال : ( بلى ، وذلك كذب ، أفكنتِ يا أم أيوب فاعلة ذلك ؟) قالت : ( لا والله ) قال : ( فعائشة والله خير منكِ ) فلمّا نزل القرآن وذكر أهل الإفك.- رضي الله عنها –
قال الله تعالى : ( لولا إذْ سمعتُموه ظنّ المؤمنون والمؤمنات بأنفسهم خيراً ، وقالوا هذا إفكٌ مُبين )

زواج الرسول
ولما أعرس الرسول -صلى الله عليه وسلم- بصفية ، بخيبر أو ببعض الطريق ، فبات بها الرسول -صلى الله عليه وسلم- في قبة له ، وبات أبو أيوب الأنصاري رضي الله عنه متوشحاً سيفه يحرس رسـول اللـه -صلى اللـه عليه وسلم- ويطيف بالقبة حتى أصبح رسـول اللـه ، فلما رأى مكانه قال : ( مالك يا أبا أيوب ؟) قال : ( يا رسول اللـه ، خفت عليك من هذه المـرأة ، وكانت امرأة قد قتلـت أباها وزوجها وقومها ، وكانت حديثة عهد بكفر ، فخفتها عليك ) فقال رسـول الله -صلى الله عليه وسلم-: ( اللهم احفظ أبا أيوب كما بات يحفظني )

قتاله في معركة النهروان
كان أبو أيوب الأنصاري مع علي بن أبي طالب رضي الله عنهم عندما قاتل الخوارج في معركة النهروان، وقد تقدم أبو أيوب الأنصاري إليهم فأنَّبهم ووبَّخهم فلم ينجع، وتقدم أمير المؤمنين علي بن أبي طالب إليهم فوعظهم وخوفهم وحذرهم وأنذرهم وتوعدهم، فلم يكن لهم جواب إلا أن تنادوا فيما بينهم أن لا تخاطبوهم ولا تكلموهم وتهيئوا للقاء الرب عز وجل، الرواح الرواح إلى الجنة. وتقدموا فاصطفوا للقتال وتأهبوا للنزال، ووقفوا مقاتلين لعلي وأصحابه. وجعل علي على ميمنته حجر بن عدي، وعلى الميسرة شبيث بن ربعي ومعقل بن قيس الرياحي، وعلى الخيل أبا أيوب الأنصاري، وعلى الرجالة أبا قتادة الأنصاري، وعلى أهل المدينة -وكانوا في سبعمائة- قيس بن سعد بن عبادة، وأمر عليٌّ أبا أيوب الأنصاري أن يرفع راية أمان للخوارج ويقول لهم: “من جاء إلى هذه الراية فهو آمن، ومن انصرف إلى الكوفة والمدائن فهو آمن، إنه لا حاجة لنا فيكم إلا فيمن قتل إخواننا”،[17][18] فانصرف منهم طوائف كثيرون، وكانوا في أربعة آلاف فلم يبق منهم إلا ألف أو أقل، مع عبد الله بن وهب الراسبي، فزحفوا إلى علي فقدَّم عليٌّ بين يديه الخيل وقدَّم منهم الرماة وصفَّ الرجالة وراء الخيالة، وقال لأصحابه: “كفوا عنهم حتى يبدأوكم”، وأقبلت الخوارج يقولون: “لا حكم إلا لله، الرواح الرواح إلى الجنة”، فحملوا على الخيالة الذين قدمهم علي، ففرقوهم حتى أخذت طائفة من الخيالة إلى الميمنة، وأخرى إلى الميسرة، فاستقبلهم الرماة بالنبل، فرموا وجوههم، وعطفت عليهم الخيالة من الميمنة والميسرة، ونهض إليهم الرجال بالرماح والسيوف فأناموا الخوارج، فصاروا صرعى تحت سنابك الخيول، وقتل أمراؤهم عبد الله بن وهب الراسبي، وحرقوص بن زهير، وشريح بن أوفى، وعبد الله بن سخبرة السلمي. قال أبو أيوب: «وطعنت رجلاً من الخوارج بالرمح فأنفذته من ظهره وقلت له: “أبشر يا عدو الله بالنار”، فقال: “ستعلم أينا أولى بها صلياً”».[17]

وجاء أبو أيوب الأنصاري إلى علي فقال: «يا أمير المؤمنين قتلت زيد بن حصين الطائي، طعنته في صدره حتى خرج السنان من ظهره، وقلت له: أبشر يا عدو الله بالنار، فقال: ستعلم غداً أينا أولى بها صلياً»، فقال له علي: «هو أولى بها صليا».[19]

وقد قيل لأبي أيوب الأنصاري: «قاتلت بسيفك المشركين مع رسول الله صلَّى الله عليه وسلَّم ثم جئت تقاتل المسلمين؟» فقال: «أمرني رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم بقتال الناكثين والمارقين والقاسطين»،[20]

وروى الأعمش عن علقمة والأسود أنهما قالا: أتينا أبا أيوب الأنصاري عند منصرفه من صفين فقلنا له: «يا أبا أيوب، إن الله أكرمك بنزول محمد وبمجئ ناقته تفضلاً من الله وإكراماً لك حين أناخت ببابك دون الناس، ثم جئت بسيفك على عاتقك تضرب به أهل لا إله إلا الله؟» فقال: «يا هذا إن الرائد لا يكذب أهله، وإن رسول الله صلَّى الله عليه وسلَّم أمرنا بقتال ثلاثة مع علي، بقتال الناكثين والقاسطين والمارقين. فأما الناكثون فقد قاتلناهم وهم أهل الجمل، طلحة والزبير، وأما القاسطون فهذا منصرفنا من عندهم -يعني معاوية وعَمْرا- وأما المارقون فهم أهل الطرفات وأهل السعيفات وأهل النخيلات وأهل النهروان، والله ما أدري أين هم ولكن لابد من قتالهم إن شاء الله. قال: وسمعت رسول الله صلَّى الله عليه وسلَّم يقول لعمار: «يا عمار تقتلك الفئة الباغية وأنت مذ ذاك مع الحق والحق معك، يا عمار بن ياسر إن رأيت علياً قد سلك وادياً وسلك الناس غيره فاسلك مع علي فإنه لن يدليك في ردى ولن يخرجك من هدى، يا عمار من تقلد سيفاً أعان به علياً على عدوه قلده الله يوم القيامة وشاحين من در، ومن تقلد سيفاً أعان به عدو علي عليه قلده الله يوم القيامة وشاحين من نار»، فقلنا: «يا هذا، حسبك رحمك الله، حسبك رحمك الله»»[21]

وفي سنة أربعين من الهجرة، وجه معاويةُ بنُ أبي سفيان بسرَ بنَ أبي أرطاة في ثلاثة آلاف من المقاتلة إلى الحجاز، فساروا من الشام حتى قدموا المدينة، وكان أبو أيوب الأنصاري عاملَ علي بن أبي طالب على المدينة المنورة، ففر منهم أبو أيوب فأتى عليّاً بالكوفة، ودخل بسر المدينة ولم يقاتله أحد.[22][23]

موقفه من الفتنة
ولما وقع الخلاف بين علي ومعاوية وقف أبو أيوب -رضي الله عنه- مع علي لأنه الامام الذي أعطي بيعة المسلمين ، ولما استشهد علي -رضي الله عنه- وقف أبو أيوب بنفسه الزاهدة الصامدة لايرجو من الدنيا الا أن يظل له مكان فوق أرض الوغى مع المجاهدين
الدين
أتى أبو أيب رضي الله عنه معاوية فشكا إليه أنّ ديناً عليه ، فلم يرَ منه ما يحب ، ورأى كراهيته ، فقال : ( سمعت رسول الله -صلى الله عليه وسلم- يقول : ( إنّكم سترون أثَرَة )) قال : ( فأي شيءٍ قال لكم ؟) قال : ( قال : ( اصبروا ))قال معاوية : ( فاصبروا ) فقال أبو أيوب : ( والله لا أسألك شيئاً أبداً ) وقدِم أبو أيوب البصرة فنزل على ابن عباس ، ففرّغ له بيتَه ، فقال : ( لأصْنَعَنّ بكَ كما صنعت برسول الله -صلى الله عليه وسلم- ) قال : ( كم عليك من الدّين ؟) قال : ( عشرون ألفاً ) فأعطاه أربعين ألفاً وعشرين مملوكاً ، وقال : ( لك ما في البيتِ كلِّه )

قتاله في جيش يزيد ووفاته
في سنة تسع وأربعين من الهجرة غزا يزيد بن معاوية بلاد الروم حتى بلغ القسطنطينية، ومعه جماعات من سادات الصحابة منهم ابن عمر وابن عباس وابن الزبير وأبو أيوب الأنصاري رضي الله عنهم.[24][25] وقد ثبت في صحيح البخاري أن الرسولَ محمداً قال: «أول جيش من أمتي يغزون مدينة قيصر مغفور لهم»،[26] فكان هذا الجيش أول من غزاها، وما وصلوا إليها حتى بلغوا الجهد. وفيها توفي أبو أيوب خالد بن زيد الأنصاري رضي الله عنه ، وقيل لم يمت في هذه الغزوة بل بعدها سنة إحدى أو ثنتين أو ثلاث وخمسين.[24] فعندما كان أبو أيوب الأنصاري رضي الله عنه في الجيش مَرِض، فدخل عليه يزيدٌ يعوده فقال: “ما حاجتك؟”، قال: “حاجتي إذا أنا مت فاركب، ثم سغ في أرض العدو ما وجدت مساغاً، فإذا لم تجد مساغاً فادفني ثم ارجع”، فتوفي أبو أيوب رضي الله عنه ، ففعل الجيش ذلك، ودفنوه بالقرب من القسطنطينية، وأمر يزيد بالخيل فجعلت تقبل وتدبر على قبره، حتى عفا أثرَ القبر، وقبره هنالك كان الروم يستسقون به إذا قحطوا.[2] وقيل إن الروم قالت للمسلمين في صبيحة دفنهم لأبي أيوب رضي الله عنه: “لقد كان لكم الليلة شأن”، قالوا: “هذا رجل من أكابر أصحاب نبينا وأقدمهم إسلاماً، وقد دفناه حيث رأيتم، ووالله لئن نبش لا ضرب لكم بناقوس في أرض العرب ما كانت لنا مملكة”.[1] وبعد أن فتح المسلمون القسطنطينية عام 1453، على يد السلطان العثماني محمد الفاتح، بنوا على قبر أبي أيوب الأنصاري مسجداً، وذلك في عام 1458، وسمَّوا ذلك المسجد مسجد أيوب سلطان نسبة لأبي أيوب الأنصاري.

وفاته
جاءت محاولة فتح القسطنطينية عام ( 52 هـ )، وكان أبو أيوب ممن خرج للقتال ، فأصيب في هذه المعركة ، وجاء قائد الجيش – يزيد بن معاوية – يعوده فسأله : ( ما حاجتك يا أبا أيوب ؟)فيا له من مطلب نفذه يزيد بناءا على هذه الوصية ، فقد طلب أن يحمل جثمانه فوق فرسه ، ويمضي به أطول مسافة ممكنة في أرض العدو ، وهنالك يدفنه ، ثم يزحف بجيشه على طول هذا الطريق ، حتى يسمع وقع حوافر خيل المسلمين فوق قبره ، فيدرك آنئذ ، أنهم قد أدركوا ما يبتغون من نصر وفوز ! وفي قلب القسطنطينية وفي ( اسطنبول ) ثوي جثمانه -رضي اللـه عنه- مع سور المدينة وبُنيَ عليه ، فلمّا أصبح المسلمون أشرف عليهم الروم ، فقالوا : ( يا معشر العرب قد كان لكم الليلة شأنٌ ؟) فقالوا : ( مات رجلٌ من أكابر أصحاب نبيّنا محمد -صلى الله عليه وسلم- ، ووالله لئن نُبِشَ لأضْرُبَ بِناقوسٍ في بلاد العرب ) فأصبح قبره لأهل قسطنطينية وقبل أن يصل لهم الاسلام قبر قديس يتعاهدونه ويزورونه ويستسقون به اذا قحطوا !! اذهبوا بجثماني بعيدا بعيدا في أرض الروم ثم ادفننوني هناك أبو أيوب الأنصاري

1. أ ب ت ث ج أسد الغابة في معرفة الصحابة، عز الدين ابن الأثير
2. أ ب البداية والنهاية، ج8 ص65
3. سيرة ابن هشام، ج1 ص494-496
4. الكامل في التاريخ، ج2 ص5
5. البداية والنهاية، ج3 ص261
6. البداية والنهاية، ج3 ص243
7. سيرة ابن هشام، ج1 ص498-499
8. رواه البيهقي في الدلائل ج 6 / 94
9. البداية والنهاية، ج6 ص121، وقال: وهذا حديث غريب جدا إسنادا ومتنا. وقد رواه البيهقي من حديث محمد بن أبي بكر المقدمي عن عبد الأعلى به.
10. سيرة ابن هشام، ج2 ص339-340
11. البداية والنهاية، ج4 ص242
12. سيرة ابن هشام، ج1 ص528
13. البداية والنهاية، ج3 ص386
14. البداية والنهاية، ج3 ص322
15. البداية والنهاية، ج3 ص331
16. البداية والنهاية، ج3 ص380
17. ^ أ ب البداية والنهاية، ج7 ص319-320
18. الكامل في التاريخ، ج2 ص694
19. الكامل في التاريخ، ج2 ص695
20. البداية والنهاية، ج7 ص339
21. البداية والنهاية، ج7 ص338-339، وقال: هذا السياق الظاهر أنه موضوع وآفته من جهة المعلى بن عبد الرحمن فإنه متروك الحديث.
22. البداية والنهاية، ج7 ص356
23. الكامل في التاريخ، ج2 ص732
24. أ ب البداية والنهاية، ج8 ص36
25. ^ الكامل في التاريخ، ج3 ص57
26. ^ صحيح البخاري، باب ما قيل في قتال الروم 2924

More Info: (In Arabic) turkpress.co

Maqam

Pictures of the Sultan Ayyub Mosque

The burial place of Sayyiduna Ayyub al Ansari in Istanbul
from Ziarat ~2016-2017

Near-by maqams: Geotag Icon Show on map

Sacred relics inside the maqam
Maqam from outside

* Maqam viewed from outside

Sacred relics inside the maqam



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Other maqams

There can be several maqams belonging to the same personality, but it is certainly known that his qabr al shareef (burial place) is in Istanbul. – The below photos show the maqam of Sayyiduna Abu Ayyub al Ansari in Eqypt.
From: msobieh.com

صورة من الخارج
بالمرور فى شارع الحيسنية وخلف مسجد سيدى البيومى وجد هذا الضريح والصورة بعالية مكتوب عليه مقام سيدى أيوب الانصارى وبالسؤال عنه قال بعض من عامة الناس أنه يعمل له حضرة من قبل الرفاعية كل يوم أحد
وقد حاولت البحث عن هذا الصحابى الجليل فلم أقف له على أى نبذة بكتب التاريخ أن الصحابى سيدى أيوب الأنصارى مدفون بمصر
فى الخطط التوفيقية لعلى باشا مبارك الجزء الثانى صفحة ( 5 ) قال يوجد ضريح الشيخ أيوب وهو بالشارع المؤدى الى ضريح سيدى البيومى ( هذ كل ما ذكره على باشا مبارك )
ونحن بالشارع وجد على المبنى من الخارج لافتة من الرخام الأبيض وكتب عليه ( هذا مقام سيدى أيوب الأنصارى )

ومن هذه المقالات الواردة فيما بعد يتضج لنا أن سيدى ايوب الانصارى ليس مدفون بمصر ولكن الشاهد أن عذا المقام لشيخ يدعى الشيخ أيوب كما ذكره على باشا مبارك فى خططه ولم يعلق عليه ( والله أعلم )

See more at: msobieh.com

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Abu Bakr al-`Arudiki

born 584 – d. .. H. in Damascus
radiya Allah anhu

Of Ahl al-mahabba wa al-tawhid.
Buried at the foot of Qasiun on the western side [Ziarat al-Sham]

Damas Cultural Society © 2007

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Bio: Abu Darda

Abu Darda

أبو الدرداء الأنصاري الخزرجي
d. 32 H. (653 CE) in Damascus (sahabi)
radiya Allah anhu

`Uwaymar (or `Amir) ibn Zayd, known by his kunya Abu Al-Darda’, a companion of Prophet Muhammad (ﷺ) from the ansar.
A great scholar, imam, ascetic and hadith narrator.
 

English

He was originally trader in Madinah who converted from Judaism to Islam after hearing the teachings of the Prophet Muhammad (s). He became a great scholar and hadith narrator, known for his ascetism. He was declared the brother of Salman the Persian. After the conquest of Damascus,`Umar b. al-Khattab appointed him as a judge over the city, and he remaind in that office during the rule of `Uthman b. Affan – may Alllah be pleased with them all.

He is buried, in the qibla wall of the Umawy mosque. A mosque is erected over his home in the citadel wall east of the Umawi mosque.


See also http://www.sunnah.org/history/Sahaba/darda.html (From Alim® Online)

Türkçe

Hz. Ebu’d Derda (r.a.)

View on ehlisunnetbuyukleri | damas


Ebüdderdâ ( radıyallahü anh ), Peygamberimizin ( aleyhisselâm ) vefâtından sonra Medine’de kalmaya tahammül edememiştir. Dolaştığı her yerde Resûlullahın ( aleyhisselâm ) hatırasını görüp, dayanamadığından Şam’a gidip, orada yerleşti. Hazreti Ömer’in isteği üzere Şam’da ders vermeye başladı. Çok sayıda âlim yetiştirdi. Tefsîr, hadîs, fıkıh ilimlerini öğretmesinin yanında, verdiği Kur’ân-ı kerîm dersleri meşhûrdur.

عربي

أبو الدرداء رضي الله عنه

صاحب المقالة: د. إبراهيم بن محمد الحقيل View on alukah.net | damas

…أبو الدَّرْداء عُوَيْمرُ بنُ عامرٍ الأنصاريُّ الخزرجيُّ[6]، حكيم هذه الأمَّة كما في بعض المراسيل وأقوال السَّلف[7]. ثم كانت له أقوالٌ أكَّدت أن كلامَه كلامُ حكيم، قال رضيَ الله عنه: “كنتُ تاجرًا قبل أن يُبْعَث النبيُّ صلَّى الله عليه وسلَّم فلما بُعِثَ محمَّدٌ؛ زاولتُ التجارة والعبادة؛ فلم تجتمعا؛ فأخذتُ العبادة وتركتُ التجارة”[8]. فهو رضيَ الله عنه لما رأى أن التجارة تزاحم العبادة، ورأى من نفسه عدم القدرة على جمعهما؛ أقبل على الأفضل…

Hadith

Hadith on the virtue of seeking knowledge
Hadith on the zuhd of Abu Darda


Hadith on the virtue of seeking knowledge
Kathir ibn Qays said: “I was sitting with Abu al-Darda’ in the mosque of Damascus. A man came to him and said: Abu al-Darda’, I have come to you from the city of Allah’s Messenger for a narration I have heard that you relate from the Prophet (s). I have come for no other purpose.” He said: I heard Allah’s Messenger (s) say:
“If anyone travels on a road in search of knowledge, Allah will cause him to travel on one of the roads of Paradise, the angels will lower their wings from good pleasure with one who seeks knowledge, and the inhabitants of the heavens and the earth and the fish in the depth of the water will ask forgiveness for the learned man. The superiority of the learned man over the ordinary believer is like that of the moon on the night when it is full over the rest of the stars. The learned are the inheritors of the Prophets, and the Prophets have neither dinar nor dirham, leaving only knowledge, and he who takes it takes an abundant portion.”

Abu Dawud narrated it in his Sunan as the first hadith of the book of `Ilm, also Ibn Majah and Darimi in the muqaddima of their Sunan, all of them with a weak chain which, however, is strengthened by the fact that Bukhari in his Sahih, Tirmidhi in his Sunan, Ahmad in his Musnad, Bayhaqi in his Sunan all narrate various parts of this hadith.

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Hadith on the zuhd of Abu Darda
Narrated Abu Juhaifa:

The Prophet made a bond of brotherhood between Salman and Abu Ad-Darda.’ Salman paid a visit to Abu Ad-Darda’ and found Um Ad-Darda’ dressed in shabby clothes and asked her why she was in that state. She replied, “Your brother Abu Ad-Darda’ is not interested in (the luxuries of) this world.” In the meantime Abu Ad-Darda’ came and prepared a meal for Salman. Salman requested Abu Ad-Darda’ to eat (with him), but Abu Ad-Darda’ said, “I am fasting.” Salman said, “I am not going to eat unless you eat.” So, Abu Ad-Darda’ ate(with Salman). When it was night and (a part of the night passed), Abu Ad-Darda’ got up (to offer the night prayer), but Salman told him to sleep and Abu Ad-Darda’ slept. After sometime Abu Ad-Darda’ again got up but Salman told him to sleep. When it was the last hours of the night, Salman told him to get up then, and both of them offered the prayer. Salman told Abu Ad-Darda’, “Your Lord has a right on you, your soul has a right on you, and your family has a right on you; so you should give the rights of all those who has a right on you.” Abu Ad-Darda’ came to the Prophet and narrated the whole story. The Prophet said, “Salman has spoken the truth.”

(Sahih Bukhari)

Burial Place

Abu Darda – the sahabi – is buried, with his wife Umm Darda’ al-Sughra (a tabi`i), in the qibla wall of the Umawy mosque. A mosque is erected over his home in the citadel wall east of the Umawi mosque.

His wife, Umm Darda’ al-Sughra, is buried with him. She was a tabi`i (of the generation next to the Prophet (sallAllahu `aleihi wa sallam).

1. Maqam of Abu Darda in the citadel wall in old Damascus

1. Maqam of Abu Darda in the citadel wall in old Damascus

Outside the maqam
2. Outside the maqam

Maqam entrance
3. Maqam entrance

Inside the mosque
4. Inside the mosque

Darih
5. Tomb

Other maqams

Maqam of Abu Darda radiAllahu anhu in Istanbul
* Photo from ibb.sehirharitasi

Refs

Text references:
Ziarat al-Sham, bmk ziyarat 2001– 2008

Pictures:
1 and 4: www.al-musafir.com
2: Orooj ziiyarat 2006
3: http://ibnbattutah.blogspot.com/2005/04/

Damas Cultural Society © 2007
get=”_blank”>damas-original.nur.nu

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Bio: Abu Dharr al-Ghafari

Abu Dharr al Ghafari

أبو ذر الغفاري
d. 32 H. in Rabdha, near Madina
radiya Allah anhu

He lived in Damascus during the caliphate of Sayyiduna ‘Uthman.
He has a maqam in al-Shaghur

English

Abu Dharr al-Ghafari

Scanned from “Companions of The Prophet”, Vol. 1, By: Abdul Wahid Hamid. View on sunnah.org | damas

Jundub ibn Junadah, nicknamed Abu Dharr, was a member of the Ghifari tribe that lived in the Waddan valley outside Makka. He was known for his courage, his calmness and his far-sightedness …

… During the caliphate of Uthman, he stayed in Damascus and saw the Muslims’ concern for the world and their consuming desire for luxury. He was saddened and repelled by this. So Uthman asked him to come to Madinah. At Madinah he was also critical of the people’s pursuit of worldly goods and pleasures and they were critical in turn of his reviling them. Uthman therefore ordered that he should go to Rubdhah, a small village near Madinah. There he stayed far away from people, renouncing their preoccupation with worldly goods and holding on to the legacy of the Prophet and his companions in seeking the everlasting abode of the Hereafter in preference to this transitory world. …

Türkçe

Hz. Ebu Zerr Gifari (r.a.)

Ebu Zer Gifari hazretleri ilk müslüman olanlardandır(5. dir)Allah Resulu onunla ilgili şu sözü buyurmuşlardır ;” Allah Ebu zer’e acısın ki , O,yalnız yaşar ,yalnız ölür ve yalnız haşr olur.” Gerçekten de Ebu Zer hz i yalnız yaşayıp yalnız vefat etmiştir.

Ebû Zer Gıfârî hazretleri, Eshab-ı kiramın meşhurlarından olup, zahidliği, yalnızlığı ve sözünde durmadaki sadakatiyle meşhurdur. Resûlullah efendimize bi’at ederken “Hak teâlânın yolunda hiçbir kötüleyicinin kötülemesine aldanmıyacağına, ne kadar acı olursa olsun daima doğru sözlü olacağına” söz vermişti. Ömrünün sonuna kadar hep böyle kaldı. Bu hususta Resûlullah efendimiz, “Dünyaya Ebû Zer’den daha sadık kimse gelmedi” buyurmuşlardır.

Ebû Zer, dünyaya hiç değer vermezdi. Son derece kanaatkâr, fakir ve yalnız yaşardı. Peygamber efendimiz bu sebeble ona “Mesîh-ül-islâm” lâkabını vermişti. Peygamberimize tam bağlanıp, O’nun sevip, beğendiğini seven, Onun sevmediğini ve beğenmediğini sevmeyen Ebû Zer, Resûlullahın vefâtında da yanında bulunmuştur. Peygamberimizin vefâtından sonra Şam’a çekilip, son derece mahzun ve yalnız yaşadı.ebu zerr 4

Tebük muharebesinde Ebû Zer Gıfârî hazretlerinin devesi pek zayıf ve dayanıksız olduğu için geride kalmıştı. Yolun ortasıda devesi çöküp kalınca, devesinden indi. Eşyasını sırtına yükleyerek orduya yetişti. Alnız başına tenha bir yere oturdu. Peygamberimiz , Hz. Ebû Zer’i böyle tenhada görünce “Allahü teâlâ, yalnız başına yürüyen, yalnız başına vefât edecek olan ve yalnız başına haşrolunacak olan Ebû Zer’e rahmet eylesin” buyurmuşlardır.

Şüphelilerden ve haramlardan son derece sakınırdı. Evinde bir günlük nafakasından fazlasını bulundurmaz, hep fakirlere dağıtırdı. Herkesin böyle yapmasını isterdi. Fakat oranın zenginleri Ebû Zer’in bu durumunu beğenmediler. Oradan gitmesi için Hz. Osman’a mektup ile bildirdiler. Böylece Medine-i Münevvre’ye davet edildi.

Hz. Osman, Şam halkının kendisinden şikayet sebebini sordu. Ebû Zer de hâdiseyi olduğu gibi anlattı. Bunun üzerine Hz. Osman “Yâ Ebâ Zer, halkı zühd yoluna zorla sokmak imkânsızdır. Benim vazifem, onlar arasında Hak teâlâ hazretlerinin emriyle hükmetmek ve onları çalışma, iktisat tarafına teşvik eylemektir.” buyurdu. Sonra Ebû Zer, Resûlullah bana “Binalar Seldağı’na ulaştığı zaman, sen Medine’den ayrıl” diye emretmişlerdi. İzin verirseniz, ben Medine’den gideyim dedi.Hz. Osman müsaade buyurdular ve bir deve sürüsü ile, iki köle verdiler. Yetecek miktarda yiyecek ve hediyeler ile Medine-i Münevvereye yakınlarındaki (ebeze) adındaki köye gitmesini söylediler. Ailesi de Şam’dan buraya gönderildi. Ebû Zer Gıfâr hazretleri buraya bir mescit yaptırdı. Vefât edinceye kadar, gelenlere İslâm dînin öğretti. Adîs-i şerîfler rivâyet eyledi. Kalan ömrünü burada geçirdi ve orada da vefât etti.

“Bana elbise değil kefen lâzım”

Ebû Zer Gıfârî hazretlerinin yalnız, garip bir hayatı oldu. Hayatı gibi vefâtı pek garip oldu. Vefatına yakın hanımı, kendisinin doğru dürüst giyecek bir elbisesi ılmadığı için ona bir elbise aradığında, “Bana elbise değil kefen lâzım” deyip, Resûlullahın kendisine nasıl vefât edeceğini söylediğini bildirdi. “İyi bir haber var, yakında Resûlullaha kavuşacağım” ve “Ey ölüm çabuk gel ruhum Rabbime kavuşmak sevgisiyle çırpınıyor” dedi.ebu zerr 3

Sonra, kızı veya hanımına dönüp, “Dışarıdan gelen olup olmadığını” sordu. Dışarı çıkıp baktıklarında bir şey görünmediğini bildirdiler. Bunun üzerine “Vefât zamanım henüz gelmedi. Şimdi siz bir koyun kesip hazırlayın. Cenazemde sâlih bir topluluk bulunacak. Onlara ikrâm edersiniz. Yemeden gitmemelerini benim tenbih ettiğimi söylersiniz” buyurdu.

Arzusu yerine getirildi. Tekrar kızına veya hanımına dışarı çıkıp gelenlerin olup, olmadığına bakmasını isteyince, dışarı çıktılar. Uzaktan bir topluluğun gelmekte olduğunu görünce içeri grip haberi verdiler.

Bunun üzerine kendisinin kıbleye karşı çevrilmesin istedi. Kıbleye döndükten sonra Hz. Ebû Zer, “Bismillahi ve billahi ve alâ milleti Resûlullah” diyerek ruhunu Hak teâlâya teslim etti. Gelen misafirler karşılanıp Ebû Zer Gıfârî’nin vefât ettiği bildirildi.

Bunlar, “Böyle mübarek bir zâtın cenazesinde bulunmak, Allahü teâlanın bize hususi bir kerem ve lütfudur”, diyerek, Ebû Zer’i gasl, techiz ve tekfin edip namazını kıldılar ve defnettiler. Tam gitmek üzereyken, Ebû Zer Gıfârî size selâm etti, yemek yemeden gitmemenizi tenbih eyeldi diye bildirilince, hepsi oturup yemek yediler. Sonra durumu gidip halifeye bildirdiler. Ebû Zer vefât ettiğinde bir evi, üç koyunu ve birkaç keçisinden başka malı yoktu.

Ebû Zer Gıfârî hazretleri, Peygamberimizden bizzat işiterek ikiyüzseksenbir hadîs-i şerîf rivâyet etmiştir.

Ebu Zer Gifari hz ‘i ; Hz. Osman devrinde 652 senesinde Medine civarında rebeze denilen köyde vefat etmiştir. İstanbul da Ayvansaray da bulunan yer ise Ebu Zer hz’nin makamıdır.Bu makam Sadrazam Şehid Ali Paşa tarafından 1716 yılında bir rüyadaki işaretle inşa edilen Çınarlıçeşme Mescidinin bitişiğine yaapılmıştır.

Sultan II. Mahmut Han’ın annesi Nakşidil Valide Sultan bu mescid ve makamı 1812 yılında yeniden yaptırmış, burası için bir de vakıf tahsis etmiştir. Bu sebeple buraya Valide camii veya Nakşidil Valide mescidi de denmektedir.Üstü açık bir kabirdir. Yanında türbedarı medfundur. Kapı üzerindeki kitabe de şunlar yazılıdır :

” Habib-i Hazret-i Mevla’nın AShab-ı Güzin’inden
Cenab-ı Bu Zerr-i Gifari nam bir zat-ı alişanebu zerr 6
Stanbul feth olunmazdan mukaddem fi-sebilillah
Gazaya azm ü niyyet eyleyüp ol server-i merdan
Kılup küffara şirane hücum ahir reh-i Hak’da
Şehadet şerbetin nuş eyleyüp kıldı feda-yı can
Makam u medfen-i ashab ba’d-ez feth-i İstanbul
Olup keşfeylediler her birinin kabrini abadan
Mürur-ı ezmineyle bu güzide zat-ı valanın
Der ü divar u sakf-ı medfeni olmuştu pek viran
Olup tevfika mazhar bu makam u mescid-i paki
Yeniden kıldı inşa Valide Sultan-ı Mahmud Han
Resulullah’a ta’zimen kılup ashabına hürmet
Zehi hayr eyledi ol mehd-i ulya-yı kerem bünyan
Huda hem zatını hem nur-ı çeşmi Han Mahmud’u
Kıla her halde mahfuz u setr-i dide udvan
O şahın sayesin dur etmeyüp fark-ı ibadından
Serir-i saltanatda müstedam-ı ömr ede Sübhan
Sezadır yazsa Vasıf bendesi bir mısra-ı tarih
Bu ali meşhedi yaptırdı ra’na Valide Sultan
1227 ”

Mezar taşındaki kitabde de şu satırlar yazılıdır ;

” Haza merkad-i şerif
Ashab-ı Kiramdan olan
Hazret-i Ebu Zerr-i Gifari
Radıyallahu Teala anh bi -şefa’atihi
Ebu Zerr-i Gifari asitanı
Ziyaret eyle adabile anı
Dahi her kim bu nazm-ı dil-güşaya
Nazar ide elin açup duaya
Şurütiyle dua eylese bir kul
Ede ol Kaziyü’l-hacat makbul ”

Kaynaklar :
İslam Alimleri Ansiklopedisi , Türkiye Gazetesi
İstanbul’da Bulunan Ashab-ı Kiram kabir ve makamları ; Cafer E. Babadağlı ; Sarayburnu Kitaplı

عربي

أبو ذر الغفاري
أبو ذر واسمه جندب بن جنادة الغفاري الكناني (صلى الله عليه وسلم) أحد أكابر أصحاب رسول الله وهو رابع وقيل خامس من دخل في الإسلام وهو أول من حيا رسول الله بتحية الإسلام وأحد الذين جهروا بالإسلام في مكة قبل الهجرة ولقي في ذلك بلاء عظيما من قريش.

النسب
هو جندب بن جنادة بن سفيان بن عبيد بن حرام من غفار بن مليل بن ضمرة بن بكر بن عبد مناة بن كنانة بن خزيمة بن مدركة بن إلياس بن مضر بن نزار بن معد بن عدنان، الغفاري الكناني من بني غفار من قبيلة بني كنانة ويجتمع نسبه مع الرسول محمد بن عبد الله في كنانة بن خزيمة. واختلف في اسمه فقيل أنه جندب بن السكن و قيل بريرة بن جنادة ولكن المشهور أنه جندب بن جنادة.

قبل الإسلام
كان أبو ذر ذو بصيرة، وممن يتمردون على عبادة الأصنام، ويذهبون إلى الايمان بإله خالق عظيم، فما أن سمع عن الدين الجديد حتى شد الرحال إلى مكة.

المظهر و الشكل
كان أبو ذر آدم طويلا أبيض الرأس واللحية، أسمر اللون نحيفًا [1].

إسلامه
أسلم بمكة قديما وقال كنت في الإسلام رابعًا ورجع إلى بلاد قومه فأقام بها حتى مضت بدر وأحد والخندق ثم قدم المدينة.

ويروي أبو ذر قصة إسلامه في الحديث الذي رواه البخاري عن ابن عباس (صلى الله عليه وسلم) قال: ألا أخبركم بإسلام أبي ذر؟ قال: قلنا بلى. قال: قال أبو ذر : قد صليت قبل أن ألقى رسول الله — . بثلاث سنين .قلت : لمن ؟ قال : لله . قلت : أين توجه ؟ قال : حيث وجهني الله ، أصلي عشاء حتى إذا كان من آخر الليل ألقيت كأني خفاء حتى تعلوني الشمس وقد كنت رجلا من غفار فبلغني من أخي أنيس أن رجلا قد خرج بمكة يزعم أنه نبي فقلت لأخي انطلق إلى هذا الرجل كلمه وإتني بخبره فانطلق فلقيه ثم رجع فقلت ما عندك فقال والله لقد رأيت رجلا يأمر بالخير وينهى عن الشر قلت : فما يقول الناس ؟ قال : يقولون : شاعر ، كاهن ، ساحر . قال : وكان أنيس أحد الشعـراء ، فقال : لقد سمعت قول الكهنة ، وما هو بقولهم ، ولقد وضعت قوله على أقوال الشعراء فما يلتئم على لسان أحد أنه شعر ، والله إنه لصادق ، وإنهم لكاذبون ! فقلت له: لم تشفني من الخبر فأخذت جرابًا وعصا ثم أقبلت إلى مكة فجعلت لا أعرفه وأكره أن أسأل عنه وأشرب من ماء زمزم وأكون في المسجد قال فمر بي علي فقال كأن الرجل غريب قال: قلت: نعم. قال فانطلق إلى المنزل قال فانطلقت معه لا يسألني عن شيء ولا أخبره فلما أصبحت غدوت إلى المسجد لأسأل عنه، وليس أحد يخبرني عنه بشيء. قال فمر بي علي فقال: أما آن للرجل أن يعرف منزله بعد. قال: قلت لا. قال: انطلق معي قال: فقال ما أمرَّك وما أقدمك هذه البلدة؟ قال: قلت له إن كتمت عليَّ أخبرتك قال: فإني أفعل، قال: قلت له بلغنا أنه قد خرج ها هنا رجل يزعم أنه نبي فأرسلت أخي ليكلمه فرجع ولم يشفني من الخبر فأردت أن ألقاه.

فقال له: أما إنك قد رشدت هذا وجهي إليه فاتبعني ادخل حيث أدخل فإني إن رأيت أحدا أخافه عليك قمت إلى الحائط كأني أصلح نعلي وامض أنت فمضى ومضيت معه حتى دخل ودخلت معه على النبي فقلت له: اعرض علي الإسلام فعرضه فأسلمت مكاني فقال لي يا أباذر اكتم هذا الأمر وارجع إلى بلدك فإذا بلغك ظهورنا فأقبل فقلت والذي بعثك بالحق لأصرخن بها بين أظهرهم فجاء إلى المسجد وقريش فيه فقال يا معشر قريش إني أشهد أن لا إله إلا الله وأشهد أن محمدا عبده ورسوله، فقالوا قوموا إلى هذا الصابئ فقاموا فضربت لأموت، فأدركني العباس فأكب علي ثم أقبل عليهم فقال: ويلكم تقتلون رجلا من غفار ومتجركم وممركم على غفار؟! فأقلعوا عني فلما أن أصبحت الغد رجعت فقلت مثل ما قلت بالأمس فقالوا قوموا إلى هذا الصابئ فصنع بي مثل ما صنع بالأمس وأدركني العباس فأكب علي وقال مثل مقالته بالأمس قال فكان هذا أول إسلام أبي ذر.

تركت هذه الحادثة أثراً سلبياً على نفسية أبي ذر، وعاهد نفسه أن يثأر من قريش، فخرج وأقام بـ”عسفان”، وكلما أقبلت عير لقريش يحملون الطعام، يعترضهم ويجبرهم على إلقاء أحمالهم، فيقول أبو ذر لهم: لا يمس أحد حبة ‏حتى تقولوا لا إله إلا الله، فيقولون لا إله إلاّ الله، ويأخذون ما لهم.‏

أهم ملامح شخصيته
الزهد الشديد والتواضع
كان من أوعية العلم المبرزين في الزهد والورع والقول الحق سئل علي عن أبي ذَرّ فقال ذلك رجل وعى علما عجز عنه الناس ثم أوكأ عليه فلم يخرج شيئا منه… وروى عن النبي أنه قال: ” أبو ذَرّ في أمتي شبيه عيسى بن مريم في زهده “. وبعضهم يرويه: “من سره أن ينظر إلى تواضع عيسى بن مريم فلينظر إلى أبي ذَرّ”

ومرّ فتى على عمر بن الخطاب ، فقال عمر: نعم الفتى، فتبعه أبو ذَرّ فقال: يا فتى استغفر لي، فقال: يا أبا ذَرّ أستغفر لك وأنت صاحب رسول الله ، قال: استغفر لي، قال: لا أو تخبرني، فقال: إنك مررت على عمر فقال: نعم الفتى، وإني سمعت رسول الله يقول: “إن الله جعل الحق على لسان عمر وقلبه”

وقيل لأبي ذرٍّ ألا تتخذ أرضا كما اتخذ طلحة والزبير؟ فقال: وما أصنع بأن أكون أميرا وإنما يكفيني كل يوم شربة من ماء أو نبيذ أو لبن وفي الجمعة قفيز من قمح.

وعن أبي ذَرّ قال: “كان قوتي على عهد رسول الله صاعا من التمر فلست بزائد عليه حتى ألقى الله”.

صدق اللهجة
قال أبو ذَرّ: قال لي رسول الله : “ما تقلّ الغبراء ولا تظل الخضراء على ذي لهجة أصدق وأوفي من أبي ذَرّ، شبيه عيسى بن مريم” قال: فقام عمر بن الخطاب فقال: يا نبي الله أفنعرف ذلك له قال: “نعم فاعرفوا له”.

الحرص على الجهاد رغم الصعوبات
عن عبد الله بن مسعود قال: لما سار رسول الله إلى تبوك جعل لا يزال يتخلف الرجل فيقولون يا رسول الله تخلف فلان فيقول دعوه إن يك فيه خير فسيلحقه الله بكم وإن يك غير ذلك فقد أراحكم الله منه حتى قيل يا رسول الله تخلف أبو ذَرّ وأبطأ به بعيره فقال رسول الله دعوه إن يك فيه خير فسيلحقه الله بكم وإن يك غير ذلك فقد أراحكم الله منه فتلوم أبو ذَرّ على بعيره فأبطأ عليه فلما أبطأ عليه أخذ متاعه فجعله على ظهره فخرج يتبع رسول الله ماشيا ونزل رسول الله في بعض منازله ونظر ناظر من المسلمين فقال يا رسول الله هذا رجل يمشي على الطريق فقال رسول الله كن أبا ذَرّ فلما تأمله القوم قالوا يا رسول الله هو والله أبو ذَرّ فقال رسول الله رحم الله أبا ذَرّ يمشي وحده ويموت وحده ويبعث وحده…

وفاته
وقد ورد أنه خرج مع رسول الله في غزوة تبوك وكانت راحلته كبيرة فتأخرت في السير فتركها وحمل متاعه وسار خلف الركب فلما أبصره رسول الله قال : رحم الله أبا ذر يمشي وحده ويموت وحده ويدفن وحده ويبعث وحده.

فبقي في (الربذة) حتى جاءت سكرات الموت لأبي ذر الغفاري، وبجواره زوجته تبكي، فيسألها: (فيم البكاء والموت حق؟)… فتجيبه بأنها تبكي: (لأنك تموت، وليس عندي ثوب يسعك كفنا !)… فيبتسم ويطمئنها ويقول لها: لا تبكي، فاني سمعت رسول الله ذات يوم وأنا عنده في نفر من أصحابه يقول: (ليموتن رجل منكم بفلاة من الأرض، تشهده عصابة من المؤمنين). وكل من كان معي في ذلك المجلس مات في جماعة وقرية، ولم يبق منهم غيري، وهأنذا بالفلاة أموت، فراقبي الطريق فستطلع علينا عصابة من المؤمنين، فاني والله ما كذبت ولا كذبت) وروي أنه قال لزوجته وغلامه: ((اغسلاني وكفناني وضعاني على قارعة الطريق ، فأول ركب يمر بكم قولوا : هذا أبو ذر ، فأعينونا عليه)). وبعد أن فاضت روحه إلى الله، فعلوا ما أمرهم به ولم ينتبهوا إلا وصاحب رسول الله عبد الله بن مسعود الهذلي يمر عليهم في نفر معه فلما رآه عبد الله بكى واسترجع وقال : صدق رسول الله: تمشي وحدك ، وتموت وحدك ، وتبعث وحدك ومن ثم صلوا عليه وواروه الثرى [1].

توفي أبو ذر سنة اثنتين وثلاثين 32 هـ بالربذة وقيل بشهر ذي الحجة وقيل سنة 31 هـ ، وصلى عليه عبد الله بن مسعود؛ ثم حمل عياله إلى عثمان بن عفان بالمدينة، فضم ابنته إلى عياله، وقال: يرحم الله أبا ذر.

________________________

[1] بن سعد : الطبقات الكبرى eman.com

Maqams

Maqam in Damascus

 
null Mosque of Sayyiduna Abu Dharr in Shaghour
ziarat bmk ~2010


Maqams in other places

 
Abu Dharr, Egypt Maqam of Sayyiduna Abu Dharr al Ghafari in Egypt
Photo and more info in Arabic: msobieh.com


Maqam in Jordan
Photo from: petra.gov.jo
لصحابي الجليل أبو ذر الغفاري الذي يركن مقامه( مكان عبادته) في منطقة (السحيلة) إلى الغرب من بلدة ذيبان في محافظة مأدبا ، والذي أقام فيه عند عودته من الشام عدة سنوات بقصد التعبد ، ولم يرافقه في هذا المكان سوى زوجته إلى أن غادره إلى الجزيرة العربية عندما اشتد عليه المرض عام (41هـ)


Abu Dharr, Istanbul

Abu Dharr, Istanbul

Maqam in
Istanbul
Photo:
evliyalar.net



Ziyarat damas 2017

Refs

Istanbul Ziyarat: evliyalar.net

Damas Cultural Society © 2007, 2017

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Abu Muslim al-Khawlani

“the inburnable”
الإمام أبو مسلم الخولاني
radiya Allah anhu

English

Prominent religious figure in Damascus, Syria. He was one of the ‘Eight Ascetics,’ who included Amir ibn Abd al-Qays, Abu Muslim al-Khawlani, Uways al-Qarani, Al-Rabi ibn Khuthaym, al-Aswad ibn Yazid, Masruq ibn al-Ajda’, Sufyan al-Thawrt ibn Said and Hasan al-Basri. [wiki]

It is recorded by Sheikh ‘Aa’id Abdullah al-Qarni that Al Aswad al `Ansi, a man in Yemen who claimed prophethood, asked Abu Muslim to believe in him and testify that he is a messenger. Abu Muslim told him: “I can’t hear a thing.” Al Aswad al `Ansi prepared firewood and threw him in fire. Abu Muslim said: Hasbuna’Llah wa ni`mal wakeel (Allah is sufficient for us and He is the best Protector” – the words that Muslims believe the prophet Ibrahim said when he was thrown in fire), so Allah made the fire cool and safe for him. [wiki 1]

عربي

t.b.d.
 

Burial Place

lived in Darayya, burial place not in Sham
Ziarat al-Sham p. 125 ff

Refs

References:
`AbdAllah b. Thawab the inburnable, yamini tabi [gfh] [1] Shaykh ‘Aa’id Abdullah al-Qarnee, Dialogue Between the Pious and the Wretched; also mentioned in Ibn al-Jawzi’s Sifat al-Safwa and Imam Ahmad’s al-Zuhd

Damas Cultural Society © 2007

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Abu Nu`aym Al-Asbahani

أبو نعيم الأصبهاني
b. 336 – d. 430
radiya Allah anhu

.


 

English

Abu Nu`aym Al-Asbahani
By Dr. G.F. Haddad

Abû Nu`aym, Ahmad ibn `Abd Allâh ibn Ahmad ibn Ishâq ibn Mûsâ ibn Mahrân al-Mihrânî al-Asbahânî or al-Asfahânî al-Ahwal al-Ash`arî al-Shâfi`î (336-430), the Imâm, erudite scholar, Sûfî, Shaykh al-Islâm, and major trustworthy hadîth Master. His first teachers were his grandfather the Sûfî master Muhammad ibn Yûsuf al-Bannâ’ al-Asbahânî and his father, a hadîth scholar who had travelled all over the Islamic world. Under his father’s direction Abû Nu`aym began his scholarly career very early, and before the age of ten possessed certificates of narration transmission from all the major shaykhs of the Islamic world in his time, obtained for him by his father.

Among them: al-Mu`ammar `Abd Allâh ibn `Umar ibn Shawdhab in Wâsit, Abû al-`Abbâs al-Asamm in Naysabûr, Khaythama ibn Sulaymân al-Atrâbulsî in Shâm, Ja`far ibn Muhammad ibn Nusayr al-Khuldî and Abû Sahl ibn Zyad al-Qattân in Baghdâd, Abû Bakr ibn al-Sunni in Daynur, and others.
Subsequently he took hadîth and narrated it from and to an innumerable list of shaykhs and students.
Among his shuyûkh: al-Tabarânî, Abû al-Shaykh, al-Ajurrî, al-Hâkim, and others.
Among his students were al-Khatîb, al-Malînî, al-Dhakwânî, Abû al-Fadl Hamd ibn Ahmad al-Haddâd, his brother Abû `Alî al-Hasan, and others.

Many of Abû Nu`aym’s Shaykhs did not certify any other than him in their lifetime, hence the statement of the hadîth Scholars that “Abû Nu`aym possessed chains of transmission that no one else in the world possessed in his time.” Because of the two factors of having received many of these chains at a very early age and the fact that he lived almost a hundred years, Abû Nu`aym also became famous for the shortness of his chains. This is attribute is much prized among hadîth Scholars in view of the rule that the shorter a chain of transmission is, the stronger the probability that its narration is error-free. Hence, Ahmad ibn Hanbal’s statement: “The pursuit of short transmission chains is a Sunna inherited from those who came before.” One drawback of Abû Nu`aym’s unique chains is that some of his shaykhs are unheard-of and therefore of unverifiable reliability.

Abû Nu`aym was assiduous in the pursuit of knowledge according to the manner of the ascetic scholars. Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Mardûyah said of him: “He had no other sustenance than giving audition (al-tasmî`) and writing.” This quality joined with his superlative intelligence and early start to make him one of the major hadîth Masters and compilers in Islâm and the most sought-after hadîth narrator in his time. Ibn Mardûyah states that even during the time that he walked home from his mosque gatherings, a student would be reading a volume of hadîth to him on the way. Al-Khatîb said: “I did not see anyone for whom the unqualified term “the hadîth Master” (al-hâfiz ) was used except two men: Abû Nu`aym and Abû Hâzim al-`Abdawî.” Hamza ibn al-`Abbâs al-`Alawî said: “The hadîth scholars used to say that the hadîth Master Abû Nu`aym remained for fourteen years without equal, no one from East to West possessing any chain of transmission shorter than his, and there was no one stronger in memorization.”

Abû Nu`aym was Ash`arî in doctrine as indicated by Ibn `Asâkir’s inclusion of him in the second generation-layer of al-Ash`arî’s students and as stated by Ibn al-Jawzî in his great history, al-Muntazam. This is confirmed by Abû Nu`aym’s doctrinal criticism of Ibn Mandah when it is known that the latter narrated anthropomorphist views and his authoring al-Radd `alâ al-Hurûfiyya al-Hulûliyya (“Refutation of the Letter-Worshippers Who Believe in Indwelling”) against Ibn Mandah’s belief that the pronunciation of the Qur’an is uncreated1 [1] Because of this adherence, Abû Nu`aym was boycotted by extremist Hanbalîs in his time. Al-Dhahabî narrates the following incident from Muhammad ibn `Abd al-Jabbâr al-Fursânî:

In my childhood I attended Abû Bakr ibn Abî `Alî al-Mu`addil’s gathering with my father. When the gathering ended someone said: “If anyone wants to attend Abû Nu`aym’s gathering, let us go!” Abû Nu`aym followed a different doctrine from al-Mu`addil’s and was boycotted by the latter’s circle because of that. For there was too much hostile partisanship between Ash`arîs and Hanbalîs, leading to dissension. Hearing the man, the hadîth scholars surrounded him with their pen-knives and he was almost killed.

Al-Dhahabî then comments: “I say, these are not hadîth scholars but ignorant transgressors – may Allâh keep their harm away!”

Abû Nu`aym’s extreme mutual enmity with the Hanbalî hadîth Master Ibn Mandah for the same reasons gave rise to sharp criticism from both sides. However, the rule followed by the succeding scholars in this and every case of mutual disaffection between contemporary rivals (aqrân mutanâfisûn ), is to ignore the attacks of each with regard to the other. Another problem sometimes raised with respect to Abû Nu`aym is his narration of a number of forgeries in Hilyat al-Awliyâ’, but the scholars have replied that he always named his narrators, which allows one to assess the reliability of every report he cites.

Ibn al-Salâh in his manual of hadîth science named Abû Nu`aym among the seven Acholars of highest excellence in the authorship of works in Islâm.2 [2] Abû Nu`aym authored over a hundred works Among them:
* Al-Arba`în `alâ Madhhab al-Mutahaqqiqîn min al-Sûfiyya, in print
* Dalâ’il al-Nubuwwa (“The Signs and Proofs of Prophethood”), devoted entirely to the person of the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ, this large work – partly in print – was expanded by al-Bayhaqî to seven volumes in a like-titled work.
* Dhikr Akhbâr Asbahân (“Memorial of the Chronicles of Ispahan”), in print
* Al-Du`afâ’, in print
* Fadâ’il al-Khulafâ’ al-Arba`a wa Ghayrihim, in print
* Fadîlat al-`Adilîn min al-Wulât, a collection of over forty narrations on just government and the duties of the governed towards the rulers. Al-Sakhâwî documented each narration in detail and both the work and its documentation were published.
* Hilyat al-Awliyâ’ wa Tabaqât al-Asfiya’ (“The Adornment of the Friends of Allâh awjand the Biography-Layers of the Pure Ones”) in ten volumes, one of the earliest comprehensive encyclopedias of Sûfî personalities. The book sold in Abû Nu`aym’s lifetime in Naysabûr for four hundred gold dinars and received many editions to our time. Ibn al-Jawzî attacked him for including the Companions in it, then proceeded to epitomize it in his two-volume Sifat al-Safwa, in which he studiously avoided using the words sûfî and tasawwuf. Ibn Kathîr praised the work as an illustration of the author’s strength in hadîth narration. Ibn al-Subkî relates that this book was among Shaykh al-Islâm Taqî al-Dîn al-Subkî’s favorite works. Abû Nu`aym stated the following in his introduction:
I have compiled a book that comprises the names, narrations, and sayings of a number of personalities among the most eminent verifying Sûfîs and their Imâms, arranged in the order of their biographical layers (Tabaqât) and including those famous for abundant worship together with their methods. It begins with the time of the Companions, their Successors, and those who came after them.
* Juz` fî Turuq Hadîth Inna Lillâhi Tis`atun wa Tis`îna Isman, in print
* Al-Mahdî.
* Ma`rifat al-Sahâba wa Fadâ’ilihim (“Knowing the Companions and Their Merits”), in print. This book was the basis of subsequent similar works by Ibn `Abd al-Barr, Ibn al-Athîr, and Ibn Hajar.
* Musnad al-Imâm Abî Hanîfa, in print
* Al-Mustakhraj `alâ al-Bukhârî (“Additional Narrations Meeting al-Bukhârî’s Criterion”), in print
* Al-Mustakhraj `alâ Muslim (“Aditional Narrations Meeting Muslim’s Criterion”), in print
* Riyâdat al-Abdân, in print
* Al-Shu`arâ’ (“The Poets”).
* Al-Sifât. Al-Suyûtî mentioned it in his commentary on Sûrat al-Nâs in his book al-Iklîl fî Istinbât al-Tanzîl.
* Sifat al-Janna (“Description of Paradise”), in print
* Tabaqât al-Muhaddithîn wal-Ruwât (“Biography-Layers of the Hadîth Scholars and Narrators”).
* Tasmiyatu mâ Intahâ ilaynâ min al-Ruwât `an al-Fadl ibn Dukayn `Aliyan, in print
* Tasmiyatu mâ Intahâ ilaynâ min al-Ruwât `an Sa`îd ibn Mansûr `Aliyan, in print
* Tathbît al-Imâma wa Tartîb al-Khilâfa, in print, a refutation of Shî`ism.
* Al-Tibb al-Nabawî (“Prophetic Medicine”).

One of the miraculous gifts bestowed upon Abû Nu`aym was his banishment from the mosque of Ispahan by a group of people there. The same people, unhappy with the Sultan Mahmûd ibn Subktukin’s appointment of a certain man as governor for them, ambushed and killed the man. Later, the Sultan, pretending to reconcile them, reunited them in the mosque from which Abû Nu`aym had been banned and massacred them to the last man. Thus Abû Nu`aym’s banishment had saved his life.


NOTES
[1] Cf. Abû Nu`aym, Dhikr Akhbâr Asbahân (2:306), al-Dhahabî, Siyar (Risâla ed 17:462), and Ibn Taymiyya, Majmû` al-Fatâwâ (12:209) and Dar’ Ta`ârud al-`Aql wal-Naql (Ed Muhammad al-Sayyid Julaynid, Cairo: Mu’assasat al-Ahrâm, 1988) 1:268=Muwâfaqat Sarîh al-Ma`qûl (1:160) on the margins of Minhâj al-Sunna al-Nabawiyya (Bulâq: al-Matba`at al-Kubrâ al-Amîriyya, 1904).
[2] Ibn al-Salâh, `Ulûm al-Hadîth (p. 348).

عربي

t.b.d.
 

Notes & Refs

© Damas Cultural Society 2007 — Latest update:
Original site: damas-original.nur.nu
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Bio: Abu Shamah al-Maqdisi

Abu Shamah Shihab al-Din al-Maqdisi

b. 599 – d. 665 in Damascus (1202-1267 CE)
الإمام عبد الرحمان بن إسماعيل بن إبراهيم عثمان المقدسي ثم الدمشقي، المعروف بأبي شامة
radiya Allah anhu

.


Grammarian and muhaddith [ZaSh] He was the third head of Damascus Dar al-hadith after Imam al-Nawawi[almuhaddith]  

Brill Entry

Abū Shāma Shihāb al-Dīn al-Maqdisī
Abū Shāma Shihāb al-Dīn ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Ismāʿīl b. Ibrāhīm b. ʿUthmān b. Abī Bakr b. Ibrāhīm b. Muḥammad al-Maqdisī (599–665/1203–68) was a scholar of seventh/thirteenth-century Damascus. Best known for his histories Kitāb al-rawḍatayn fī akhbār al-dawlatayn al-Nūriyya wa-l-Ṣalāḥiyya (The book of the two gardens, concerning affairs of the reigns of Nūr al-Dīn b. Zangī and Ṣalāḥ al-Dīn b. Ayyūb) and al-Dhayl ʿalā l-rawḍatayn (Sequel to The two gardens), Abū Shāma was one of the most important chroniclers of the Crusader and Ayyūbid periods in Greater Syria…
From Antrim, Zayde G., “Abū Shāma Shihāb al-Dīn al-Maqdisī”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, THREE, Edited by: Kate Fleet, Gudrun Krämer, Denis Matringe, John Nawas, Everett Rowson. Consulted online on 13 May 2017
First published online: 2009
First print edition: 9789004178533, 2009, 2009-2

عربي

From naseemalsham
أبو شامة المقدسي
للباحثة نبيلة القوصي

أبو القاسم شهاب الدين عبد الرحمن بن إسماعيل بن إبراهيم المقدسي الدمشقي المعروف بأبي شامة، (599 – 665 هـ ، 1202 – 1267 م) ولقب بأبو شامة، لشامة كبيرة فوق حاجبه الأيسر.

ولد سنة تسع وتسعين وخمس مائة في دمشق، وتوفي سنة خمس وستين وستمائة. قرأ القرآن وله دون العشر، وقرأ القراءات كلها سنة ست عشرة على الشيخ علم الدين السخاوي. وسمع بالإسكندرية من أبي القاسم عيسى بن عبد العزيز وغيره.

له عناية بالحديث، سمع أولاده، وقرأ بنفسه، كتب الكثير من العلوم وأتقن الفقه ودرَّس وأفتى، وبرع في العربية وصنف شرحاً “للشاطبية”، واختصر “تاريخ دمشق” مرتين، الأولى في خمس عشر مجلداً، والثانية في خمسة، شرح القصائد “النبوية” للسخاوي في مجلد.

وله كتاب “الروضتين في أخبار الدولتين: النورية والصلاحية”، وكتاب “الذيل” عليها، وكتاب “شرح الحديث المقتفى في مبعث المصطفى” وكتاب “ضوء القمر الساري إلى معرفة الباري”، وكتاب “البسملة الأكبر” في مجلد، و”الباعث على إنكار البدع والحوادث”، وكتاب “السواك”، و”الأصول من الأصول”.

ونظم “المفصل” للزمخشري، وشيوخ البيهقي وله غير ذلك، وأكثرهم لم يفرغ منها.

ولي مشيخة دار الحديث الأشرفية ومشيخة الإقراء بالتربة الأشرفية.

وقد اشترط الملك الأشرف رحمه الله أمرين اثنين لمن يتولى مشيخة دار الحديث سنة 630 هـ: الأول أن تجتمع في الشيخ علم الرواية، والشرط الثاني: علم الدراية. وتُقدم الرواية على الدراية.

وكان أبو شامة الثالث في تولي مشيخة دار الحديث ومن بعده تدلى الإمام النووي.

وعُرف أبو شامة بكثرة ترحاله، ارتحل إلى الإسكندرية وسمع من شيوخها، وشد رحاله إلى مصر أكثر من مرة، وإلى بيت المقدس، ومكة والمدينة، والمدن الشامية، وزاد عدد شيوخه على الأربعين.
أخذ عنه القراءات الشيخ شهاب الدين حسين الكفري، والشهاب أحمد اللبان، وزين الدين أبو بكر بن يوسف المزي وجماعة، وقرأ عليه شرح الشاطبية الشيخ شرف الدين الفزاري الخطيب.

دخل عليه اثنان جبليَّان إلى بيته بآخر المعمور من حكر طواحين الأشنان في صورة فتياً، فضرباه ضرباً مبرحاً كاد يتلف منه، ولم يدر به احد ولا أغاثه، وتوفي في 19 رمضان ودفن بباب الفراديس.

قال رحمه الله: جرت لي محنة بداري بطواحين الأشنان فألهم الله الصبر، وقيل لي: اجتمع بولاة الأمر فقلت: أنا قد فوضت أمري إلى الله وهو يكفينا. وقلت في ذلك:
قلت لمن قال أما تشتكي *** ما قد جرى فهو عظيم جليل
يقيض الله تعالى لنا *** ما يأخذ الحق ويشفي الغليل
إذا توكلنا عليه كفى *** وحسبنا الله ونعم الوكيل

الإعلام للزركلي ج3 / 299
مفرات الوفيات ج1 / 252
وافي الوفيات / الصفدي ج18 / 67

Burial Place

Buried at Bab al-Faradis, left to the entrance of Maqbara Dahdah from the Bab, on the meadow of al-Dahdah [Ziarat al-Sham, RB] By the side of Jami’ al-Nuhhas

map

1 2

Sources:
Ziarat al-Sham, RB, bmk ziarat
Damas Cultural Society 2007
naseemalsham

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Bio: Abu Shayba al Khudri

Abu Shayba al Khudri

أبو شيبة الخدري
d. 49 H. in Istanbul, Turkey (670 CE) sahabi
radiya Allah anhu

The Sahabah who is martyred and buried in Istanbul.
According to a narration, he is the milk brother of the Prophet ﷺ .

English

Abu Shayba al Khudri

Abū Shayba al-Khudrī was indeed amongst the Companions that came to and died before the city walls of Constantinople.

He is also mentioned in al-Istīʿāb by Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr (d. 463/1070) as follows:
Abū Shayba al-Khuḍrī heard the Prophet, may God’s prayers and peace be upon him, say, ‘Whoever says there is no god but God sincerely, he will enter Paradise.’

He died in the land of Rūm. Khalaf b. Qāsim transmitted to us that: al-Ḥasan b. Rashīq transmitted to us saying: Abū Bishr al-Dūlābī transmitted to us that: Yazīd b. ʿAbd al-Ṣamad transmitted to us saying: Ibn ʿĀʾidh transmitted to us saying: al-Walīd b. al-Ḥārith transmitted to us saying: Abū Dāwūd Sulaymān b. Mūsā al-Kūfī transmitted to us on the authority of Yūnus b. al-Ḥārith al-Thaqafī: I heard Mashras transmit on the authority of his father who said: Abū Shayba al-Khuḍrī the Companion of the Messenger of God, may God’s prayers and peace be upon him, passed away when we were at the siege of Constantinople. We buried him where he lay. (Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr, al-Istīʿāb, 4:1690)

Türkçe

Hz. Ebu Şeybe el – Hudri (r.a.)

Ebu Şeybe El-Hudri hz’i hicaz ahalisinden olup sebze satmakla geçinirdi. Bir rivayete göre Hz. Ebu Said el Hudri’nin kardeşidir. Hasırcızade’nin beyanına göre de Hz. Peygamber’in süt kardeşidir.Hicri 49 yılında Sufyan bin Avf hz’nin mahiyetindeki orduyla 85-90 yaşlarında İstanbul’un fethine gelmiş, Ayvansaray tarafından hücum eden kolda bulunmuş ve o hücum da şehit olmuştur.
Yüksek makamları akşemsettin hz leri tarafında keşf edilmiştir.

İbn Haceri Askalani şunları demektedir:
”- Ebu Şeybe el-Hudri (r.a.) sahabedendi. Hazreti Muaviye devrinde İslam orduları ile İstanbul’un fethine katılmış ve sura yakın bir yerde kendisini tanıtarak Sahabilerden Ebu Şeybe olduğunu söylemiş , bir hadis-i şerif rivayet etmiştir :
”Her kim ihlas ile La ilahe İllallah derse cennete girer.Siz kendinize güvenmeyin çalışın.”

Ebu Şeybe bundan sonra Beka alemine göçtü.Ve onu orada bir yere gömdük.”
Ebu Şeybe hz’nin kabri şerifi Toklu dede mezarlığı diye meşhur olan Ayvansaray da Ya Vedud Cami’nin karşısındadır. Osmanlı Kaynaklarında Bu hazirede İstanbul’un fethine gelen bir çok sahabinin bulunduğu kaydedilmektedir.Bundan dolayı buraya Sahabiler Haziresi de denir.
Bu hazirede aynı zamanda Fatih Sultan Mehmet Han‘ın mutlu askerlerinden medfun bulunanlarda vardır. Kanun mütercimi Tokatlı Hekim Mustafa Efendi, Çavuş Sinan İbn İskender gibi ve bu kabri şerifin türbedarı Toklu İbrahim Dede’nin kabri şerifi de buradadır.

Ebu Şeybe hz’nin kabrine ilk türbe Fatih Sultan Mehmet Han tarafında yapılmıştır. Sultan II. Beyazıd Han türbesinin ihtiyaçlarını karşılamak için kendi vakfından buraya tahsisat ayırmıştır. Türbe yine II. Mustafa zamanında 1696-1697 yıllarında tamir edilmiş tamir kitabesi de şöyledir
”Tamre yazdı tarih Vasıf görünce bi-pak
Bin yüz sekizde cana pak oldu ravza-i pak”
Daha sonra Çorlulu Ali Paşa 1711 yılında, Hafız Mustafa Efendi isiminde bir hayırseverde 1772 yılında türbe için tamir hayır işleri yapmıştır.
Bugünkü bina halini II. Mahmut Han tarafından 1835 yılında
edilmiştir.
Türbenin girişinde Sahaflar şeyhizade Esad <efendi’nin yazdığı ve Hattat Yeserizade Mustafa İzzet Efendi’nin kaleme aldığı şu dizeler vardır;
” Daver-i ashab-siret Şah Mahmüdü’ş-şiyem
Zatıdır girdar-ı hayr-asar ile her dem elif
Hazret-i Bu Şeybeti’l-Hudri’ye ta’zim eyledi
Türbesin tecdid ile ol şah-ı agah u arif
Gel hulus üzre dua kıl zira tebcilile
Merkad-i pak-i sahabidir bu ne’va-yı şerif
Tasliye zeylinde yad oldukça Ashab-ı Güzin
Nazm-ı ahdi ol şehinşahın ola nusret-redif
Oldu dildade melaik es’ada tarihine
Merkad-i Bu Şeybe’yi Şah-ı cihan yaptı latif
1251(1835) ”

Kaynaklar :
İstanbul’da Bulunan Ashab-ı Kiram kabir ve makamları ; Cafer E. Babadağlı ; Sarayburnu Kitaplığı
İstanbul Evliyaları ve Fetih şehidleri ; Şevket Gürel
İstanbul ve Anadolu Evliyaları ; Mustafa Necati Bursalı , Şifa Yayınevi

عربي

أبو شيبة الخدري

((أبو شيبة الأنصاري الخدْري.)) الإصابة في تمييز الصحابة. ((أَبُو شَيْبَةَ الخُدْرِيّ. وقيل فيه: الخُضْرِيّ، لأَنه كان يبيع الخضر. صحابي من أَهل الحجاز، وقيل: هو أَخو أَبي سعيد الخدري، والله أَعلم.)) أسد الغابة. ((قال ابْنُ سَعْدٍ في الطبقة الثالثة مِن الأنصار: أبو شيبة الخدري لم يُسَمَّ لنا، ولم [[نَجِدْ]] اسمه ولا نسبه في كتاب الأنصار.))

((أخرج حديثه ابنُ السكن، والطبراني، والبغوي، والدُّولابي، وابن منده. مِن طريق يونس بن الحارث؛ قال: حدثني شَرْس، بمعجمة ثم مهملة بينهما راء ساكنة، عن أبيه؛ قال: خرجتُ مع معاوية في غزوة القسطنطينية، فلما وصلنا ونحن نزول إذا رجل يهتف، فأقبلنا عليه، فقال: أنا أبو شَيْبَة الخُدْري، سمعتُ رسولَ الله صَلَّى الله عليه وسلم يقول: “مَنْ شَهِد أَن لَّا إِلَهَ إِلَّا الله مُخْلِصًا بِهَا قَلْبُهُ دَخَلَ الجَنَّةَ”(*). كذا قال؛ والصواب يزيد بن معاوية، ولم يذكر الطبراني القصة، ولا قال في السند عن أبيه، وحكى أبو أحمد الحاكم فيه الوجهين، وتبعه أبو عمر. وأخرج ابْنُ عَائِذٍ، والدُّولَابِيُّ، وابْنُ مَنْدَه، مِن طريق سليمان بن موسى الكوفي، عن يونس بن الحارث: سمعت شَرْسًا يحدّث عن أبيه؛ قال: توفي أبو شيبة الخُدْري ونحن على حصار القسطنطينية إذ هتف أبو شيبة فقال: ياأيها الناس. فأقبلت إليه في ناس كثير، فإذا هو مُقنّع على رأسه، فقال: مَنْ عرفني فأنا أبو شيبة الخُدْري صاحب رسول الله صَلَّى الله عليه وسلم، سمعْتُ رسولَ الله صَلَّى الله عليه وسلم يقول: “مَنْ شَهِدَ أَن لا إِلهَ إِلَّا الله مُخْلِصًا دَخَلَ الجَنَّةَ. فَاعْمَلُوا وَلَا تتَّكِلُوا”(*)، ومات فدفنَّاه مكانه. قال أَبُو حَاتِمٍ الرَّازِيُّ: شَرْس وأبوه مجهولان.))

((قال ابن السكن: له حديث واحد)) الإصابة في تمييز الصحابة.
((قيل: مات غازيًا أَيام يزيد بن معاوية، ودفن ببلاد الروم.)) أسد الغابة.

Burial Place



Maqam of Sayyiduna Abu Shayba al Khudri
* Photos from evliyalar.net

Refs

t.b.d.
 

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Bio: Abu Sulayman al-Darani

Abu Sulayman al-Darani

أبو سليمان عبد الرحمن بن عطية الداراني
(d. 215 H. in Dara near Damascus)
radiya Allah anhu

Biography in Al-Risala al-Qushayriyya – t.b.d.
Biografi Abu Sulayman al-Darani ur al-Qusayri’s Risala, övers. Göran Ogén

Bio in English

t.b.d.

عربي

t.b.d.
 

Svenska

Biografi ur al-Qusayri’s Risala


Biografi Abu Sulayman al-Darani ur Al-Risala al-Qushayriyya
Övers. Göran Ogén

12. Abū Sulaymān cAbd al-Rahmān bin cAtīya al-Dārānī(1)
1. [Han] kom från Dārān(2), en av byarna kring Damaskus, och dog år 215 (år 830 A.D.). Jag hörde Muhammad al-Husayn säga, att cAbd Allāh bin Muhammad al-Rāzī sagt, att han hört Ishaq bin Ibrāhīm bin Abū Hassān säga, att han hört Ahmad bin Abū ‘l-Hawārī säga, att han hade hört Abū Sulaymān säga ‘Den som gör gott om dagen belönas om natten, och den som gör gott om natten belönas om dagen. Om någon uppriktigt försöker lämna ett begär, så avleder Gud det från hans hjärta. Gud den högste är alltför ädel för att plåga ett hjärta med ett begär, som man vill lämna för Hans skull!’.

2.Enlig samma berättarkedja [isnād] sade han också: »När Denna världen dväljes i ett hjärta förflyttar sig Den kommande världen bort från det.»

3. Jag hörde sufimästaren Abū cAbd al-Rahmān al-Sulamī {Gud förbarme sig över honom!} säga, att han hört al-Husayn bin Yahyā säga, att han hört Djacfar bin Muhammad bin Nusayr säga, att han hört al-Djunayd säga, att Abū Sulaymān ad-Dārānī hade sagt: »Ibland hamnar något folkligt talesätt i mitt hjärta [och ligger där] några dagar, men [sen] tar jag det till mig endast utifrån två välgrundade vittnen: Koranen och Profetens goda exempel [sunna].»

4. Abū Sulaymān sade: »Den yppersta handling en människa kan utföra är att motsätta sig själens trängtan [hawan].»

5. Han sade: »Varje ting har ett kännetecken, och tecknet på att man inte längre är väl mottagen (hos Gud) är att man slutat gråta.»

6. Han sade: »Det finns ingenting som inte anfrätes, och det som hjärtats ljus anfrätes av är en full mage.»

7. Han sade: »Allt som distraherar dig från Gud, såsom familj, pengar eller barn, är olycksbringande för dig.»

8. Abū Sulaymān sade: »En kall natt befann jag mig i bönenischen (i moskén) och kylan besvärade mig, så jag gömde ena handen från kylan medan den andra var utsträckt [i bön]. Sen somnade jag till och en röst ropade då till mig ‘Abū Sulaymān! Vi har i din hand lagt det den sträckt ut sig mot. Hade den andra också varit framme, hade vi även lagt i den!’. Då svor jag vid min själ att jag aldrig [mer] skulle be utan att båda mina händer skulle vara utsträckta, vare sig det rådde hetta eller kyla.»

9. Abū Sulaymān sade: »Jag somnade bort från min litania-bön [wird] en gång och se: då står jag där hos en av Paradisets skönheter [hawrā´] som säger till mig ‘Du sover, och jag är redo för dig sedan femhundra år i kvinnogemaken!’.»

10. cAbd Allāh bin Yūsuf al-Isbahānī sade, att Abū cAmr al-Djūlāstī sagt, att Muhammad bin Ismācīl sagt, att Ahmad bin Abū ‘l-Hawārī hade sagt: »Jag gick in till Abū Sulaymān en dag. Han satt och grät, så jag frågade honom ‘Vad är det som får dig att gråta?’, och han sade ‘Ahmad, varför skulle jag då inte gråta? När natten bryter in, när ögonen har slutits till sömn och varje älskare är ensam med sin älskade, när de som älskar Gud slagit slagit sig ned på sina bönemattor(3) och deras tårar strömmar ned på deras kinder och droppar ned i deras bönenischer [mahārīb] och Den ärorike [al-djalīl] {upphöjd och hög är Han!}, som övervakar [dem ]från ovan, [då] ropar ut “O du Gabriel! Framför mina ögon finns de som finner behag i Mitt ord [kalām-ī] och själsro i ihågkallandet av Mig [dhikr-ī]. Dem övervakar Jag i deras ensamheter, hör deras suckar och ser deras gråt. Varför ropar du inte, Gabriel, till dem ‘Varför denna gråt?’. Har ni sett en älskande plåga sin älskade? Hur skulle det passa sig att Jag straffar folk när natten faller på och de smickrar Mig? Jag svär vid Mig själv: Ja, när de kommer till Mig på Uppståndelsens Dag skall Jag avtäcka Mitt ädla ansikte för dem, så att de kan se på Mig och Jag på dem!”‘.»


1) Död 215/830. Namnet på den by Abū Sulaymān kom ifrån har, förutom formen Dārān, även formerna Dārā och Dārayya, av vilka nisba-formen blir dārā´ī. Dessa varianter med motsvarande återges i Ansārīs kommentar (Al-Risāla al-qushayrīya, del I, p. 113).
Erik Hermelins översättning av kapitlet om Abū Sulaymān al-Dārānī i cAttārs Tadhkiratu’l-awliyā´ finns att läsa i hans TAZKIRATÚL’L-AWLIYÁ – VÄNNERNAS MINNE, del II, pp. 25-40: Abū Sulaimān Dārā´ī. I cAttārs persiska text står det Dārayya med nisba-formen dārā´ī, och Erik Hermerlin skriver därför helt korrekt al-Dārā´ī i enlighet med sin persiska textförlaga (Tadkirat al-awliyā´, ed. R. Nicholson (1905-07), del I, s. 229. Richard Gramlich ger Abū Sulaymān nisba-formen “ad-Dārānī” trots att han föredrar Dārayya som ortnamn efter att ha listat varianterna ovan (Das Sendschreiben al-Qušayrīs…, s. 54, not nr. 79).

2) Dārān: formerna Dārā och Dārayya förekommer också (se not 1).

3) när de som älskar Gud slagit sig ned på sina bönemattor: ordagrant “när kärlekens folk sträckt ut sina fötter” [wa’ftarasha ahl al-mahabba aqdāmahum].


Biography in Al-Risala al-Qushayriyya – t.b.d
He was from Daran…

Burial Place

Maqam of Sulayman al-Darani in Dara near Damascus


1


2


3


4

Refs

© Damas Cultural Society 2007 — Latest update: 2010-07-10
Photos: From [bmk/ziyarat] Original site: damas-original.nur.nu

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Abul al-Dahdâh al-Salihi

أبو الدحداح، أحمد بن محمد بن إسماعيل التيمي الدمشقي الصالحي
d. 328 in Damascus
radiya Allah anhu

.


 

English

  • muhaddith
  • Buried in Maqbara Dahdah

عربي

t.b.d.
 

Notes & Refs

References:
Ziarat al-Sham

© Damas Cultural Society 2007 — Latest update:
Original site: damas-original.nur.nu

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Hammam ibn Ghalib Al-Farazdaq

الفرزدق : أبو فراس همام بن غالب بن صعصعة الدارمي التميمي
b. 38 – d. 114 H. in Basra (641 – 732 CE)
rahimahu Allah

Arabic poet. A creator of the panegyrical qasida in medieval Arabic poetry.
His work is a direct continuation of the ancient Arabic poetic tradition but reflects the beliefs of Islam and often echoes the style of the Koran. His famous verse polemic (naqa’id, or intiqad) with Jarir and other poets produced verse philippics (hajw) unsurpassed in medieval Arabic literature.

 

Biography English

عربي

From wiki
الفرزدق (38 هـ / 641م – 114 هـ / 732م) شاعر من شعراء العصر الأموي واسمه همام بن غالب بن صعصعة الدارمي التميمي وكنيته ابو فراس وسمي الفرزدق لضخامة وتجهم وجهه ومعناها الرغيف، ولد الفرزدق في كاظمة لبني تميم وعاش في البصرة ، اشتهر بشعر المدح والفخرُ وَ شعرُ الهجاء.
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Al-Hakim al-Tirmidhi

أبو عبد الله محمد بن علي بن الحسين الترمذي
d. 320 H.
may Allah be pleased with him

A great sufi

English

عربي

صحب أبو عبد الله بن الجلاء وأحمد بن خضرويه

Books

His most famous book is اثبات العلل about the hikma of the Shari’a
كتب المصنف بالموقع
اثبات العلل

Booklist on archive.org
مكتبة الحكيم الترمذي
1- إثبات العلل
2- أدب النفس
3- الامثال من الكتاب والسنة
4- الحج وأسراره
5- المنهيات
6- تحصيل نظائر القران
7- ختم الأولياء
8- رياضة النفس
9- سيرة الاولياء – جواب المسائل التي سأله أهل سرخس عنها – جواب كتاب من الري
10- غور الأمور
11- كتاب الإحتياطات
12- المسائل المكنونة
13- بيان الفرق بين الصدر والقلب والفؤاد واللب
14- نوادر الأصول في معرفة أحاديث الرسول:
https://archive.org/details/nwaderasoal

Burial Place

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Abu ´Abdallah Al-Harith al-Muhasibi

أبو عبد الله الحارث بن أسد البغدادي المحاسبي
b. 165 H. in Basra – d. 243 H. in Baghdad
may Allah be pleased with him

Early sufi, companion of al-Junayd
Contemporary of Imam Ahmadibn Hanbal

English

Entry in Qushayri’s Risala PDF

Abu ´Abdallah al-Harith al-Muhasibi
He was unique in his age in regard to [religious] knowledge, pious scrupulosity, acts of devotion and mystical states. He came from Basra and died in Baghdad in 243.77 It is said that he inherited from his father the sum of 70 thousand dirhams, but he did not take anything from it. It is said that this was because his father was an adherent of [the doctrine of] human free will78 and he considered that it would be unscrupulous to take anything from his legacy. A sound report from the Prophet – may God bless and greet him – says: “People of two different religions do not inherit anything from one another.”

I heard Muhammad b. al-Husayn say: al-Husayn b. Yahya said: Ja∏far b. Muhammad b. Nusayr [al-Khuldi] said: I heard Muhammad b. Masruq say: “When al-Harith b. Asad al-Muhasibi died, he had not a single dirham. His father left him land and real estate, but he did not take anything from it.” I heard that our master Abu ∏Ali al-Daqqaq – may God have mercy on him – said:
“Whenever al-Harith al-Muhasibi extended his hand to a suspicious food,79 a vein in his finger would begin to move and he would abstain from it.”

Abu ∏Abdallah b. Khafif80 said: “Follow the example of five of our masters and think well of the rest. They are: al-Harith al-Muhasibi, al-Junayd b. Muhammad, Abu Muhammad Ruwaym, Abu πl-∏Abbas b. ∏Ataπ and ∏Amr b. ∏Uthman al-Makki. They combined knowledge81 with [mystical] truths.”

I heard Abu ∏Abd al-Rahman al-Sulami – may God have mercy on him – say:
I heard ∏Abdallah b. ∏Ali al-Tusi say: I heard Ja∏far al-Khuldi say: I heard Abu Uthman al-Baladi say: al-Harith al-Muhasibi said: “He who has cleansed his inner self with self-observation and sincerity, God will embellish his external form with pious self-exertion and the following of [the Prophet’s] Sunna.”

It is related that al-Junayd said: “Once I saw al-Harith al-Muhasibi passing by. I noticed traces of hunger on his face.//46 I told him: ‘Uncle, come into the house and have something to eat.’ He agreed. I entered the house and searched for something to feed him with. At that time, there was in the house some food that was brought to me from a wedding party. So, I took this food and gave it to him. He took a morsel of the food and rolled it in his mouth [with the tongue] several times, then he stood up, threw it into the corridor, and left. When I saw him a few days later, I inquired about this. He answered: ‘I was hungry and wanted to make you happy by eating your food. However, there is between me and God a [special] sign. He does not permit me to eat any suspicious food.82 Therefore He did not allow me to swallow that food. Where did it come to you from?’ I said that it was brought to the house of a relative of mine from a wedding party. I asked him whether he would come in today. He said that he would. I gave him a piece of dry bread that we happened to have. He ate it and said: ‘If you want to give something to the poor one,83 it should be something like this [piece of bread].’ ”

عربي

Books

كتب المصنف بالموقع
الرعاية لحقوق الله

Booklist on archive.org
مكتبة الحارث المحاسبي
1- التوبة
2- آداب النفوس – ويليه كتاب التوهم
3- الرعاية لحقوق الله
4- العقل وفهم القرآن
5- المكاسب الورع والشبهة وبيان مباحاها ومحظورها واختلاف الناس في طلبها والرد على الغالطين فيه
6- الوصايا
7- بدء من أناب الى الله ويليه آداب النفوس
8- رسالة المسترشدين
9- شرح المعرفة وبذل النصيحة
10- كتاب العلم
11- معاتبة النفس

Burial Place

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Al-Khatib al-Baghdadi

b. 392 – d. 463 in Baghdad
الخطيب البغدادي‎‎
radiya Allah anhu

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English

By Dr. G.F. Haddad

“Truly, hadith pleases the virile among men, while the effeminate among them hate it.”
Al-Zuhri.

Al-Khatib al-Baghdadi, Abu Bakr Ahmad ibn ‘Ali ibn Thabit ibn Ahmad ibn Mahdi al-Shafi‘i (392-463), with Abu al-Ma‘ali Ibn al-Juwayni and Abu al-Qasim al-Qushayri the third most important figure in the fourth generation-layer of Abu al-Hasan al-Ash‘ari’s school, praised by al-Dhahabi as “the most peerless imam, erudite scholar and mufti, meticulous hadith master, scholar of his time in hadith, prolific author, and seal of the hadith masters.” Al-Qinnawji said: “He was a jurist whose preference went to hadith and history.” His father – a memorizer of Qur’an and the main preacher (khatîb) in Darzijan Southwest of Baghdad – sat him at the age of eleven in the class of Ibn Razquyah al-Bazzar (d. 412), after which he travelled first to Baghdad then Naysabur around 415, back to Baghdad, then Asbahan for two years, Ray, Hamadhan, Dinawar, back to Baghdad, then al-Sham and Mecca for pilgrimage, then Baghdad or his nearby native Darzijan until 451, then Damascus until 459, then Tyre (Sûr) until 462, then Baghdad again where he died.

Al-Khatib wrote abundantly on the science of hadith and became the undisputed hadith authority in his time according to his student, the Hanbali hadith master Ibn ‘Aqil. He heard countless hadith masters, among them Abu Bakr al-Barqani (who also narrated from him), Abu Nu‘aym al-Asbahani, al-‘Abdawi, and the pious centenarian virgin scholar Karima bint Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-Marwaziyya (d. 463) – one of al-Kushmihani’s students – from whom al-Khatib took al-Bukhari’s Sahih in five days during his pilgrimage trip at age fifty-two. He took Shafi‘i fiqh from Abu al-Hasan ibn al-Mahamili and the qadi Abu al-Tayyib al-Tabari, whom he frequented for several years. Among his famous students: al-Nasr al-Maqdisi, Ibn Makula, al-Humaydi, Abu Mansur al-Shaybani – who transmitted his Tarikh – and the Hanbali Abu Ya‘la.

Ibn Makula and al-Mu’taman al-Saji said that the people of Baghdad never saw anyone such as al-Khatib after al-Daraqutni. Abu ‘Abd Allah al-Suri ranked al-Khatib far above Abu Nasr al-Sijzi. Abu ‘Ali al-Baradani said: “It is probable al-Khatib never met his equal.” Abu Ishaq al-Isfarayini said: “Al-Khatib is the Daraqutni of our time.” Ibn Makula said:

He was one of the foremost scholars whom we witnessed in his science, precision, memorization, and accuracy in the hadith of the Messenger of Allah e . He was an expert in its minute defects, its chains of transmission, its narrators and transmitters, the sound and the rare, the unique and the denounced, the defective and the discarded. The people of Baghdad never had someone comparable to Abu al-Hasan ‘Ali ibn ‘Umar al-Daraqutni after the latter, except al-Khatib.

Sa‘id al-Mu’addib asked al-Khatib: “Are you the hadith master Abu Bakr?” He replied: “I am Ahmad ibn ‘Ali; hadith mastership ended with al-Daraqutni.”

About hadith mastership al-Khatib wrote:

He does not excel in hadith science nor is able to peruse its complexities and shed light on its hidden benefits except he who has gathered its variants, collated its loose ends, brought it all together, and worked assiduously to compile it under its topical subheadings, organizing its different types. This activity strengthens competence, cements memorization, purifies the heart, hones the personality, expands the tongue, greatly improves language, unveils ambiguities and clarifies them. It also earns memorability and immortality, as the poet said:

Some die then knowledge keeps alive their memory,
While ignorance joins the dead with the dead.

‘Abd al-‘Aziz ibn Ahmad al-Kattani said: “Al-Khatib followed the [doctrinal] school of Abu al-Hasan al-Ash‘ari – Allah have mercy on him.” Al-Dhahabi reports this and comments: “This is true. For al-Khatib explicitly stated, concerning the reports on the Divine Attributes, that they are passed on exactly as they were received, without interpretation.” Ibn al-Subki comments: “This is al-Ash‘ari’s position, yes. But al-Dhahabi is the victim of his lack of knowledge of Shaykh Abu al-Hasan’s position just as others were also victims: for al-Ash‘ari also has another position allowing for figurative interpretation (al-ta’wîl).” Al-Dhahabi does go on to relate al-Khatib’s precise disowning of both nullification (ta‘tîl) and anthropomorphism (tajsîm) of the divine Attributes:

Abu Bakr al-Khatib said: “As for what pertains to the divine Attributes, whatever is narrated in the books of sound reports concerning them, the position of the Salaf consists in their affirmation and letting them pass according to their external wordings while negating from them modality (kayfiyya) and likeness to things created (tashbîh). The principle to be followed in this matter is that the discourse on the Attributes is a branch of the discourse on the Essence. The path to follow in the former is the same extreme caution as in the latter. When it is understood that the affirmation of the Lord of the Worlds [in His Essence] is only an affirmation of existence and not of modality, it will be similarly understood that the affirmation of His Attributes is only an affirmation of their existence, not an affirmation of definition (tahdîd) nor an ascription of modality. So when we say: Allah I has a Hand, hearing, and sight, they are none other than Attributes Allah I has affirmed for Himself. We should not say that the meaning of ‘hand’ is power (al-qudra) nor that the meaning of ‘hearing’ and ‘sight’ is knowledge (‘ilm), nor should we say that they are organs (lâ naqûlu innahâ jawârih)! Nor should we liken them to hands, hearings, and sights that are organs and implements of acts. We should say: All that is obligatory is [1] to affirm them because they are stated according to divine prescription (tawqîf), and [2] to negate from them any likeness to created things according to His saying ( There is nothing whatsoever like unto Him) (42:11) ( and there is none like Him) (112:4).”

Our teacher Dr. Nur al-Din ‘Itr comments al-Khatib’s position thus:

This is a vulnerable spot where feet tread a slippery path. Many are those who fell into likening Allah to His creatures because of it, or into something like it – our refuge is in Allah! – while believing that this was the position of the pious Salaf y but Allah has exonerated the latter from holding it. … Imam al-Khatib passed the obstacle at which point pens lapsed and illusions flared, for he refuted the Mu‘tazila and their likes who contradict the divine Attributes, and he understood the position of the Salaf as it truly is by affirming those Attributes with a kind of affirmation that commits to Allah I the knowledge of their reality, not an affirmation of dimensionality and modality (athbata tilka al-sifât ithbâtan yufawwidu ‘ilma haqîqatihâ ilâ Allâhi ta‘âlâ lâ ithbâta tahdîd wa takyîf). He thereby asserted the school of the Salaf as it really was, not as some erratic people in our time understand it to be. The latter are in fact arrogant wranglers who cannot tell the difference between the Salaf’s committal of the actual knowledge of these matters to Allah I , their holding His Transcendence above whatever anthropomorphism the terms may suggest, and the anthropomorphism of the ignorant Karramiyya!

Abu al-Faraj al-Isfarayini said: “Al-Khatib was with us in Hajj, and he used to conclude an integral recitation of Qur’an outloud every day. People would gather around him as he was mounted, saying: ‘Narrate hadith to us,’ and he would narrate to them.” ‘Abd al-Muhsin al-Shihi said: “I was al-Khatib’s travelling companion from Damascus to Baghdad, and he used to recite the entire Qur’an once every day and night.”

Ibn al-Abanusi reported that al-Khatib used to read while walking. This is a common habit among hadith masters. Al-Khatib himself narrated that ‘Ubayd ibn Ya‘ish said: “For thirty years I never ate at night with my own hand. My sister would spoonfeed me while I wrote hadith.”

Al-Khatib wrote in his Tarikh Baghdad in the entry devoted to Isma‘il ibn Ahmad al-Naysaburi al-Darir: “He went to pilgrimage and narrated hadith, and what a wonderful shaykh he was! When he went to Hajj he took with him a load of books, intending to reside in Mecca or Madina for a while. Among them was al-Bukhari’s Sahih which he had heard from al-Kushmihani. I read it before him entirely in three sittings. The third session lasted from the beginning of the day until night, and it ended with the rising of dawn.” Al-Dhahabi comments: “This was – by Allah! – the kind of reading faster than which no-one ever heard.”

Abu al-Qasim ibn al-Muslima, al-Qa’im bi Amrillah’s vizier – nicknamed Ra’is al-ru’asa’ – and a hadith scholar, patronized al-Khatib with a small fortune which enabled the latter to devote himself to teaching and writing. He passed an edict that no teacher nor preacher in Baghdad narrate a hadith without authenticating it with al-Khatib first. He once asked the latter to verify a document which some Jews produced claiming that it was the Prophet’s e exemption of the tax on non-Muslims (jizya) for the Jews of Khaybar written, they said, in the hand of ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib t . Al-Khatib looked at the document then declared it a forgery on the grounds that it was witnessed by Mu‘awiya – who entered Islam in the year of the conquest of Mecca, whereas Khaybar was conquered in the year 7 – and Sa‘d ibn Mu‘adh who died during the battle of Banu Qurayza two years before Khaybar.

Al-Khatib came to settle in Damascus, fleeing Baghdad in Safar 451 in fear for his life during the Fatimi-leaning Turk Arslan al-Basasiri’s (d. Dhu al-Hijja 451) attempted coup against al-Qa’im bi Amrillah (422-467) and the Abbasid caliphate, although Damascus itself was under Fatimi rule. He then fled Damascus again in 459 to go to Tyre until 462, whence he returned to Baghdad, visiting Syrian Tripoli, Aleppo, and all the main cities on his way. Ibn Nasir narrated: “When al-Khatib read hadith in the mosque of Damascus, his voice could be heard from one end of the mosque to the other and he spoke in pure Arabic.” He is also noted for his accurate and elegant handwriting.

Al-Mu’taman narrated that al-Khatib said: “Whoever authors books puts his mind on a plate for display to people.” He fled from Damascus to Tyre because of enmity from the Rafidi governor of Damascus and accusations that he was a Nasibi or enemy of Ahl al-Bayt on grounds of narrating Ahmad ibn Hanbal’s book on the merits of the Companions and Ibn Rizquyah’s book on the merits of al-‘Abbas. “At that time the call to prayer in Damascus included the phrase hayya ‘alâ khayri al-‘amal.”

Abu Mansur ‘Ali ibn ‘Ali al-Amin narrated that when al-Khatib returned from al-Sham he was wealthy in garments and gold but without heir. So he wrote to al-Qa’im bi Amrillah: “My property will go back to the public treasury (bayt al-mâl), so give me permission to distribute it among those I choose.” He then distributed it – two hundred dinars – to the scholars of hadith.

Ibn Tahir said: “I asked [the Sufi hadith master] Hibat Allah ibn ‘Abd al-Warith al-Shirazi: ‘Was al-Khatib like his books in memorization?’ He said: ‘No, if we asked him of something he might take days to answer us and if we pressed him he would get angry. He was abrupt and his memorization was not on a par with his books.’” This assessment is belied by the scholars’ comparison of al-Khatib to al-Daraqutni and by the example of his extemporaneous response cited below. Furthermore, al-Dhahabi relates from al-Sam‘ani that Hibat Allah (d. 486) entered Baghdad in 457 when al-Khatib was away, and the latter did not return until 462, one year before his death.

Al-Khatib frequented Abu Ishaq al-Isfarayini’s classes for three years at a time when Abu Ishaq was the unchallenged headmaster of the Shafi‘i school in his time. One day he mentioned the narrator Bahr ibn Kaniz al-Saqqa’ then turned to al-Khatib and asked: “What do you say concerning him [i.e. his reliability]?” Al-Khatib replied: “If you give me permission then I shall mention his state.” Al-Isfarayini then sat back like a student before his master, while al-Khatib gave a lengthy and detailed account of the narrator’s grading on the spot. Abu Ishaq was one of those who carried al-Khatib’s bier to his grave.

Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-Malik al-Hamadhani said in his Tarikh: “The science died at the time of al-Khatib’s death.”

Ibn ‘Asakir narrated: “When al-Khatib first drank Zamzam water he asked Allah I for three petitions [according to the Prophetic narration “Zamzam water makes good whatever [need in the world and the hereafter] it is drunk for”]: to be able to narrate the history of Baghdad in that city, to dictate hadith in the mosque of al-Mansur [in Baghdad], and to be buried near Bishr al-Hafi. He obtained all three.”

Abu al-Barakat Isma‘il ibn Abi Sa‘d al-Sufi said:

Shaykh Abu Bakr Ahmad ibn ‘Ali al-Turaythithi, known as Ibn Zahra’ al-Sufi, was in our ribât and had prepared for himself a grave next to Bishr al-Hafi’s grave. He used to go there once a week to sleep in it, reciting the entire Qur’an at that time. When Abu Bakr al-Khatib died after stipulating that he be buried next to Bishr al-Hafi, the scholars of hadith came to Ibn Zahra’ asking permission to bury him in Ibn Zahra’s grave and cede his place to him. He refused, saying: “How can I allow a spot I have prepared for myself to be taken away from me?” They came to my father [Abu Sa‘d al-Sufi] who invited Ibn Zahra’ and told him: “I do not say to you to give them your grave, but I ask you: if Bishr al-Hafi were alive and you were at his side, then al-Khatib came and sat farther away, would it be fit for you to sit higher than him?” He replied: “No, I would make him sit in my place.” He said: “It is the same in this situation.” Ibn Zahra’s heart was happy with this and he gave his permission.

Al-Khatib was an ascetic, industrious scholar given to worship, a trustworthy hadith master withdrawn from the courts of princes, generous, grave and earnest in his manners, and both tireless and meticulous in his work. He wrote 10,000 pages totalling 104 books, many of them remaining to our time authoritative manuals in hadith science noted for their insight and wide compass. Ibn Hajar said in his introduction to Sharh Nukhba al-Fikar: “There is hardly a single discipline among the sciences of hadith in which al-Khatib did not author a monograph.” Then he cited the hadith master Ibn Nuqta’s praise: “Whoever gives credit where credit is due knows that hadith scholars, after al-Khatib, all depend on his books.” Among them:

Al-Amali (“The Dictations”) of which three volumes exist in the Zahiriyya collection.
Al-Asma’ al-Mubhama (“Anonymous Mentions”), identifying those mentioned anonymously in hadiths or hadith chains.
Al-Bukhala’ (“The Misers”) in three volumes.
Al-Faqih wa al-Mutafaqqih (“The Jurist and the Student of the Law”).
Al-Fasl li al-Wasl al-Mudraj fi al-Naql (“The Decisive Statement On Attributions Inserted Into Transmission”).
Al-Fawa’id al-Muntakhaba (“The Select Benefits”).
Iqtida’ al-‘Ilm al-‘Amal (“Knowledge Necessitates Deeds”), a collection of narrations on this topic, which he prefaced with the words:

O student of knowledge, I exhort you to purify your intention in pursuing knowledge and to strive to make your soul act according to knowledge’s dictates. For the science is a tree of which deeds are the fruit, and he is not counted learned, who does not put his learning into practice…. And did those of the Salaf of the past reach whatever high levels they reached, other than by purified beliefs, righteous deeds, and renouncing most of the refinements of the world? And did the wise people of the past attain greater felicity except through hard work and diligence, contentment with little, and spending of their superfluity to meet the need of the needy and destitute? Surely, he who gathers books of knowledge is no different than he who gathers gold and silver. Surely, the devourer of books is no different from the greedy miser. Surely, the bibliophile enamoured with books is no different from the hoarder of gold and silver. Therefore, just as wealth does not benefit except through its spending, likewise do the sciences not benefit except those who put them into practice and observes their requirements.

Al-Jahr bi Bismillah al-Rahman al-Rahim (“Pronouncing the basmala Outloud”), listing – as al-Daraqutni did in his Sunan – the proof-texts of the Shafi‘i school on this practice. Ibn al-Jawzi in al-Sahm al-Musib stated that all of the hadiths adduced by al-Khatib in al-Jahr – as is the case with al-Daraqutni’s proofs for the basmala in his Sunan – are either weak or very weak. Al-Dhahabi also wrote a critique of al-Khatib’s book, as did the Hanbali Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn ‘Abd al-Hadi.
Al-Jami‘ li Akhlaq al-Rawi wa Adab al-Sami‘ (“The Compendium on the Ethics of the Hadith Narrator and the Manners of the Auditor”) in two volumes, the continuation of Sharaf Ashab al-Hadith. It contains the following chapters:

1: Intention in the Pursuit of Hadith
2: The Characteristics That Must Distinguish the Narrator and Auditor of Hadith (3 sections)
3: “High” (= short) Chains of Transmissions (4 sections)
4: Choosing One’s Shuyûkh Once Their Attributes Are Known (9 sections)
5: The Etiquette of Study (4 sections)
6: The Etiquette of Asking Permission to Enter the House of the Hadith Master (7 sections)
7: The Etiquette of Entering the House of the Hadith Master (9 sections)
8: The Veneration and Honoring of the Hadith Master (6 sections)In the section entitled “Kissing the Hand of the Hadith Scholar, His Head, and His Right [Shoulder]” al-Khatib narrates the following three hadiths among others:

a) From ‘Abd Allah ibn ‘Umar: “I was in one of the Messenger of Allah military detachments, and we came up to him until we kissed his hand.”

b) From Usama ibn Sharik: “We rose up approaching the Prophet, and kissed his hand.”

c) From ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn ‘Abd Allah ibn Ka‘b al-Ansari or ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn Razin: “We came and greeted Salama ibn Akwa‘. He brought out his hands and said: ‘I pledged loyalty with these two hands to the Messenger of Allah (s) .’ He brought out a hand as big as a camel’s paw. We rose up approaching him, and kissed it.”

9: The Etiquette of Hadith Audition
10: The Etiquette of Interrogating the Hadith Master (5 sections)
11: How to Memorize What Comes From the Hadith Master (2 sections)
12: The Encouragement to Lend the Books of Audition and the Blame of Those Who Go the Way
of Avarice and Refusal (2 sections)
13: The Recording of Hadiths in Books and the Etiquette Pertaining Thereunto
14: Beautifying One’s Calligraphy (8 sections)
15: The Obligation to Check Against the [Hadith Master’s] Book For Verification and the Elimination of Doubt and Misgivings
16: Reading To the Hadith Master and Its Etiquette (7 sections)
17: Mention of the Morals and Ethics of the Narrator and What Manners He Must Use With His Disciples and Companions (4 sections)
18: It is Offensive to Narrate to Those That Do Not Seek It And It is A Waste to Give It to Other Than Those Who Are Qualified (8 sections)
19: The Hadith Master’s Giving of High Respect to the Students of Knowledge and His Keeping the Best Opinion of Them and A Mild Disposition (8 sections)
20: The Hadith Master Must Exempt Himself From Accepting Remuneration For Narrating (3 sections)
21: His Caring For His Appearance and Looking to His Adornment Before Narrating Hadith (28 sections:)

1. Siwâk
2. Paring Nails
3. Clipping the Moustache
4. Grooming the Hair
5. Wearing Clean Clothes
6. Avoiding Foods That Cause Bad Breath
7. Dyeing One’s White Hair [with Henna], Contrary to Jews and
Christians
8. It is Fine to Use Saffron or Memecylon (wars) To That Effect
9. The Dislike of Dying One’s Hair Black
10. The Preferred Garments For the Hadith Master
11. His Shirt
12. The outer headcover (qalansuwa) and turban (‘imâma)
13. The unstitched head-shawl (taylasân)
14. Wearing a Ring
15. Combing His Beard
16. Incensing and Perfuming Himself
17. Looking At Himself In the Mirror
18. Wearing Sandals
19. His Composure in Walking
20. His Initiating Salâm With Whomever He Meets Among the Muslims
21. Entering His Gathering of People
22. The Desirability of His Sitting Square-Legged and In A Humble Manner
23. Using Gentle Speech and Keeping Composure In Discourse
24. Avoiding Jesting With the People In the Gathering
25. The Desirability of Being Gentle In His Rebukes Without
Acrimony Nor Breach
26. The States In Which Narrating Is Offensive
27. Those Who Disliked Narrating Other Than In A State of Purity
28. Those In A State of Impurity Who, Wishing to Narrate, Perform Dry Ablution (tayammum)

34: The Hadith Master’s Care To Share His Company Equally Among His Companions (5 sections)
35: His Care to Be Absolutely Truthful in His Speech Regardless of His Concerns and Situation (9 sections, of which the third, seventh, and eighth examine the question of narrating hadith according to meaning rather than precise wording
36: The Ruling Concerning Whoever Narrated a Hadith From Memory Then Was Contradicted In It (4 sections)
37: Dictating Hadith And Dictation Sessions (7 sections)
38: Employing A Repeater (mustamlî) (33 sections)
39: Competition Over The Hadith Among Its Students And Mutual Secretiveness So As To Withhold Its Benefit
40: The Obligation of Mutual Faithful Counsel and Benefit With Regard to Narrations
41: Picking and Choosing Hadith By Those Who Are Unable To Write All Its ChainsComprehensively (6 sections)
42: Concerning the Writing of Hadith In Detail and In Its Totality And the Need For This Endeavor In the Compilation of Books Related To Its Various Sciences (15 sections)
43: Travelling In Pursuit of A Hadith To Far-Off Countries So As To Meet the Hadith Masters There And Obtain Short Chains of Transmission (13 sections)
44: The Memorization of Hadith and the Penetration of Insight Concerning It (12 sections:)

1. Emphasis on the Memorization of Hadith
2. Those Who Described Themselves as Memorizers
3. Hadith Learning is Not By Mere Instruction For It Is None Other Than a Type of Knowledge Allah I Creates in the Heart
4. The Means That Facilitate Hadith Memorization
5. A Supplication For the Memorization of Qur’an, Hadith, and the Various Disciplines
6. Types of Preferred Foods and Those Recommended Against For the Improvement of Memory
7. The Requisite Schedule of Night Study of Hadith For the Student
8. Repeating What is Memorized To Master It By Heart:

Al-Zubayr ibn Bakkar said: “My father came in and saw me reading silently in a notebook, reading it back to myself. He said to me: ‘Your only aid in your type of narration is whatever your sight conveys to your heart. If you want narration then look at it and read it out loud also. For then, your aid comes from both what your sight conveys to your heart and what your hearing conveys to your heart.’” Dr. M. ‘Ajaj al-Khatib commented on this narration: “These are fine and true words, for this is what the authorities in education and psychology say: the more senses participate in the absorption of a subject or its learning, the faster and easier its memorization.”

‘Ilqima said: “Repeat the hadith at length and it will never be erased from memory.”

One time a pail of water was placed before Ibn Shihab al-Zuhri. When he placed his hand in it, he happened to remember a hadith. He did not remove his hand from the water until fajr rose and until he had completely mastered the hadith.

Sufyan al-Thawri said: “Make the hadith your own discourse to yourself and the very thought of your hearts, and you will then memorize it.”

Ja‘far al-Maraghi said: “I went into a cemetery in Tustar, and I heard someone shouting: ‘And al-A‘mash, from Abu Salih, from Abu Hurayra; and al-A‘mash, from Abu Salih, from Abu Hurayra,’ for a long time. I began to look for the source of this voice until I saw Ibn Zuhayr, studying al-A‘mash’s narrations alone, from memory.”

9. Rehearsing Hadith With All Types of People
10. Rehearsing Hadith With Disciples And Friends
11. Rehearsing Hadith With Spouses And Companions
12. Rehearsing Hadith With Older People

Abu Sa‘id al-Khudri said: “Review (tadhâkarû) hadith with each other, for one hadith brings out another.”

‘Ilqima said: “Rehearse the hadith to one another, for its life is its remembrance.”

Ibrahim al-Nakha‘i said: “Whoever is pleased with memorizing hadith let him narrate it to others, even to those who have no inkling for it. When he does this, the hadith will be like a book in his breast.”

Al-Zuhri used to read back the hadiths he had memorized to his slave-girl and the beduins in his land.

Ibn ‘Abbas would say to Sa‘id ibn Jubayr: “O Sa‘id! Narrate.” Sa‘id replied: “I, narrate in your presence?” Ibn ‘Abbas replied: “If you make a mistake I will let you know.”

‘Ali ibn al-Madini said: “Six men would almost take leave of their minds upon hadith repetition: Yahya [ibn Ma‘in], ‘Abd al-Rahman [ibn Mahdi], Waki‘ [ibn al-Jarrah], [Sufyan] Ibn ‘Uyayna, Abu Dawud, and ‘Abd al-Razzaq – due to their ardent love of it. One night, Waki‘ and ‘Abd al-Rahman rehearsed hadith together in ths Holy Sanctuary and did not stop until the caller to prayer raised the adhân of fajr.”

‘Ali ibn al-Hasan ibn Shaqiq said: “I was with ‘Abd Allah ibn al-Mubarak in the mosque on a cold winter night and we rose to leave. When we reached the door he reminded me of a hadith and I reminded him of another. We did not stop reminding each other until the caller to prayer came and raised the morning adhân.”

45: The Exposition and Definition of the Immense Merit of Compiling And Authoring Books (15 sections)

Abu Zur‘a was asked about the [final] number of those [Companions] who narrated hadith from the Prophet (s). He replied: “Who can compute it? Those who witnessed with the Prophet (s)the Farewell Pilgrimage were 40,000 and those who witnessed the campaign of Tabuk with him were 70,000.” In another narration someone asked him: “O Abu Zur‘a! Is it not said that the hadith of the Prophet (s)is 4,000 narrations [in all]?” He replied: “And who said that – may Allah untooth him! – ? This is what heretics say (hâdhâ qawlu al-zanâdiqa). Who can circumscribe the totality of the hadith of the Messenger of Allah e ? When he died there were 114,000 sahâba who narrated and had heard from him.

46: Ceasing Narration In Old Age Lest Memory Is Affected And the Mind Becomes Confused:

Abu Muhammad al-Hasan ibn ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn Khallad said: “If the hadith scholar lives a long life, I find it preferable that he stop transmitting narrations at the age of eighty, for it is the period of senility. Making glorification, asking forgiveness, and reciting Qur’an is all more appropriate for eighty-year-olds. But if his mind is crystal-clear and he has perspicuity, knowing the narrations in his possession and in full mastery of them, and he purports to narrate for the obtainment of reward, then I hope all the best for him.”

Al-Khayl (“Equestrianism”). Al-Khatib relates from his father that their origin was of a Beduin Arab tribe specializing in raising horses in al-Jasasa, bordering the Euphrates.
Al-Kifaya fi ‘Ilm al-Riwaya (“The Sufficiency in the Science of Hadith Narration”) in about 170 chapters in which al-Khatib “exhaustively listed the codes of hadith narration, expounding its principles and universal rules as well as the schools of the experts wherever their opinions differed; it remains, in our time, the greatest book on the subject.”
Manaqib Ahmad ibn Hanbal (“The Immense Merits of Imam Ahmad”).
Manaqib al-Shafi‘i (“The Immense Merits of Imam al-Shafi‘i”).
Al-Mudih li al-Jam‘ wa al-Tafriq (“The Clarifier of Collation and Dispersion”), listing the different names under which the same person may be identified in transmission chains.
Musnad Abi Bakr al-Siddiq ‘ala Shart al-Sahihayn (“Narrations Related by Abu Bakr According to the Criterion of al-Bukhari and Muslim”).
Al-Muttafaq wa al-Muftaraq (“Similar-Looking Narrators’ Names”).
Nasiha Ahl al-Hadith (“The Faithful Counsel of the Masters of Hadith”)
Poetry, in which he declaimed:

If your quest is for true direction
In the twin matter of your world and the hereafter,
Then dissent with your own soul in its lusts;
Truly lust is the meeting of all corruption.

Al-Qunut wa al-Athar al-Marwiyya Fih (“The qunût and Its Proof-Texts”) according to the Shafi‘i school.
Al-Rihla fi Talab al-Hadith (“Travel in Pursuit of A Hadith”), published by Dr. Nur al-Din ‘Itr who termed it “a vast demonstration and signal proof establishing the rank reached by our great scholars in their high energies, lofty pursuits, noble goals and means… by which we hope to sound the wake-up call for our cultivated youth and students of knowledge, that they may tread the path of their first masters, the immortal ulema of their Community.”
Riwaya al-Sahaba ‘an al-Tabi‘i (“Narration of the Companions From a Tabi‘i”), listing examples of this occasional case.
Al-Sabiq wa al-Lahiq (“The Precursor and the Subsequent in Chronology”) in ten volumes.
Salat al-Tasbih wa al-Ikhtilaf Fiha (“The Prayer of Glorification and the Difference of Opinion Concerning Its Status”), an authoritative presentation of its proof-texts that goes together with Ibn Nasir al-Din al-Dimashqi’s al-Tarjih li Hadith Salat al-Tasbih, al-Mundhiri’s documentation in the first volume of al-Targhib wa al-Tarhib, and Ibn al-Salah’s discussion in his Fatawa.

Sharaf Ashab al-Hadith (“The Eminence of the Masters of Hadith”) in which he narrated Abu Dawud’s saying: “Were it not for this band of people we would not be studying Islam.” The narrations al-Khatib gathered in this precious book list the attributes used by the Imams of hadith for the scholars of the Prophetic narrations:

“Those Who Command Good and Forbid Evil” [Ibrahim ibn Musa] “The Substitute-Saints” [Sufyan al-Thawri, Yazid ibn Harun, Ahmad ibn Hanbal] “The Pillars of the Shari‘a” [al-Khatib] “The Nearest of People to the Prophet (s)” [because of the hadith: “Truly the nearest of people to me on the Day of Resurrection are those who invoked the most blessings upon me”].
“The Owners of Transmission Chains [to the Prophet (s)]” [Yazid ibn Zuray‘] “The Owners of Frayed Garments and Inkwells” [Caliph al-Ma’mun] “The Best of All Scholars” [al-Khatib] “The Best of All People” [al-Awza‘i] “The Best of Those Who Spoke About Knowledge” [Ahmad] “The Trustees of Allah Over His Religion” [Abu Hatim al-Razi] “The Messenger’s Trustees” [al-Khatib] “The People of Belief” [because of the hadith: “Do you know who of those who possess belief is the best in belief?” They said the angels. He replied: “This is true, and it is right that they should be so, but nothing stands in their way because of the position in which Allah I has placed them. I mean others.” They said: “The Prophets whom Allah honored with Prophetship and Messengership.” He replied in the same way. They said the martyrs. He replied: “This is true, and it is right that they should be so, but nothing stands in their way because of the honor Allah bestowed upon them with martyrdom. I mean others.” They asked: “Who then, O Messenger of Allah?” He said: “Generations yet in the loins of men who shall come after me; they shall believe in me without seeing me and confirm me without seeing me. They shall see the suspended leaves [of the Law] and put them into practice.”
“The People of Truth” [al-Khatib] “The People of Righteousness” [‘Umar ibn ‘Abd al-‘Aziz] “The Vessels of Knowledge” [al-Khatib] “The People Most Meritorious of Salvation in the Hereafter” [because of the hadith: “Truly the safest among you against the disasters of the Day of Resurrection on that day are those of you who invoked the most blessings on me in the world”].
“The Friends of Allah” [al-Khalil ibn Ahmad] “The Massive Throng” [al-Khatib] “The Guardians of the Earth” [Sufyan al-Thawri] “The Guardians of the Religion” [al-A‘mash] “The Implanters of the Religion” [Ibn al-Mubarak] “The Party of Allah” [al-Khatib] “The Preservers of the Pillars of the Law” [al-Khatib] “The Preservers of the Prophet’s Sunna” [al-Khuraybi] “The Custodians of the Faith” [Kahmas] “The Protectors of the Faith” [al-Khatib] “The Repellers of False Imputations to the Prophet” [Ibn Ma‘in] “The Carriers of Knoweldge” [al-Khuraybi] “The Storehouses of the Religion” [al-Khatib] “The Successors of the Messenger (s)” [al-Khatib] “The Elect Among Tribes” [Hafs ibn Ghyath] “The Elect Among People” [Abu Bakr ibn ‘Ayyash] “The Elect Among Worshippers” [Abu Muzahim al-Khaqani] “The Virile Among Men” [al-Zuhri] “The Trustees Who Preserve the Reports of the Messengers” [Abu Hatim al-Razi] “The Strangers” [‘Abdan] “The Knights of this Religion” [Yazid ibn Zuray‘] “The Caretakers of the Matter of Shari‘a” [al-Khatib] “The Strivers In the Preservation of the Faith” [al-Khatib] “Mankind” (al-nâs) [Ahmad ibn Hanbal] “Those Who Belong to No Tribe” [‘Abdan] “The Intermediaries Between the Prophet (s) and His Community” [al-Khatib] “Muhammad’s Inheritors” [Ibn Mas‘ud] “The Inheritors of the Prophets” [al-Fudayl ibn ‘Iyad] “The Beneficiaries of the Messenger of Allah” [Abu Sa‘id al-Khudri, according to the hadith of the Prophet: “There shall come after me a people who shall ask you about me. When they come to you, treat them kindly and narrate to them “].

Al-Tabyin li Asma’ al-Mudallisin (“The Exposition of the Names of Those Who Concealed Their Sources”).
Taqyid al-‘Ilm (“The Fettering of Knowledge”), an important book gathering all the proofs that large-scale writing of hadith began in the time of the Prophet (s), together with particular caveats against it.
Al-Tatfil wa Hikayat al-Tufayliyyin (“Sponging and Spongers”).
Tali Talkhis al-Mutashabih, an addendum to Talkhis al-Mutashabih.
Talkhis al-Mutashabih fi al-Rasm (“Summary of the Similarities in Spelling”), on hadith narrators commonly confused with one another due to the similar spelling of their names.
Tarikh Baghdad (“History of Baghdad”), his most important work. Ostensibly a history of Baghdad, it is more specifically a reference work in narrator-authentication (‘ilm al-rijâl) and a valuable compendium of 4,385 hadiths narrated with their full chains, over half of them (2,253) not found in the two books of Sahih and the four Sunan. In this respect al-Khatib’s rank as an independent narrator is comparable to that of al-Bayhaqi (d. 458), Ibn ‘Abd al-Barr (d. 463), and Ibn ‘Asakir (d. 571).

Concerning al-Khatib’s authentication method in Tarikh Baghdad, al-Sam‘ani narrated that he said: “Whenever in the Tarikh I mention a man concerning whom opinions vary in commendation and discreditation, then the preferred position concerning him is placed at the conclusion of his biographical notice.”

Makki ibn ‘Abd al-Salam al-Maqdisi said: “I was sleeping in the house of Shaykh Abu al-Hasan al-Za‘farani when I saw in a dream, shortly before dawn, as if we had gathered in al-Khatib’s house to read the Tarikh as usual. To his right was the jurist, Shaykh Nasr al-Maqdisi, and to the latter’s right was a man I did not know. So I asked who he was and was told: ‘This is the Messenger of Allah e who came to hear the Tarikh.’ I thought to myself: ‘This is a huge honor for Shaykh Abu Bakr, that the Prophet (s)himself should attend his gathering.’ I also thought: ‘This is also a refutation of those who blemished the Tarikh saying that it contains undue criticism of certain people.’”

It remains true that the Tarikh contains undue criticism of Imam Abu Hanifa t in the form of an assemblage of glaringly weak and forged reports from known liars, although it also contains authentic reports to the Imam’s praise. Among the scholars who refuted the negative reports were the king al-Malik al-Mu‘azzam ‘Isa al-Ayyubi, the Hanafis Sibt Ibn al-Jawzi in the two-volume al-Intisar li Imam A’imma al-Amsar and al-Kawthari in Ta’nib al-Khatib ‘ala Ma Saqahu fi Tarjimati Abi Hanifata Min al-Akadhib and its follow-up al-Tarhib bi Naqd al-Ta’nib; the Maliki Ibn ‘Abd al-Barr with al-Intiqa’; the Shafi‘is al-Suyuti and al-Haytami respectively with Tabyid al-Sahifa and al-Khayrat al-Hisan, and the Hanbali Ibn al-Jawzi with al-Sahm al-Musib fi al-Radd ‘ala al-Khatib. Al-Dhahabi said: “Would that al-Khatib had not set upon the great figures nor narrated anything against them.” However, a case has been made to exonerate al-Khatib from having included these reports in his Tarikh, and some scholars, such as Dr. ‘Itr and Dr. Mahmud al-Tahhan, consider them later interpolations.

Ibn al-Jawzi’s assessment of al-Khatib is ambiguous. On the one hand he praises his works with the words: “Whoever looks into his books knows his great standing.” At the same time he takes him to task for what he terms his fanatic denigration of Hanbalis, citing, for example, al-Khatib’s description of Imam Ahmad as “the leader of hadith scholars” (sayyid al-muhaddithîn) as opposed to al-Shafi‘i’s as “the diadem of jurists,” his weakening of Ibn Batta, and his citing al-Karabisi’s barb about Imam Ahmad over the issue of the uncreatedness of the Qur’an. Added to this charge is Ibn al-Jawzi’s singular claim that al-Khatib began his career as a Hanbali, then switched to the Shafi‘i school, when both early and contemporary historians concur that he began his career as a Shafi‘i and was never a Hanbali. He also states that al-Khatib took the material of most of his books “except that of the Tarikh” from those of the hadith master al-Suri, a claim flatly rejected by al-Dhahabi. Perhaps Ibn al-Jawzi’s most ironic criticism is his complaint that al-Khatib included forgeries and very weak hadiths in his books, as their number is negligible in proportion to those found in Ibn al-Jawzi’s works.

Abu al-Fadl ibn Khayrun said: “A righteous person told me that when al-Khatib died he saw him in his sleep and asked him: ‘How are you?’ Al-Khatib replied: ‘I am in [breath of life, and plenty, and a Garden of delight] (56:89)’.” ‘Ali ibn al-Husayn ibn Jadda said: “I saw in my sleep, after al-Khatib’s death, a person standing next to me whom I tried to ask about al-Khatib. Before I could say anything he said to me: ‘Go to the middle of Paradise where the pious meet one another.’” Muhammad ibn Marzuq al-Za‘farani narrated from the pious jurist Hasan ibn Ahmad al-Basri: “I saw al-Khatib in my sleep wearing beautiful white clothes and a white turban, looking joyful and smiling. I do not remember whether I asked him first: ‘What did Allah do with you?’ or whether he spoke to me first but he said: Allah has forgiven me – or: granted me mercy. And whoever comes to Him – in my heart I thought: meaning, with tawhîd – He grants him mercy or forgives him. Therefore, be happy!’ This took place a few days after his death.”

عربي

t.b.d.
 

Refs

Main sources: Ibn ‘Asakir, Tabyin Kadhib al-Muftari (Saqqa ed. p. 263-266); al-Dhahabi, Siyar A‘lam al-Nubala’ (Dar al-Fikr ed. 13:590-603 #4210) and Tadhkira al-Huffaz (3:1135-1145); Ibn al-Subki, Tabaqat al-Shafi‘iyya al-Kubra (Hajr ed. 4:29-39 #259); ‘Itr, introduction to al-Khatib’s al-Rihla (p. 37-59); and Ibn al-Jawzi, al-Muntazam (8:265-270).

NOTES:
1Al-Qinnawji, Abjad al-`Ulum (3:96).

2Ibn al-Jawzi, al-Muntazam (9:213); Ibn al-Najjar, Dhayl Tarikh Baghdad (1:173).

3As asserted by his son Ibn Abi Ya`la in Tabaqat al-Hanabila (2:204).

4Cf. Ibn al-Mubarak’s saying: “If you want to make sure your narrations are authentic, confront them with one another.” Narrated by al-Khatib in al-Jami` (p. 452 #1973), cf. al-Hakim in Ma`rifa `Ulum al-Hadith (p. 112f.).

5Al-Khatib, al-Jami` li Akhlaq al-Rawi (2:422 #1914).

6The entire bracketed passage is omitted by al-Dhahabi in his citation of al-Khatib’s text in his youthful work al-`Uluw [cf. Mukhtasar al-`Uluw (p. 272 #332)] but it is mentioned in the mature Siyar and the Tadhkira.

7Narrated by al-Dhahabi with his chain from Muhammad ibn Marzuq al-Za`farani in Siyar A`lam al-Nubala’ (13:598) and Tadhkira al-Huffaz (3:1142-1143) from al-Khatib’s epistle al-Sifat.

8`Itr, introduction to al-Khatib’s Rihla (p. 48).

9Ibn Marduyah states that even during the time that Abu Nu`aym walked home from his mosque gatherings, a student would be reading a volume of hadith to him on the way. The philologist imam Tha`lab (200-291) died one day after he was hit by a running horse while walking and reading at the same time as narrated by al-`Askari in al-Hathth `ala Talab al-`Ilm (p. 77). Al-Qifti narrated in Inbah al-Ruwat `ala Anbah al-Nuhat (3:79) in the biographical notice on the Egyptian philologist Muhammad al-Sa`idi ibn Barakat (d. 520) that the latter saw, when a boy, Abu Yusuf Ya`qub ibn Khurrazad al-Najirami, “a swarthy shaykh with a long beard and round turban, holding a book in his hand which he was reading while walking.” Ibn Rajan narrated in Dhayl Tabaqat al-Hanabila (2:249-252) that Majd al-Din ibn Taymiyya (the grandfather) had a book read to him even when he entered the latrine! Shaykh `Abd al-Fattah Abu Ghudda related all these anecdotes in his priceless book Qimat al-Zaman `ind al-`Ulama’ (p. 40-41, 48, 51, 52, 68-69).

10In al-Khatib, al-Jami` li Akhlaq al-Rawi (2:178). Cf. al-Dhahabi, Siyar (Arna’ut ed. 11:458). The same is related about the Maliki jurist and hadith scholar Ibn Suhnun by Qadi `Iyad in Tartib al-Madarik (4:217), and something similar about al-Mundhiri by al-Nawawi in Bustan al-`Arifin (1985 ed. p. 191).

11This report is also found in the chapter on spiritual energy (himma) in al-Qasimi’s Qawa`id al-Tahdith.

12Al-Isnawi, Tabaqat al-Shafi`iyya (1:99 #174).

13Al-Dhahabi, Siyar (14:120).

14Narrated from Jabir by Ahmad in his Musnad, Ibn Majah in his Sunan, Ibn Abi Shayba, al-Khatib in Tarikh Baghdad (3:179, 10:166) and al-Bayhaqi with a good chain as stated by al-`Ajluni (hasan lighayrih) in Kashf al-Khafa; from Ibn `Abbas by al-Hakim (1:473=1990 ed. 1:646) and al-Daraqutni in his Sunan (2:289 #238); from `Abd Allah ibn `Amr by al-Bayhaqi in al-Sunan al-Kubra (5:148); and from Mu`awiya by al-Fakihi in Akhbar Makka. Al-Busiri in Zawa’id ibn Majah and al-Nawawi declared its chain weak but a number of other hadith masters said it is a fair (hasan) narration due to the number of its chains and definitely sahîh as a mursal narration, among them Ibn al-Qayyim and Ibn Hajar as reported by al-Suyuti in al-Durar al-Muntathira (p. 243-244 #383) and al-Munawi in Fayd al-Qadir (5:404), while al-Mundhiri, al-Dimyati (in al-Suyuti’s Tadrib al-Rawi [Faryabi ed. 1:158=`Abd al-Latif ed. 1:145=1:80] and Ziyada al-Jami` al-Saghir), and al-Suyuti (in al-Sindi’s edition of Ibn Majah, cf. al-Durar) declared the hadith sahîh. Al-Sindi added: “The people of knowledge have experienced its veracity.” See also al-Shawkani, Nayl al-Awtar, book of Manasik, chapter on Zamzam water. Ibn Hajar in Talkhis al-Habir (2:268) cites al-Dinawari’s narration: “We were with Sufyan ibn `Uyayna when a man came and asked him: `O Abu Muhammad! Is the hadith you told us about Zamzam water true?’ He replied yes. The man said: `I just drank it for the purpose that you narrate to me a hundred hadiths.’ Ibn `Uyayna said to him: `Sit’ and he narrated to him a hundred hadiths.

15Siyar (13:599-600). Dr. `Itr comments in his introduction to al-Khatib’s Rihla (p. 42): “Perhaps as a divine reward for al-Turaythithi, Allah lengthened his life and he lived thirty years after this episode – Allah Almighty have mercy on him!”

16As per Dr. Yusuf al-`Ishsh’s recension in his al-Khatib al-Baghdadi Mu’arrikh Baghdad wa Muhaddithuha (p. 120-137).

17Al-Khatib, Iqtida’ al-`Ilm al-`Amal (p. 15-16).

18The Jami` has received two recent editions: by Shaykh Muhammad `Ajaj al-Khatib (Beirut: Mu’assasa al-Risala, 1991) and by Mahmud al-Tahhan (Ryad: Maktaba al-Ma`arif, 1983).

19As a rule, the shorter the chain, the better, since the probability of error is reduced.

20Narrated by al-Tirmidhi (hasan), Ibn Majah, Abu Dawud – al-`Iraqi said: “with a fair (hasan) chain” in al-Zabidi’s Ithaf (6:280) -, Ahmad, Ibn Sa`d (4:145), and al-Nahhas in al-Nasikh wa al-Mansukh (p. 185 without mention of the kissing of the hand), all with a weak chain because of Yazid ibn Abi Ziyad according to al-Arna’ut in the Musnad (9:281-282 #5384), also by al-Bukhari in al-Adab al-Mufrad (p. 388), al-Bayhaqi in al-Sunan al-Kubra (7:101 #13352), and Ibn Abi Shayba (6:541). Ibn Hajar in Fath al-Bari (1989 ed. 11:67) cited it in his list of the narrations providing evidence for kissing the hand and he did not weaken it.

21Narrated by Ibn al-Muqri’ in al-Rukhsa (p. 58 #2) with a chain Ibn Hajar graded as “strong” (sanaduhu qawî) in Fath al-Bari (1989 ed. 11:67) and he listed it among the “good” (jayyid) narrations of Ibn al-Muqri’ on the topic. Abu Dawud, al-Tirmidhi (hasan sahîh), Ibn Majah, Ahmad and al-Hakim (4:399, sahîh) all narrated it without mention of the kiss unlike al-Bayhaqi who cited it in Branch 15 of his Shu`ab al-Iman (2:200 #1528) entitled: “The Fifteenth Branch of Faith, Namely A Chapter On Rendering Honor To The Prophet, Declaring His High Rank, And Revering Him.”

22Narrated by al-Bukhari in al-Adab al-Mufrad (#973), al-Mizzi in Tahdhib al-Kamal (17:92), al-Tabarani in al-Awsat (#661), and Ahmad with a chain of sound narrators according to al-Haythami (8:42) and Ibn Hajar in Fath al-Bari (1989 ed. 11:57). On the assumption that `Abd al-Rahman is Ibn Razin rather than ibn `Abd Allah ibn Ka`b the chain would be “probably fair” according al-Arna’ut in the Musnad (27:83 #16551). Shaykh `Abd al-Fattah Abu Ghudda emphasized the lawfulness of kissing the hand of people of merit and eminence in Islam and its wide use among the Salaf, cf. his book al-`Ulama’ al-`Uzzab (p. 47) and his notes on Ibn `Abd al-Barr’s al-Intiqa’ (p. 83 n. 1) as well as the monograph by his teacher Shaykh `Abd Allah al-Ghumari, I`lam al-Nabil bi Jawaz al-Taqbil. See also the hadith master Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Ibrahim ibn al-Muqri’s monograph al-Rukhsa fi Taqbil al-Yad; the hadith master Ibn al-A`rabi’s monograph al-Qubal wa al-Mu`anaqa wa al-Musafaha; and Ibn Hajar’s vast documentation in Fath al-Bari (1959 ed. 11:56-57, Isti’dhân, chapter titled Bâb al-Akhdh bi al-Yad).

23See Imam Malik’s remarks on the turban in the biographical notice on him posted at the website http://sunnah.org/history/Default.htm.

24Hadith Dictation Sessions could count over 100,000 attendants all listening to a single hadith master by way of repeaters: al-Khatib, al-Jami` (2:58-62 #1171-1178).

25In al-Khatib, al-Jami` li Akhlaq al-Rawi (2:402 #1874 and n.). In Western antiquity and late antiquity silent reading was unheard of, as shown by Augustine of Hippo’s (late 4th century CE) astonishment (in the Confessions) at glimpsing Ambrose the Bishop of Milan “moving his lips in silent reading” of his book. Dr. al-Khatib’s remarks on mnemonics are reminiscent of the Roman orator Cicero’s method of not only reading his speeches out loud to himself in order to memorize them, but also pacing from one room of his house to another to create a mental reminder of each different section of his text.

26In al-Khatib, al-Jami` (2:402-416 #1875-1877, #1880-1889, #1899, #1904).

27This is Abu Zur`a al-Razi of Ray, `Ubayd Allah ibn `Abd al-Karim ibn Yazid (d. 264 or 268), “the master of hadith masters” (al-Dhahabi), concerning whom Ahmad ibn Hanbal said that he had memorized 700,000 hadiths. Siyar (10:470-483 #2266).

28Al-Khatib, al-Jami` (2:474 #1999).

29In Tarikh Baghdad (11:359).

30Dr. Nur al-Din `Itr, Manhaj al-Naqd (p. 63-64). The Kifaya was published by Dr. Ahmad `Umar Hashim (Beirut: Dar al-Kitab al-`Arabi, 1986) and by Abu `Abd Allah al-Sawraqi and Ibrahim Hamdi al-Madani (Madina: al-Maktaba al-`Ilmiyya, n.d.).

31Also published by Nasr Abu `Ataya in al-Nasa’i, Majmu`a Rasa’il (p. 137-238).

32`Itr, preface to al-Khatib, al-Rihla (p. 9). In his twenty-four page introduction titled “The Infinite Scholarly Challenge of Prophethood” (I`jaz al-Nubuwwa al-`Ilmi), `Itr gives a valuable overview of hadith science in Islam and puts to rest the claims of Goldziher et al. whereby hadith travel began in Umayyad times and was motivated by politics.

332nd ed. Ed. Mahmud Sa`id Mamduh (Beirut: Dar al-Basha’ir al-Islamiyya, 1988).

34Ibn al-Salah, Fatawa wa Masa’il (1:235). See also Ibn Hajar’s Ajwiba (1:538-549) and al-Shawkani, al-Fawa’id al-Majmu`a (p. 57).

35Al-Khatib, Sharaf Ashab al-Hadith (p. 52 #106).

36Narrated from Ibn Mas`ud by al-Tirmidhi (hasan gharîb), Abu Ya`la in his Musnad (8:428, 9:15), al-Bukhari in al-Tarikh al-Kabir (5:177), Ibn Abi Shayba (11:505), al-Baghawi in Sharh al-Sunna (#686), al-Bayhaqi in Shu`ab al-Iman (2:212), al-Haythami in Mawarid al-Zam’an (p. 594), al-Khatib in al-Fasl li al-Wasl (2:770-773) and Sharaf (p. 34-35 #63) and Ibn Hibban all with weak chains according to al-Arna’ut (3:192 #911) because of Musa ibn Ya`qub al-Zam`i and `Abd Allah ibn Kaysan (cf. al-Mizzi, Tahdhib al-Kamal [15:482], Ibn `Adi, al-Kamil [6:2342], al-Daraqutni, al-`Ilal [5:112], Ibn Hajar, Tahdhib al-Tahdhib [5:326]). However, it has a witnessing narration whereby the Prophet – Allah bless and greet him – said: “Invoke abundant blessings upon me on the day of Jum`a for my Community’s salât is shown to me [especially] on every Jum`a, therefore, whoever among them invokes blessings upon me the most, is nearest to me in station.” Narrated from Abu Umama by al-Bayhaqi in his Sunan (3:249 #5785) and Hayat al-Anbiya’ (p. 11) with a fair chain according to al-Mundhiri in al-Targhib (1994 ed. 2:390 #2519=1997 ed. 2:328=3:303) “except that it is said Makhul did not hear from Abu Umama directly,” while Ibn Hajar said in Fath al-Bari (1959 ed. 11:167): “There is no harm in its chain.” Ibn al-Sakan included Ibn Mas`ud’s hadith among the sound narrations in his Sihah according to Ibn al-Mulaqqin in Tuhfa al-Muhtaj (1:527).

37Narrated from `Umar by al-Bazzar in his Musnad (1:413) with a fair chain as stated by al-Haythami (10:65), al-Khatib, Sharaf (p. 33-34 #62), al-Hakim (4:85-86) with a weak chain because of Muhammad ibn Abi Humayd as indicated by al-Dhahabi, Abu Ya`la in his Musnad (1:147) with a weak chain according to Shaykh Husayn Asad, and from Ibn `Abbas by al-Tabarani in al-Kabir (12:87) and al-Tahawi in Sharh Mushkil al-Athar (6:269-270 #2472) with the statement “Those are my brothers” instead of the last sentence, with a chain of sound narrators except for `Ata’ ibn al-Sa’ib whose narrations are confused.

38Narrated from Anas by al-Khatib in Sharaf (p. 56-57 #113).

39Al-Hudhli narrated that al-Zuhri asked him: “O Hudhli! Does hadith please you?” Al-Hudhli said yes. Al-Zuhri continued: “Truly, it pleases the virile among men, while the effeminate among them hate it.” Al-Khatib, Sharaf (p. 70 #150).

40This is a notable example of the use of al-nâs to mean the major ulema of the Sunna, as in `Abd al-Rahman ibn Mahdi’s statement: “The People (al-nâs) in their time were four: Hammad ibn Zayd in al-Basra, al-Thawri in al-Kufa, Malik in al-Hijaz, and al-Awza`i in al-Shâm.”

41In al-Tirmidhi.

42In Ibn Majah.

43In al-Darimi’s Sunan, Abu Hatim al-Razi, al-Jarh wa al-Ta`dil (2:12), and others: Abu Sa`id al-Khudri – Allah be well-pleased with him – used to say, whenever he saw the young Tâbi`î students of hadith: “Welcome to the beneficiaries (wasiyya) of the Messenger of Allah – Allah bless and greet him,” while al-Ramahurmuzi’s narration in al-Muhaddith al-Fasil (p. 175) adds: “who ordered us to make you memorize the hadith and make room for you in gatherings.”

44Narrated from Abu Sa`id al-Khudri by al-Hakim (1:88=1990 ed. 1:164) who declared it sound, and al-Dhahabi concurred. The hadith master Mughaltay also declared it sound according to al-Munawi in Fayd al-Qadir (2:400), while it remains a fair (hasan) narration according to al-Zuhayri and al-Suyuti. Also narrated from Abu Sa`id by Ibn `Abd al-Barr in his Jami` (1:578 #991), al-Khatib in his (1991 ed. 1:305-306 #360=1983 ed. 1:202), Ibn Wahb in his Musnad (8:167), and `Abd al-Ghani al-Maqdisi in al-`Ilm (1:50), all with weak chains because of Layth ibn Abi Sulaym; and by al-Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah, `Abd al-Razzaq (11:252), Tammam al-Razi in his Fawa’id (1:64, 1:69), al-Baghawi in Sharh al-Sunna (1:286), and al-Ramahurmuzi in al-Muhaddith al-Fasil (p. 176), all with very weak chains because of Abu Harun al-`Abdi (`Amara ibn Juwayn) who is discarded as a narrator (cf. Ibn `Adi, al-Kamil [5:77] and Ibn Hajar’s Taqrib).

45Published in 1949 with an excellent introduction by Yusuf al-`Ishsh (Repr. Dar Ihya’ al-Sunna al-Nabawiyya, 1974).

46Dr. Yusuf al-`Ishsh gave an extensive description of this work in his al-Khatib al-Baghdadi Mu’arrikh Baghdad wa Muhaddithuha. See also Dr. Akram Dya’ al-`Umari, Mawarid al-Khatib al-Baghdadi fi Tarikh Baghdad. Dr. Khaldun al-Ahdab provided a thorough authentication of those hadiths in his Zawa’id Tarikh Baghdad.

47Al-Sahm is also known as al-Tahqiq fi Ahadith al-Ta`liq.

48Al-Dhahabi himself deliberately refrained from narrating a single report detrimental to one of the great Imams of fiqh in his Mughni fi al-Du`afa’, Diwan al-Du`afa’ wa al-Matrukin, and Mizan al-I`tidal, as he explained in the introduction to the latter: “I did not mention in my book any of the Imams that are followed in the branches of the Law due to their immense standing in Islam and their greatness in the minds of people: such as Abu Hanifa, al-Shafi`i, and al-Bukhari.” Al-Dhahabi, Mizan al-I`tidal (1:3). Abu Ghudda and others have shown that the disparaging notices on Abu Hanifa found in today’s editions of al-Dhahabi’s works are interpolations. See the exhaustive documentation of this issue in Shaykh Hisham Kabbani’s Encyclopedia (7:149-187).

49Respectively in the introduction to al-Khatib’s al-Rihla (p. 52) and al-Khatib al-Baghdadi (p. 263-301). See also Shaykh Wahbi Sulayman Ghawiji al-Albani’s book Abu Hanifa (p. 205-277).

50Ibn al-Jawzi, al-Muntazam (8:266, 9:214).

51This is a common distinction, as established by the remarks of the scholars cited in our notice on al-Tabari at the website http://sunnah.org/history/Default.htm.

52When al-Karabisi heard that Imam Ahmad had declared his statement an innovation whereby the pronunciation of the Qur’an was created, he said: “Pronunciation means other than the thing pronounced” (talaffuzuka ya`nî ghayra al-malfûz). Then he said of Ahmad: “What shall we do with this boy? If we say `created’ he says bid`a, and if we say `not created’ he says bid`a.” Narrated by al-Khatib in Tarikh Baghdad (8:65).

53Ibn al-Jawzi, al-Muntazam (8:267).

54Cf. al-Ahdab, Zawa’id (1:104).

55Ibn al-Jawzi, al-Muntazam (8:143, 8:266).

56Ibn al-Jawzi, al-Muntazam (8:268). Cf. al-Ahdal, Zawa’id Tarikh Baghdad (1: 86).

© Damas Cultural Society 2007 — Latest update:
Original site: damas-original.nur.nu

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Abu Al-Walid Al-Baji Al-Qurtubi al-Maliki

أبو الوليد الأندلسي القرطبي
b. 403 – d. 474 H.
radiya Allah anhu

.


 

English

By Dr. G.F. Haddad

Sulayman ibn Khalaf ibn Sa`d or Sa`id or Sa`dun ibn Ayyub, al-Qadi Abu al-Walid al-Tujaybi al-Andalusi al-Qurtubi al-Baji al-Tamimi al-Dhahabi al-Maliki (403-474), “One of the imams of the Muslims,” the jurist and mutakallim, hadith master, man of letters, poet, “the skilled debater, author in many sciences, meticulous scholar, upon whose great rank in knowledge, and merit in religion there is agreement.” Born in Baja near Seville or – more probably according to al-Dhahabi – its namesake Baja near Qayrawan, he took hadith from Abu al-Isba` ibn Shakir, Muhammad ibn Isma`il [?], Abu Muhammad Makki ibn Abi Talib, al-Qadi Yunus ibn `Abd Allah ibn Mughith, Ibn al-Mutawwa`i, Ibn Muhriz, Ibn al-Warraq, Ibn `Amrus, al-Khatib al-Baghdadi, Ibn `Abd al-Barr, al-Damighani, and others. Both al-Khatib and Ibn `Abd al-Barr, although his seniors, narrated from him. Among his students are his son Ahmad, Abu `Abd Allah al-Humaydi, `Ali ibn `Abd Allah al-Saqali, Ahmad ibn Ghazlun, Abu Bakr al-Turtushi, the two hadith masters Abu `Ali al-Jiyani al-Sadafi and Abu al-Qasim al-Ma`afiri, Ibn Abi Ja`far, al-Qadi Abu `Abd Allah Muhammad ibn `Abd al-Rahman ibn Bashir, and countless others.

Al-Baji worked at various times as a watchman and a goldsmith to support himself. He performed pilgrimage four times and lived austerely in the pursuit of knowledge: in Mecca for three years with Abu Dharr al-Harawi, then Baghdad for three, where he accompanied Abu al-Tayyib al-Tabari and Abu Ishaq al-Shirazi, then Mosul where he studied under Abu Ja`far al-Samnani and Ibn al-Baqillani. His wealth increased greatly after he returned to Andalusia and became its chief scholar and teacher. The Qadi Abu `Ali ibn Sakra said: “I never saw his like; nor anything like his appearance, his majesty, and the dignity of his gatherings. He is one of the imams of the Muslims.”

After al-Baji came to Andalusia he went to Majorca where he defeated Ibn Hazm in debate according to Ibn Bassam. Ibn Hazm reportedly said: “If the Malikis had only `Abd al-Wahhab [ibn `Ali ibn Nasr al-Baghdadi] and al-Baji, it would suffice them.”

Among al-Baji’s books: Al-Tasdid ila Ma`rifa al-Tawhid, Sunan al-Minhaj, Tartib al-Hajj, Ihkam al-Fusul fi Ahkam al-Usul, al-Ta`dil wa al-Tajrih li man Kharraja `anhu al-Bukhari fi al-Sahih, Sharh al-Muwatta’ in two versions: al-Istifa’ and its abridgment al-Muntaqa – named by the author of Shajara al-Nur “the best book ever written in Malik’s school” – al-Imla’ – a shorter version of the latter – Mukhtasar al-Mukhtasar fi Masa’il al-Mudawwana, and Sunan al-Salihin. In al-Muntaqa he states, in explanation of the hadith of Allah’s descent to the nearest heaven in the last third of the night:[1]

The Prophet’s — Allah bless and greet him — saying that our Exalted Lord descends every night to the nearest heaven is to inform us that supplication at that particular time is answered, petitioners are given what they request, and those who ask for forgiveness are forgiven. It warns us as to the great merit of that time and strongly encourages us to make abundant supplication, petition, and contrition at that time. It was narrated from the Prophet — Allah bless and greet him — in similar terms that Allah Almighty and Exalted said: “If My servant comes near Me one hand-span I come near him one cubit. If he comes near Me one cubit I come near him an arm’s length. If he comes to Me walking, I come to him running.”[2] He did not mean by this hadith a coming-near in terms of distance, for such is impossible and inexistent. All he meant was the servant’s coming-near in terms of good works, and Allah’s coming-near in terms of answer and acceptance. In the same sense one says “So-and-so is near So-and-so,” and they say of the leader “He is near his people” if he helps them a lot and welcomes them. This is well-known in the language of the Arabs.[3]

In his book Tahqiq al-Madhhab, he replies to those who attacked him for representing that the Prophet — Allah bless and greet him — could write on the literal basis of the hadith of al-Bara’: “Allah’s Messenger — Allah bless and greet him — took the treaty – he did not excel at writing – and wrote…”[4]

عربي

t.b.d.
 

Refs

Sources:
Makhluf, Shajara al-Nur p. 120-121 #341; Ibn Farhun, al-Dibaj p. 198-200 #240; al-Dhahabi, Siyar A`lam al-Nubala’ 14:59-65 #4347 and Tadhkira al-Huffaz 3:1178-1183 #1027.

Notes:
[1] Narrated from Abu Hurayra by Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Dawud, al-Tirmidhi, Ahmad, Malik, and al-Darimi. It is narrated from twenty-three Companions, as stated by al-Kattani in Nazm al-Mutanathir.

[2] Narrated from Abu Hurayra by Bukhari and Muslim: “I am as My servant thinks of Me, and I am with him when he remembers Me. If he mentions Me in Himself I mention him in Myself. If he mentions Me in a gathering, I mention him in a better gathering. If he comes near Me one hand-span (shibran) I come near him one cubit (dhira`an). If he comes near Me one cubit I come near him an arm’s length (ba`an). If he comes to Me walking, I come to him running.” [3] Al-Baji, al-Muntaqa (1:357). [4] See the documentation and discussion of this hadith in the post titled “Unlettered.”

© as-Sunna Foundation of America

© Damas Cultural Society 2007 — Latest update:
Original site: damas-original.nur.nu

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Bio: Aws b. Aws al-Thaqafi

Aws b. Aws al-Thaqafi

أوس بن أوس الثقفي
d. towards the end of the caliphate of `Uthman (r)
radiya Allah anhu

Sahabi, d. towards the end of the caliphate of Sayyiduna `Uthman. One of the people of Al-Suffa.
 

Biography

t.b.d.

عربي

t.b.d.
 

Burial place

Burial Place


Buried in Bab al-Saghir opposite al-Madrasah al-Sabuniyyah
Read sign

 


Sign at the maqam

 


Madrasa Sabuniyya (opposite the maqam)

References:
Ziarat al-Sham
bmk ziarat 2009-02

Refs

Ziarat al-Sham
bmk ziarat 2009-02
Damas Cultural Society © 2007
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Bio: Bilal ibn Ribâh al-Habashî

Bilal ibn Ribâh al-Habashî al-Qurashî al-Taymî

بلال بن رباح الحبشي القرشي التيمي
d. 20 or 18 or 19 H. in Damascus
radiya Allah anhu

Sahabi, buried in Maqbara Bab Saghir in Damascus
 

English

Freed slave of sayyiduna Abu Bakr, mu’adhdhin of the Prophet (s). He came to Sham as a mujahid during the caliphate of Sayyidina `Umar and stayed there until he died.

After the passing of the Prophet (s), he never gave the adhan again – except once: in the Umawi mosque.

He narrated 44 hadith from the Prophet (s).

عربي

t.b.d.
 

Burial Place

Burial Place

Sayyiduna Bilal is buried in the Bab Saghrir cemetry of Damascus – may Allah perfume his grave.




click to enlarge pictures

Location

Click to load map

Refs

Damas Cultural Society © 2007


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Tomb of Dirar b. Azwar in Damascus

Sayyidna Darar b. al-Azwar al-Asadi

ضرار بن الأزور الأسدي
d. 14 or 18 H. (636/640 CE)
radiya Allah anhu

A great hero before and after Islam. He was present when the Muslims opened Damascus under Khalid ibn al-Walid (in 14 H) and died there. (Zsh)

Lineage

His full name: is
Dhiraar bin Al-Azwar bin Malik ibn Aws bin Jadhimah bin Rabia bin Malik bin Sha’labah bin Asad bin Khuzaymah bin Mudrikah bin Ilyas bin Mudar Bin Nizar bin Adnan al-Asadi
ضرار بن الأزور وهو مالك بن أوس بن جذيمة بن ربيعة بن مالك بن ثعلبة بن أسد بن دودان بن أسد بن خزيمة بن مدركة بن إلياس بن مضر بن نزار بن معد بن عدنان، الأسدي

Born sometime in the seventh century, Dhiraar was born to one of the Bani Assad chieftains, Malik bin Aws. His lineage can be traced to Malik, son of Aws, son of Jadhimah, son of Rabia, son of Malik, son of Sha’labah, son of Asad, son of Khuzaymah, son of Mudrikah, son of Ilyas, son of Muda, son of Nizar, son of Adnan al-Asadi. His family were among the first converts to Islam. After the Battle of the Trench, he was sent with Tulayha bin Khuwailid to their kinsmen, the Bani Assad, to urge them to embrace Islam.[4] He was known to his tribe as al-Azwar.

Burial Place

His death is disputed.
Martyred in the battle of Ajnadayn 14 H., or in the plague in 18. H.
Buried oug´tside Bab Sharqi, Damascus (disputed)
Tomb of Dirar b. Azwar in Damascus

He also has a Mosque/maqam in Jordan.

Refs

Keywords: Battle at Ajnadayn, The Naked Warrior

References: ZaSh, wiki
Photo f hismaqam in Damascus: yanabi.com
Damas Cultural Society © 2007

—-
More:
[gfh] Dirar b. al-Azwar al-Kindi, Khawla’s brother
buried in Bab Sharqi, Mahallat al-Jazma’

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Bio: Dihya al-Kalbi

Dihya al-Kalbi

(sahabi d. 45 H. in Damascus)
radiya Allah anhu

He was one of the Companions of the Prophet (s), whose form Jibril (s) would adopt when he appeared as a person, and who carried the Prophet’s letter to the Roman emperor.
 

Burial Place

Buried in the graveyard of Mezzah

References

Ziarat al-Sham

© Damas Cultural Society 2007 — Latest update: 2009-03-22
Original site: damas-original.nur.nu

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Sayyidi Habib ibn Mohammad al-‘Ajami

d. in Baghdad

Habib ibn Mohammad al-‘Ajami al-Basri, a Persian settled at Basra, was a noted hadith narrator who transmitted from al-Hasan al-Basri, Ibn Sirrin, and other authorities. His conversion from a life of ease and self-indulgence was brought about by al-Hasan’s eloquence; he was a frequent attendant at his lectures, and became one of his closest associates.

(more…)

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Bio: Ibn `Asakir al-Dimashqi al-Shafi`i al-Ash`ari

Ibn `Asakir al-Dimashqi al-Shafi`i al-Ash`ari

b. 499 – d. 571 in Damascus
radiya Allah anhu

The famous historian and greatest hadith scholar of his time. He travelled and heard hadith from over 1000 narrators. Authored several encyclopedic works, among them Tarikh Dimashq.
 

English

By Dr. G.F. Haddad

`Ali ibn al-Hasan ibn Hibat Allah ibn `Abd Allah, Thiqat al-Din, Abu al-Qasim, known as Ibn `Asakir al-Dimashqi al-Shafi`i al-Ash`ari (499-571), the imam of hadith masters in his time and historian of Damascus.

Ibn al-Najjar said: “He is the imam of hadith scholars in his time and the chief leader in memorization, meticulous verification, thorough knowledge in the sciences of hadith, trustworthiness, nobility, and excellence in writing and beautiful recitation. He is the seal of this science.”

Born in a family imbued with knowledge, he began his scholarly training at the age of six, attending the fiqh gatherings of his older brother Sa’in al-Din Hibat Allah ibn al-Hasan (d. 563) and learned Arabic and grammar at the hand of his maternal grandfather Abu al-Mufaddal al-Qurashi. Two of his uncles and one of his brothers were successively in charge of the head judgeship in Damascus, Abu al-Ma`ali Muhammad ibn Yahya ibn `Ali al-Qurashi (d. 537), Abu al-Makarim Sultan ibn Yahya (d. 530), and Muhammad ibn al-Hasan.

By the time Ibn `Asakir reached puberty he already possessed hadith certifications from the scholars of Damascus, Baghdad, and Khurasan. At age twenty, after his father died, he travelled around the Islamic world in pursuit of hadith narrations and performed pilgrimage, returning to Damascus and travelling again on and off between 519 and 533, “alone but for the Godwariness he took as his companion,” hearing hadith from 1,300 male shaykhs and 80-odd female shaykhas in Baghdad, Mecca, Madina, Asbahan, Naysabur, Marw, Tibriz, Mihana, Bayhaq, Khusrujird, Bistam, Herat, Azerbaijan, Kufa, Hamadhan, Ray, Zanjan, Bushanj, Sarkhas, Simnan, Jarbadhqan, Mawsil and elsewhere.

After 533 he sat teaching hadith in a corner of the Umayyad mosque in Damascus, then in the Dar al-Sunna school (subsequenty renamed Dar al-Hadith) built for him by al-Malik al-`Adil Nur al-Din Mahmud ibn Zanki. He shunned all kinds of material possessions and turned down the office of head preacher, concentrating on teaching, writing, and worshipping. His most famous student was the sultan Salah al-Din al-Ayyubi, who attended his funeral behind the imam al-Qutb al-Naysaburi.

Ibn `Asakir was buried at the Bab al-Saghir cemetary, next to his father, near the grave of the Caliph Mu`awiya ibn Abi Sufyan.

Ibn `Asakir authored over a hundred books and epistles and narrated under five hundred hadith lessons. Among his larger works:

  1. Tarikh Dimasqh in eighty volumes.1 Ibn Khallikan said that it contains, like al-Tabari’s Tarikh al-Rusul wa al-Muluk, several books that can be read independently.
  2. Al-Muwafaqat `ala Shuyukh al-A’imma al-Thiqat in seventy-two volumes.
  3. `Awali Malik ibn Anas and its Dhayl in fifty volumes.
  4. Ghara’ib Malik in ten volumes.
  5. Al-Mu`jam listing only the names of his shaykhs, in twelve volumes.
  6. Manaqib al-Shubban in fifteen volumes.
  7. Books of “Immense Merits”: Fada’il Ashab al-Hadith in eleven volumes, Fadl al-Jumu`a, Fadl Quraysh, Fada’il al-Siddiq, Fada’il Makka, Fada’il al-Madina, Fada’il Bayt al-Muqaddas, Fada’il `Ashura’, Fada’il al-Muharram, Fada’il Sha`ban.
  8. Al-Ishraf `ala Ma`rifa al-Atraf.
  9. Akhbar al-Awza`i.
  10. Al-Musalsalat.
  11. Al-Suba`iyyat in seven volumes, listing narrations with chains containing only seven narrators up to the Prophet — Allah bless and greet him –.
  12. Tabyin Kadhib al-Muftari Fima Nusiba ila Abi al-Hasan al-Ash`ari, a defense of al-Ash`ari and his school which he divided into the following sections:
    a) Genealogy of Abu al-Hasan al-Ash`ari
    b) Prophetic hadiths that pertain to him
    c) Al-Ash`ari’s renown for knowledge
    d) His renown for piety and worship
    e) His struggle against innovations and their proponents
    f) Dreams that indicate his high standing
    g) Five generations of his students [2] h) Those who attacked al-Ash`ari and his students

    He concluded the book with the following lines of poetry:I have chosen a doctrine that in no way resembles innovation But which successors faithfully took from predecessors. Those who are impartial declare my doctrine sound While those who criticize it have abandoned impartiality.

  13. Yawm al-Mazid in three volumes.
  14. Bayan al-Wahm wa al-Takhlit fi Hadith al-Atit (“The Exposition of Error and Confusion in the Narration of the [Throne’s] Groaning”).[3]
  15. Arba`un Hadithan fi al-Jihad.
  16. Arba`un Hadithan `an Arba`ina Shaykhan min Arba`ina Madina.

 

Ibn `Asakir defined hadith in the following verse of poetry:

It explains the Book, and the Prophet only spoke on behalf of His Lord.

Ibn `Asakir’s son, Baha’ al-Din al-Qasim ibn `Ali, said:

My father was assiduous in congregational prayer and recitation of the Qur’an. He used to recite it once a week, concluding it on the day of Jum`a, and once a day in Ramadan at which time he entered seclusion (i`tikaf) at the Eastern minaret. He performed many supererogatory prayers, devotions, and invocations. He would spend the nights before the two `ids awake in prayer and supplications. He used to take account of himself for every passing moment.

Ibn al-Subki relates that the hadith master al-Mundhiri asked his shaykh Abu al-Hasan `Ali ibn al-Mufaddal al-Maqdisi: “Which of these four contemporary hadith masters is the greatest?” He said: “Name them.” Al-Mundhiri said: “Ibn `Asakir and Ibn Nasir?” He replied: “Ibn `Asakir.” Al-Mundhiri went on: “Ibn `Asakir and Abu al-`Ala’ [al-Hasan ibn Ahmad ibn al-Hasan al-Hamadhani]?” He said: “Ibn `Asakir.” Al-Mundhiri went on: “Ibn `Asakir and al-Silafi?” Al-Maqdisi said: “Al-Silafi (is) our shaykh. Al-Silafi (is) our shaykh.”[4]

Ibn Sasra narrated: “I used to rehearse with him the names of the masters he had met. One day I said to him: ‘I believe that our master never saw anyone like himself?’ He replied: ‘Do not say that. Allah said: {Therefore justify not yourselves} (53:32).’ I replied: ‘He also said: {Therefore of the bounty of your Lord be your discourse} (93:11).’ He replied: ‘In that case yes, if someone were to say that my eyes never saw my like, he would be correct.'” Al-Khatib Abu al-Fadl ibn Abi Nasr al-Tusi said: “We do not know anyone who truly deserves the title of hadith master in our time other than him.” Al-Dhahabi said: “I do not believe that Ibn `Asakir ever met anyone of his level in his entire life.” Ibn al-Subki added: “Nor anyone near his level.”

Main sources: al-Dhahabi, Siyar A`lam al-Nubala’ 15:254-262 #5129; Ibn al-Subki, Tabaqat al-Shafi`iyya al-Kubra 7:215-223 #918.

Notes:
[1] Dar al-Fikr in Damascus has published seventy of them to date in mid-1999.
[2] Translated at www.sunnah.org/aqida/tabyin_kadhib.htm
[3] See section entitled The “Groaning of the Throne” (p. 248).
[4] This could mean either that he considered al-Silafi the greater master, or that he implicitly admitted Ibn `Asakir’s superiority but expressed it in terms of the student’s requisite adab with his teacher. Ibn al-Subki noted that Ibn al-Sam`ani was superior to all of them except Ibn `Asakir, but that he was in far-off Merv, whereas the rest were in or near Egypt and Sham.

Blessings and peace on the Prophet, his Family, and all his Companions.

copyright As-Sunna Foundation of America

عربي

t.b.d.
 

Books

تاريخ مدينة دمشق
Online database

 

Burial Place

Buried in Bab Saghir in an enclosure opposite the entrance to the burial place of Sayyiduna Mu`awiya (radyaAllah ‘anhu).

Refs

© Damas Cultural Society 2007 — Latest update:
Original site: damas-original.nur.nu

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Imam Abu Al-Hasan Al-Ash`ari

(b. 1244 – d. 1306 H. in Damascus)
radiya Allah anhu

.


 

Biography & Works

Biography
His Works
The Corrupt Text of al-Ash`ari’s al-Ibana
His Teachings – external link

Biography
by GF Haddad

`Ali ibn Isma`il ibn Abi Bishr Ishaq ibn Salim, Abu al-Hasan al-Ash`ari al-Yamani al-Basri al-Baghdadi (260-324),1 a descendent of the Yemeni Companion Abu Musa al-Ash`ari, was in the first half of his scholarly career a disciple of the Mu`tazili teacher Abu `Ali al-Jubba’i, whose doctrines he abandoned in his fortieth year after asking him a question al-Jubba’i failed to resolve over the issue of the supposed divine obligation to abandon the good for the sake of the better (al-sâlih wa al-aslah). At that time he adopted the doctrines of the sifatiyya, those of Ahl al-Sunna who assert that the Divine Attributes are obligatorily characterized by perfection, unchanging, and without beginning, but He is under no obligation whatsoever to abandon the good for the sake of the better.2 He left Basra and came to Baghdad, taking fiqh from the Shafi`i jurist Abu Ishaq al-Marwazi (d. 340).3 He devoted the next twenty-four years to the refutation of “the Mu`tazila, the Rafida, the Jahmiyya, the Khawarij, and the rest of the various kinds of innovators” in the words of al-Khatib. His student Bundar related that his yearly expenditure was a meager seventeen dirhams.

His Works

Among al-Ash`ari’s books up to the year 320 as listed by himself in al-`Umad (“The Supports”):

* Adab al-Jadal (“The Etiquette of Disputation”).

* Al-Asma’ wa al-Ahkam (“The Names and the Rulings”), which describes the divergences in the terminology of the scholars and their understanding of the general and the particular.

* Al-Dafi` li al-Muhadhdhab (“The Repelling of `The Emendation'”), a refutation of al-Khalidi’s book by that title.

* Al-Funun (“The Disciplines”), a refutation of atheists. A second book bearing that title was also written, on the disciplines of kalâm.

* Al-Fusul (“The Sub-Headings”) in twelve volumes, a refutation of the philosophers, perennialists, and members of various religions such as Brahmans, Jews, Christians, and Zoroastrians. It contains a refutation of Ibn al-Rawandi’s4 claim that the world exists without beginning.

* Idah al-Burhan fi al-Radd `ala Ahl al-Zaygh wa al-Tughyan (“The Clarification of the Proof in the Refutation of Heretics”), a preliminary to al-Mujaz.

* Al-Idrak (“The Awareness”), on the disciplines that address the subtleties of dialectic theology.

* Al-Istita`a (“Potency”), a refutation of the Mu`tazila.

* Al-Jawabat fi al-Sifat `an Masa’il Ahl al-Zaygh wa al-Shubuhat (“The Replies Pertaining to the Attributes On the Questions and Sophistries of Heretics”), al-Ash`ari’s largest work, a refutation of all the Mu`tazili doctrines he had upheld previously.

* Al-Jawhar fi al-Radd `ala Ahl al-Zaygh wa al-Munkar (“The Essence: Refutation of the People of Heresy and Transgression”).

* Al-Jism (“The Body”), a proof of the Mu`tazila’s inability to answer essential questions that pertain to corporeality, contrary to Ahl al-Sunna.

* Jumal al-Maqalat (“The Sum of Sayings”), which lists the positions of atheists and the positions of monotheists.

* Khalq al-A`mal (“The Creation of Deeds”), a refutation of the doctrine of the Mu`tazila and Qadariyya whereby man creates his own deeds.

* Al-Luma` fi al-Radd `ala Ahl al-Zaygh wa al-Bida` (“The Sparks: A Refutation of Heretics and Innovators”), a slim volume.

* Al-Luma` al-Kabir (“The Major Book of Sparks”), a preliminary to Idah al-Burhan and, together with the Luma` al-Saghir, the last work composed by al-Ash`ari according to our Shaykh `Isa al-Humyari.5

* Al-Luma` al-Saghir (“The Minor Book of Sparks”), a preliminary to al-Luma` al-Kabir.

* Maqalat al-Falasifa (“The Sayings of Philosophers”).

* Maqalat al-Islamiyyin wa Ikhtilfa al-Musallin (“The Discourses of the Proponents of Islam and the Differences Among the Worshippers”), an encyclopedia of Islamic sects.

* Al-Masa’il `ala Ahl al-Tathniya (“The Questions in Refutation of the Dualists”).

* al-Mujaz (“The Concise”) in twelve volumes, which identifies and describes the various Islamic sects. It contains a refutation of the Shi`i doctrines of the questioning of Abu Bakr al-Siddiq’s ( imamate and of the infallibility of the Imam in every era.

* Al-Mukhtasar fi al-Tawhid wa al-Qadar (“The Abridgment: On the Doctrine of Oneness and Foreordained Destiny”), a review of the different doctrinal issues which the opponents of Ahl al-Sunna are unable to address.

* Al-Mukhtazan (“The Safekeeping”), on the questions which opponents did not bring up but which pertain to their doctrines.

* Al-Muntakhal (“The Sifted”), a response to questions from the scholars of Basra.

* Naqd al-Balkhi fi Usul al-Mu`tazila (“Critique of al-Balkhi and the Principles of the Mu`tazila”), a refutation of the book of the Mu`tazili scholar al-Balkhi entitled Naqd Ta’wil al-Adilla (“Critique of the Interpretation of the Textual Proofs”).

* Al-Nawadir fi Daqa’iq al-Kalam (“The Rarities Concerning the Minutiae of Dialectic Theology”).

* Al-Qami` li Kitab al-Khalidi fi al-Irada (“The Subduer: A Refutation of al-Khalidi’s Book on the Will”), a refutation of al-Khalidi’s doctrine whereby Allah creates His own will.

* Al-Radd `ala Ibn al-Rawandi (“Refutation of Ibn al-Rawandi”) concerning the Divine Attributes and the Qur’an.

* Al-Radd `ala Muhammad ibn `Abd al-Wahhab al-Jubba’i, an extensive refutation of a Mu`tazili scholar and of his book al-Usul (“The Principles”).

* Al-Radd `ala al-Mujassima (“Refutation of the Anthropomorphists”).

* A refutation of `Abbad ibn Sulayman in the minutiae of kalâm.

* A refutation of a book by `Ali ibn `Isa.

* A refutation of al-Balkhi’s book in which the latter claimed he had rectified Ibn al-Rawandi’s error in his disputation.

* A refutation of al-Iskafi’s book entitled al-Latif (“The Subtle”).

* A refutation of al-Jubba’i on the principles and conditions of scholarly investigation and the derivation of rulings.

* A Refutation of al-Jubba’i’s objections to al-Ash`ari on the vision of Allah in the hereafter as reported by Muhammad ibn `Umar al-Saymari.

* A refutation of al-Khalidi’s book on the denial of the vision of Allah in the hereafter.

* A refutation of al-Khalidi’s book on the denial of the creation of the deeds of human beings by Allah Almighty and Exalted according to His decision.

* The refutation of the philosophers, especially the Perennialist Ibn Qays al-Dahri and Aristotle’s books “On the Heavens” and “On the World.”

* Al-Ru’ya (“The Vision”), which affirms the vision of Allah by the believers in the hereafter, contrary to the Mu`tazili doctrine which denies the possibility of such a vision.

* Al-Sharh wa al-Tafsil fi al-Radd `ala Ahl al-Ifk wa al-Tadlil (“The Detailed Explanation in Refutation of the People of Perdition”), a manual for beginners and students to read before al-Luma`.

* Al-Sifat (“The Attributes”), a description of the doctrines of the Mu`tazila, Jahmiyya, and other sects that differ from Ahl al-Sunna on the topic of the Divine Attributes. It contains a refutation of Abu
al-Hudhayl, Ma`mar, al-Nazzam, al-Futi, and al-Nashi, and an affirmation that the Creator possesses a face and hands.

* Tafsir al-Qur’an wa al-Radd `ala man Khalafa al-Bayan min Ahl al-Ifki wa al-Buhtan (“A Commentary on the Qur’an and Refutation of Those Who Contradicted it Among the People of Perdition and Calumny”) which Ibn al-`Arabi al-Maliki says numbered 500 volumes.6 Ibn al-Subki reports from al-Dhahabi that this Tafsir was written at a time al-Ash`ari was still a Mu`tazili.7

* Various epistles in response to questions from the scholars of Tabaristan, Khurasan, Arrujan, Sayraf, Amman, Jurjan, Damascus, Wasit, Ramahramuz, Baghdad, Egypt, and Persia.

* Ziyadat al-Nawadir (“Addenda to `The Rarities'”).

Among al-Ash`ari’s books between the year 320 and his death in 324 as listed by Ibn Furak:

* Af`al al-Nabi Sallallahu `Alayhi wa Sallam (“The Acts of the Prophet – Allah bless and greet him”).

* Al-Akhbar (“The Reports”).

* Bayan Madhhab al-Nasara (“Exposition of the Doctrine of Christians”)

* Hikayat Madhahib al-Mujassima (“The Tales of the Schools of the Anthropomorphists”), a refutation of the proofs they adduce.

* Al-Ihtijaj (“The Adducing of the Proofs”).

* Al-Imama (“The Doctrine of the Imam”).

* Ithbat al-Qiyas (“The Upholding of the Principle of Analogy”).

* Sessions around the lone-narrator report (al-khabar al-wâhid).

* Mutashabih al-Qur’an (“The Ambiguities in the Qur’an”), in which he brought together the stands of the Mu`tazila and the atheists in their invalidations of the ambiguities in the hadith.

* Naqd Ibn al-Rawandi `ala Ibtal al-Tawatur (“The Critique of Ibn al-Rawandi’s Denial of Mass-Narrated Hadiths”), which contains an affirmation of the principle of Consensus (ijmâ`).

* Naqd al-Mudahat (“Critique of `The Similarity'”), a refutation of al-Iskafi on the term qadar.

* Naqd al-Taj `ala al-Rawandi (“The Diadem: Critique of Ibn al-Rawandi”).

* On questions put to al-Jubba’i concerning names and rulings.

* A refutation of Abu al-Hudhayl on the limitlessness of the foreknowledge and decisions of Allah Almighty and Exalted and another on motions.

* A refutation of Harith al-Warraq on the Attributes.

* A refutation of the logicians.

* A refutation of the proponents of metempsychosis and reincarnation.

* al-`Umad (“The Supports”) on the vision of Allah in the hereafter.

* Al-Wuquf wa al-`Umum (“The Abeyance of Rights and the Public at Large”).

After listing the above titles, Ibn `Asakir says: “I have seen other works not mentioned by Ibn Furak in his list.” He then proceeds to list the following:

* Al-Hathth `ala al-Bahth (“The Encouragement to Research”).

* Risala al-Iman, an epistle on Belief which discusses whether it is permissible to say that belief is created. Ibn Hajar heard it from Abu Ishaq al-Tannukhi with the latter’s chain of transmission back to al-Ash`ari, through the latter’s student Abu al-Hasan Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Miqsam al-Muqri’ al-Baghdadi.8

* Risala ila Ahl al-Thughar (“Epistle to the People of al-Thughar”), a definition on the doctrines of Ahl al-Sunna.

Ibn `Asakir then mentions that al-Ash`ari’s works number over two or three hundred books.9 As for the epistle entitled Istihsan al-Khawd fi `Ilm al-Kalam, al-Ash`ari most likely wrote it – provided he actually authored it – before his conversion, since it is ostensibly directed against the Hanbalis and uses markedly Mu`tazili terminology such as “divine Oneness and Justice” (al-tawhîd wa al-`adl) in reference to the fundamentals of belief, and Allah knows best.

The Corrupt Text of al-Ash`ari’s al-Ibana

The above lists exclude al-Ash`ari’s al-Ibana `an Usul al-Diyana but Ibn `Asakir explicitly attributes it to him in the first few pages of Tabyin Kadhib al-Muftari, an attribution confirmed by al-Bayhaqi, Abu al-`Abbas al-`Iraqi, Abu `Uthman al-Sabuni, and other hadith masters.10 The book dates from the beginnings of al-Ash`ari’s Sunni career according to a report narrated by Ibn Abi Ya`la in Tabaqat al-Hanabila and adduced by al-Dhahabi in the Siyar. The report is phrased rather oddly since it depicts a fawning Imam Abu al-Hasan al-Ash`ari visiting the Hanbali Abu Muhammad al-Barbahari upon entering Baghdad and enumerating before him his refutations11 of the Mu`tazila and defense of Ahl al-Sunna in order to win his approval, to which al-Barbahari coolly responds: “We only know what Ahmad ibn Hanbal said.” “Whereupon,” the report continues, “al-Ash`ari went out and wrote al-Ibana but they [the Hanbalis] did not accept it from him.”12 Al-Dhahabi cites this report at the opening of his biographical notice on al-Barbahari in the Siyar directly following the extremely brief notice on Imam al-Ash`ari.13 Apart from its obviously Hanbali-biased terms, the report clearly shows that al-Ash`ari composed the Ibana upon first coming to Baghdad or shortly thereafter. Shaykh Wahbi Ghawiji cites a statement explicitly confirming this date from Imam Abu al-Hasan `Ali ibn Ibrahim al-Muqri (Ibn Matar) who died in the year 306: “Imam al-Ash`ari composed it in Baghdad upon entering it.”14

However, despite the authenticity of al-Ash`ari’s authorship, the text of the Ibana itself has undoubtedly not reached us in its original authentic form but in a corrupted version which comprises interpolations along two main ideological slants: (1) the anthropomorphist interpretation of the divine Attributes and (2) the apostatizing of Imam Abu Hanifa ( for supposedly holding, with the Jahmiyya, that the Qur’an was created. Shaykh Wahbi Sulayman Ghawiji has shown in his analysis of the work entitled Nazra `Ilmiyya fi Nisba Kitab al-Ibana Jami`ihi ila al-Imam al-Ash`ari (“A Scientific Look at the Attribution of al-Ibana in Its Entirety to Imam al-Ash`ari”) that these two stances are contradicted by what is known of al-Ash`ari’s authentic positions in his and his students’ works.15

(1) The anthropomorphist interpretation of the divine Attributes is illustrated by the following examples:

* The passage: “[Our position is] that He has two eyes (`aynayn) without saying how; just as He stated: {That ran under Our eyes (a`yuninâ)} (54:14).”16 Ibn `Asakir’s citation of the same passage in the Tabyin states: “[Our position is] that He has an eye (`aynan) without saying how.”17 A recent edition of the Ibana consequently amended its own tradition to follow the text cited by Ibn `Asakir18 since the evidence of the Qur’an and the Sunna mentions {My Eye (`aynî)} (20:39) in the singular and {Our Eyes} (52:48, 54:14) in the plural but never two eyes in the dual.19 Further down in all versions of the Ibana the text states: “Allah Almighty and Exalted has said that He possesses a face and an eye which is neither given modality nor defined.”20

* The passage: “When supplicating, the Muslims raise their hands toward the sky, because Allah Almighty and Exalted is established (mustawin) over the Throne which is above the heavens…21 The Muslims all say: `O Dweller of the Throne’ (yâ sâkin al-`arsh)!”22 This kind of faulty reasoning can hardly come from al-Ash`ari for the following reasons:

– The Attributes are divinely ordained (tawqîfiyya) and al-Ash`ari considers it impermissible to make up or derive new terms such as mustawin and sâkin al-`arsh if there is no verse or authentic hadith transmitting them verbatim: “My method in the acceptance of the Names of Allah is Law-based authorization without regard to lexical analogy.”23 – The argument of supplication on the basis of location leads to placing Allah Almighty and Exalted inside the Ka`ba according to the same logic, an absurd impossibility.
– The claim that “the Muslims all say: `O Dweller of the Throne'” is unheard of. Yet Ibn Taymiyya cites it and attempts to justify it with the narration: “Allah created seven heavens then chose the uppermost and dwelt in it,”24 adducing a condemned report to support an invented phrase! – Three editions of the Ibana have, “O Dweller of the heaven (yâ sâkin al-`samâ’)”25 which further casts doubt on the integrity of the text in addition to being equally anthropomorphist.

* The passage: “If we are asked: `Do you say that Allah has two hands?’ The answer is: We do say that, without saying `how.’ It is indicated by the saying of Allah Almighty and Exalted {The Hand of Allah is above their hands} (48:10) and His saying {that which I have created with both My hands} (38:75). It was also narrated from the Prophet – Allah bless and greet him – that he said: `Allah created Adam with His hand then He wiped his back with His hand and brought out of it his offspring.’26 So it is established that He has two hands without saying how. And the transmitted report reached us from the Prophet – Allah bless and greet him – that `Allah created Adam with Hand, created the Garden of `Adn with His hand, wrote the Torah with His hand, and planted the tree of Tuba with His hand,’27 that is: with the hand of His power (ay biyadi qudratih).”28 The last clause contradicts the entire reasoning that precedes and follows, and is actually suppressed from the latest edition of the Ibana!29 The text further states: “They say: `the hands’ (al-ayd) are the strength (al-quwwa),30 so the meaning of {with both My hands} has to be `with My power’ (bi qudratî). The answer to them is: That interpretation is wrong.”31 Al-Ash`ari’s actual position on the Attribute of hand according to Ibn `Asakir is: “Al-Ash`ari took the middle road [between the Mu`tazila and the anthropomorphists] and said: His hand is an Attribute and His face is an Attribute, just like His hearing and His sight.”32

* The following passage is missing from two of the editions of al-Ibana but is found in two others: “And [we believe] that He established Himself over the Throne in the sense that He said and the meaning that He wills in a way that transcends touch, settlement, fixity, immanence, and displacement. The Throne does not carry him, rather the Throne and its carriers are carried by the subtleness of His power, subdued under His grip. He is above the Throne and the Heavens and above everything to the limits of the earth with an aboveness which does not bring Him nearer to the Throne and the Heavens, just as it does not make Him further from the earth. Rather, He is Highly Exalted above the Throne and the Heavens, just as He is Highly Exalted above the earth. Nevertheless, He is near to every entity and is (nearer to [the worshipper] than his jugular vein( and He witnesses everything.”33

(2) The apostatizing of Imam Abu Hanifa – Allah be well-pleased with him – for supposedly holding, with the Jahmiyya, that the Qur’an was created.34 Imam al-Tahawi stated that Abu Hanifa held the opposite position in his Mu`taqad Abi Hanifa or “Abu Hanifa’s Creed,” also known as the `Aqida Tahawiyya.35 Nor did al-Ash`ari mention Abu Hanifa in the chapter on those who held the Qur’an was created in his Maqalat al-Islamiyyin.36 Al-Ash`ari lived in Baghdad – the seat of the Caliphate and home of the Hanafi school – at a time the Hanafi school had long been the state creed37 and would probably have been executed or exiled for making such a charge. Furthermore, al-Bayhaqi stated that “al-Ash`ari used to defend the positions of the past Imams such as Abu Hanifa and Sufyan al-Thawri among the Kufans.”38 The charge of the Ibana is therefore almost certainly a later interpolation, as enmity against the Imam al-A`zam and his school and followers typifies fanatic Hanbalis and their “Salafi” successors.

There are also blatant errors which al-Ash`ari the heresiographer and former Mu`tazili would never commit, such as the attribution to the Mu`tazila as a whole of the belief that Allah Almighty and Exalted is everywhere,39 when he himself reports in his Maqalat that the vast majority of the Mu`tazila said, like Ahl al-Sunna, that it was the controlling disposal (tadbîr) of Allah Almighty and Exalted that was everywhere.40 Furthermore, there is apparently no known chain of transmission for the Ibana from the Imam despite its ostensible fame and the abundance of his students,41 nor do any of his first or
second-generation students – such as Ibn Furak – make any mention of it.42 Finally, Imam al-Qushayri’s Shikaya Ahl al-Sunna bi Hikaya Ma Nalahum Min al-Mihna provides an additional external sign that the tampering of al-Ash`ari’s Ibana took place possibly as early as the fifth century:

They have attributed despicable positions to al-Ash`ari and claimed he had said certain things of which there is not one iota in his books. Nor can such sayings be found reported in any of the books of the scholars of kalâm who either supported him or opposed him, from the earliest times to our own – whether directly quoted or paraphrased. All of that is misrepresentation, forgery, and unmitigated calumny!43

In conclusion it is possible to say with a fair degree of certainty that the Ibana attributed to al-Ash`ari today is actually the anonymous, chainless rewriting of an anti-Ash`ari, anti-Hanafi literalist with clear anthropomorphist leanings and a willingness to adduce Israelite reports typical of the works of anthropomorphist doctrine44 while the unaltered version known to Ibn `Asakir, Abu `Uthman al-Sabuni, and other Ash`aris did not reach us. It is a telling confirmation of this conclusion that the early anthropomorphists used to reject the Ibana while those of later centuries quote it without reservation. And Allah knows best.

عربي

t.b.d.
 

Refs

NOTES

1Al-Khatib in Tarikh Baghdad (11:346) gives the dates 260-330. Ibn `Asakir in his Tabyin, Ibn al-Subki in Tabaqat al-Shafi`iyya al-Kubra (3:347, 3:352), al-Dhahabi in the Siyar (al-Arna’ut ed. 15:85) and Tadhkira al-Huffaz (3:820), Ibn Kathir in al-Bidaya (Ma`arif ed. 11:204), and Ibn Qadi Shuhba in Tabaqat al-Shafi`iyya (1:114 #60) all give the dates 260-324. Ibn al-Athir, as quoted by Ibn Kathir, gives the obitus as 330. See also Ibn `Imad’s Shadharat al-Dhahab (2:303), and Wafayat al-A`yan (2:446). Shaykh Ghawiji gives the dates ~260-~324 in his Nazra `Ilmiyya (p. 21).

2Cf. al-Shahrastani, al-Milal wa al-Nihal (1:93=1961 ed. p. 118-119); Ibn al-Subki, Tabaqat al-Shafi`iyya al-Kubra (3:356). See also Nur al-Din Ahmad ibn Mahmud al-Sabuni (d. 1184), al-Bidaya min al-Kifaya fiUsul al-Din.

3Abu Ishaq al-Isfarayini and Ibn Furak considered al-Ash`ari a Shafi`i in fiqh. Cf. Ibn Qadi Shuhba, Tabaqat al-Shafi`iyyar (1:115). He is declared a Hanafi in Ibn Abi al-Wafa’s al-Jawahir al-Mudiyya (p. 247).

4Ahmad ibn Yahya ibn Ishaq al-Rawandi (d. 298), a Mu`tazila turned freethinker and atheist. Ibn Hazm also wrote a book against him entitled al-Tarshid.

5In his Tashih al-Mafahim al-`Aqdiyya (p. 25).

6In al-`Awasim min al-Qawasim as quoted by Ghawiji in Nazra `Ilmiyya (p. 5-6).

7Ibn al-Subki, Tabaqat al-Kubra (3:355).

8Cf. Ibn Hajar, al-Mu`jam al-Mufahras (p. 408 #1862). On Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Miqsam (296-380), one of Abu Nu`aym al-Asbahani’s shaykhs, see al-Khatib, Tarikh Baghdad (4:429).

9In Tabyin Kadhib al-Muftari (p. 129-137).

10Ghawiji, Nazra `Ilmiyya (p. 8).

11Such as his early al-Luma` and Kashf al-Asrar, cf. Ibn `Asakir, Tabyin (p. 50-51 = al-Kawthari ed. p. 39).

12In Tabaqat al-Hanabila (2:18). Even if the account of al-Barbahari’s snub were to be proven true, it would only show one scholar’s misjudgment of another.

13In the Siyar (11:543) without chain.

14As cited by Ghawiji in Nazra `Ilmiyya (p. 8) without giving his source.

15Ghawiji, Nazra `Ilmiyya (p. 21-64 on Abu Hanifa; p. 65-99 on
anthropomorphism).

16Al-Ash`ari, al-Ibana (Mahmud ed. 2:22=Sabbagh ed. p. 36), cf. Maqalat al-Islamiyyin (`Abd al-Hamid ed. 1:345=Ritter ed. p. 290).

17Ibn `Asakir, Tabyin (p. 159= al-Kawthari ed. p. 158).

18Al-Ash`ari, al-Ibana (`Uyun ed. p. 44).

19Accordingly Ibn Hazm said: “Saying: `He has two eyes,’ is null and void and part of the belief of anthropomorphists… Allah Almighty and Exalted said `eye’ (`ayn) and `eyes’ (a`yunin)… so it is not permissible for anyone to describe Him as possessing `two eyes’ because no text has reached us to that effect.” Ibn Hazm, al-Fisal fi al-Milal (2:166). Today’s anthropomorphists continue to insist on the attribution of two eyes without proof, adducing the Prophet’s – Allah bless and greet him – statement, “The Antichrist (al-dajjal) is one-eyed whereas your Lord is not one-eyed” [Narrated from Ibn `Umar in al-Bukhari, Muslim, and the Sunan] but ignoring or pretending to ignore that Ahl al-Sunna explained this statement to mean that Allah Almighty and Exalted is exempt of defects and of the attributes of creatures, whereas the Antichrist is both created and imperfect. Cf. Ibn Hajar, Fath al-Bari and al-Nawawi, Sharh Sahih Muslim.

20Al-Ash`ari, al-Ibana (Mahmud ed. 2:121 [lahu wajhan wa `aynan wa lâ tukayyafu wa lâ tuhadd]=Sabbagh ed. p. 97 [lahu wajhan wa `aynan lâ bi kayf wa lâ hudûd]= `Uyun ed. p. 104 [lahu wajhan wa `aynan lâ yukayyafu wa lâ yuhadd]).

21Al-Ash`ari, al-Ibana (Mahmud ed. 2:106-107=Sabbagh ed. p. 89=`Uyun ed. p. 97).

22Al-Ash`ari, al-Ibana (p. 234 of the original 1321/1903 Hyderabad ed.) as quoted by Ghawiji in Nazra `Ilmiyya (p. 84).

23Al-Ash`ari in Ibn al-Subki’s Tabaqat al-Shafi`iyyar al-Kubra (3:358). Cf. Appendix entitled, “The Divine Names and Attributes are Tawqîfiyya : Ordained and Non-Inferable” in our translation of Ibn `Abd al-Salam’s The Belief of the People of Truth.

24Narrated from Ibn `Umar by al-Tabarani in al-Kabir (12:456) with a weak chain because of Hammad ibn Waqid al-Saffar as indicated by al-Haythami (8:397). The narration is (munkar) as stated in al-Silsila al-Da`ifa (#338) and Samir al-Bahr’s al-Majmu` fi al-Da`if wa al-Munkar wa al-Mawdu` (1:320-321 #2359) and should never be brought up as evidence in Islamic doctrine, yet it is typically adduced by those who attribute direction to Allah Almighty and Exalted such as Ibn Taymiyya in al-Ta’sis fi Radd Asas al-Taqdis = Bayan Talbis al-Jahmiyya (2:419) and his shaykh Ibn Qudama in Ithbat Sifa al-`Uluw (p. 74). See also al-Jawraqani’s Abatil (1:162) and al-Qaysarani’s Dhakhira al-Huffaz (#2056).

25Al-Ash`ari, al-Ibana (Mahmud ed. 2:115=Sabbagh ed. p. 94=`Uyun ed. p. 101).

26The correct wording is: “Allah created Adam then He wiped his back with His right (bi yamînih) and brought out of it offspring.” Narrated from `Umar by al-Tirmidhi (hasan gharîb), Abu Dawud, Ahmad, and Malik.

27Part of a long, rambling munqati` narration from Wahb ibn Munabbih by Abu al-Shaykh in al-`Azama (3:1058-1068), undoubtedly an Israelite report (isrâ’îliyya). Also narrated from Qurra ibn Iyas al-Muzani by al-Tabari with the wording: “Tuba is a tree Allah Almighty and Exalted has planted with His hand and into which He breathed of His spirit. It gives fruits of jewels and rich garments, and its boughs can be seen from beyond the walls of Paradise.” Ibn Marduyah narrated something similar from Ibn `Abbas and `Abd ibn Humayd from Ka`b al-Ahbar while al-Suyuti in his al-Jami` al-Saghir and al-Munawi in Fayd al-Qadir indicated it was weak. Cf. Ibn al-Mubarak, al-Zuhd (p. 76), Abu al-Shaykh, al-`Azama (3:1066),
al-Suyuti’s al-Durr al-Manthur, and the Tafsirs of al-Tabari (13:149), al-Qurtubi (9:317), and Ibn Kathir (2:513 sura 13:29). Also see
al-Tabarani’s al-Awsat.

28Al-Ash`ari, al-Ibana (Mahmud ed. 2:126=Sabbagh ed. p. 99-100).

29Cf. al-Ash`ari, al-Ibana (`Uyun ed. p. 106).

30This is an established lexical meaning in Arabic.

31Al-Ash`ari, al-Ibana (Mahmud ed. 2:130=Sabbagh ed. p. 101=`Uyun ed. p. 108).

32Ibn `Asakir, Tabyin Kadhib al-Muftari (p. 150-151).

33Al-Ash’ari, al-Ibana, (Mahmud ed. 2:21=Sabbagh ed. p. 35). This passage is missing in its entirety from the original 1321/1903 Hyderabad edition and the 1996 ‘Uyun edition.

34Narrated with chains containing liars in al-Ash`ari, al-Ibana (Mahmud ed. 2:90-91 =Sabbagh ed. p. 77-78=`Uyun ed. p. 87-88).

35It is noteworthy that Shaykh `Abd al-Qadir al-Gilani’s Ghunya underwent tampering along exactly the same two lines. What is known with certainty from Imam Abu Hanifa is that he held, with the rest of Ahl al-Sunna, that the Qur’an was the uncreated, pre-eternal Speech of Allah Almighty and Exalted as stated in al-`Aqida al-Tahawiyya, al-Fiqh al-Akbar, al-Wasiyya, al-Asma’ wa al-Sifat, and other works.

36Nor is Abu Hanifa ever mentioned thus in the other great heresiographies such as al-Baghdadi’s Farq Bayn al-Firaq and Usul al-Din, Ibn Hazm’s al-Fisal fi al-Milal, and al-Shahrastani’s al-Milal wa al-Nihal.

37Under the `Abbasi Caliphs al-Mu`tamid (256-279), al-Mu`tadid (279-288), al-Muktafi (288-295), al-Muqtadir (295-320), al-Qahir (320-322), al-Radi (322-332).

38Al-Bayhaqi, Risala ila `Amid al-Mulk in Ibn `Asakir’s Tabyin
(al-Kawthari ed. p. 103) and Ibn al-Subki’s Tabaqat al-Kubra (3:397).

39Al-Ash`ari, al-Ibana (Mahmud ed. 2:109=Sabbagh ed. p. 91=`Uyun ed. p. 99). If interpolated, this claim was possibly influenced by Ibn Hazm’s identical statement in his Fisal (2:96).

40Al-Ash`ari, Maqalat al-Islamiyyin (`Abd al-Hamid ed. 1:236=Ritter ed. p. 157).

41Cf. al-Saqqaf, notes on al-Dhahabi’s al-`Uluw (p. 511).

42Cf. al-Humyari, Tashih al-Mafahim al-`Aqdiyya (p. 25).

43Al-Qushayri, Shikaya Ahl al-Sunna in Ibn `Asakir, Tabyin Kadhib al-Muftari (al-Kawthari ed. p. 111) and Ibn al-Subki, Tabaqat al-Kubra (3:403-404).

44Such as `Abd Allah ibn Ahmad’s al-Sunna, al-Khallal’s al-Sunna, `Uthman ibn Sa`id al-Darimi’s books, Ibn Batta’s al-Ibana, Ibn Khuzayma’s al-Tawhid, al-Harawi’s al-Arba`in fi al-Tawhid, the spurious Radd `ala al-Jahmiyya deceitfully printed under Imam Ahmad’s name, and many others.

Allah Almighty knows best. Allah bless and greet our Master Muhammad, his Family, and all his Companions.

© Damas Cultural Society 2007 — Latest update:
Original site: damas-original.nur.nu

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Imam Abu Hanifa

الأمام الأعظم أبو حنيفة النعمان بن ثابت الكوفيّ
d. 150 in Baghdad
radiya Allah anhu

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English

The Greatest Imam Abu Hanifa

By Dr. G.F. Haddad

Al-Nu`man ibn Thabit al-Taymi, al-Imam Abu Hanifa (d. 150), called “The Imam” by Abu Dawud, and “The Imam, one of those who have reached the sky” by Ibn Hajar, he is known in the Islamic world as “The Greatest Imam” (al-imâm al-a`zam) and his school has the largest number of followers among the four schools of Ahl al-Sunna. He is the first of the four mujtahid imams and the only Successor (tâbi`i) among them, having seen the Companions Anas ibn Malik, `Abd Allah ibn Abi Awfa, Sahl ibn Sa`d al-Sa`idi, Abu al-Tufayl, and `Amir ibn Wathila.

Abu Hanifa is the first in Islam to organize the writing of fiqh under sub-headings embracing the whole of the Law, beginning with purity (tahara) followed by prayer (sala), an order which was retained by all subsequent scholars such as Malik, Shafi`i, Abu Dawud, Bukhari, Muslim, Tirmidhi, and others. All these and their followers are indebted to him and give him a share of their reward because he was the first to open that road for them, according to the hadith of the Prophet: “He who starts something good in Islam has its reward and the reward of those who practice it until the Day of Judgement, without lessening in the least the reward of those who practice it. The one who starts something bad in Islam will incur its punishment and the punishment of all those who practice it until the Day of Judgement without lessening their punishment in the least.” Al-Shafi`i referred to this when he said: “People are all the children of Abu Hanifa in fiqh, of Ibn Ishaq in history, of Malik in hadith, and of Muqatil in tafsîr.”

Al-Khatib narrated from Abu Hanifa’s student Abu Nu`aym that the latter said: “Muslims should make du`a to Allah on behalf of Abu Hanifa in their prayers, because the Sunan and the fiqh were preserved for them through him. Al-Dhahabi wrote one volume on the life of each of the other three great Imams and said: “The account of Abu Hanifa’s life requires two volumes.” His son Hammad said as he washed his father’s body for burial: “May Allah have mercy on you! You have exhausted whoever tries to catch up with you.”

Abu Hanifa was scrupulously pious and refused Ibn Hubayra’s offer of a judgeship even when the latter had him whipped. Like al-Bukhari and al-Shafi`i, he used to make 60 complete recitations (khatma) of Qur’an every Ramadan: one in the day, one in the night, besides his teaching and other duties. Ibrahim ibn Rustum al-Marwazi said: “Four are the Imams that recited the entire Qur’an in a single rak`a: `Uthman ibn `Affan, Tamim al-Dari, Sa`id ibn Jubayr, and Abu Hanifa.” Ibn al-Mubarak said: “Abu Hanifa for a long time would pray all five prayers with a single ablution.”

Al-Suyuti relates in Tabyid al-Sahifa that a certain visitor came to observe Abu Hanifa and saw him all day long in the mosque, teaching relentlessly, answering every question from both the scholars and the common people, not stopping except to pray, then standing at home in prayer when people were asleep, hardly ever eating or sleeping, and yet the most handsome and gracious of people, always alert and never tired, day after day for a long time, so that in the end the visitor said: “I became convinced that this was not an ordinary matter, but wilâya (Friendship with Allah).”

Al-Shafi`i said: “Knowledge revolves around three men: Malik, al-Layth, and Ibn `Uyayna.” Al-Dhahabi commented: “Rather, it revolves also around al-Awza`i, al-Thawri, Ma`mar, Abu Hanifa, Shu`ba, and the two Hammads [ibn Zayd and ibn Salama].”

Sufyan al-Thawri praised Abu Hanifa when he said: “We were in front of Abu Hanifa like small birds in front of the falcon,” and Sufyan stood up for him when Abu Hanifa visited him after his brother’s death, and he said: “This man holds a high rank in knowledge, and if I did not stand up for his science I would stand up for his age, and if not for his age then for his Godwariness (wara`), and if not for his Godwariness then for his jurisprudence (fiqh).” Ibn al-Mubarak praised Abu Hanifa and called him a sign of Allah. Both Ibn al-Mubarak and Sufyan al-Thawri said: “Abu Hanifa was in his time the most knowledgeable of all people on earth.” Ibn Hajar also related that Ibn al-Mubarak said: “If Allah had not rescued me with Abu Hanifa and Sufyan [al-Thawri] I would have been like the rest of the common people.” Dhahabi relates it as: “I would have been an innovator.”

An example of Abu Hanifa’s perspicuity in inferring legal rulings from source-texts is his reading of the following hadith:

The Prophet said: “Your life in comparison to the lifetime of past nations is like the period between the time of the mid-afternoon prayer (‘asr) and sunset. Your example and the example of the Jews and Christians is that of a man who employed laborers and said to them: ‘Who will work for me until mid-day for one qirât (a unit of measure, part of a dinar) each?’ The Jews worked until mid-day for one qirât each. Then the man said: ‘Who will work for me from mid-day until the ‘asr prayer for one qirât each?’ The Christians worked from mid-day until the ‘asr prayer for one qirât each. Then the man said: ‘Who will work for me from the `asr prayer until the maghrib prayer for two qirât each?’ And that, in truth, is all of you. In truth, you have double the wages. The Jews and the Christians became angry and said: ‘We did more labor but took less wages.’ But Allah said: ‘Have I wronged you in any of your rights?’ They replied no. Then He said: ‘This is My Blessing which I give to whom I wish.’”

It was deduced from the phrase “We did more labor” that the time of mid-day to `asr must always be longer than that between `asr and maghrib. This is confirmed by authentic reports whereby:

The Prophet hastened to pray zuhr and delayed praying `asr.

The Prophet said: “May Allah have mercy on someone who prays four rak`as before `asr.

`Ali delayed praying `asr until shortly before the sun changed, and he reprimanded the mu’adhdhin who was hurrying him with the words: “He is trying to teach us the Sunna!”

Ibrahim al-Nakha`i said: “Those that came before you used to hasten more than you to pray zuhr and delay more than you in praying `asr.” Al-Tahanawi said: “Those that came before you” are the Companions.

Ibn Mas`ud delayed praying `asr.

Sufyan al-Thawri, Abu Hanifa, and his two companions Muhammad ibn a-Hasan and Abu Yusuf therefore considered it better to lengthen the time between zuhr and `asr by delaying the latter prayer as long as the sun did not begin to redden, while the majority of the authorities considered that praying `asr early is better, on the basis of other sound evidence to that effect.

Like every Friend of Allah, Abu Hanifa had his enemies. `Abdan said that he heard Ibn al-Mubarak say: “If you hear them mention Abu Hanifa derogatively then they are mentioning me derogatively. In truth I fear for them Allah’s displeasure.” Authentically related from Bishr al-Hafi is the statement: “No-one criticizes Abu Hanifa except an envier or an ignoramus.” Hamid ibn Adam al-Marwazi said: I heard Ibn al-Mubarak say: “I never saw anyone more fearful of Allah than Abu Hanifa, even on trial under the whip and through money and property.” Abu Mu`awiya al-Darir said: “Love of Abu Hanifa is part of the Sunna.”

Abū Hanīfa’s Foresight

by GF Haddad
PDF from http://www.sunnah.org/history/Scholars/AbuHanifasForesight.pdf

عربي

t.b.d.
 

Sagacity of Imam Abu Hanifah

Sagacity of Imam Abu Hanifah

A man by the name of Ad-Dahhak ibn Qays al-Kharji, who rebelled during the time of the Ummayyads, entered the mosque in Kufa and told Imam Abu Hanifa, “Repent!”
“From what?” asked Abu Hanifa.
He answered, “From your having permitted arbitration.”
“Will you kill me or debate with me?” asked the Imam.
“I will debate with you.”
“And if we disagree on anything in the debate, who will decide between us?”
“I will accept whomever you wish.”
“Sit and judge between us if we disagree,” Abu Hanifa said to one of ad-Dahhak’s companions.
“Are you content for this one to decide between us?” asked Abu Hanifa to ad-Dahhak.
“Yes”
“You have allowed arbitration, so desist.”

[source: The Four Imams: Their Lives, Works, and their Schools of Thought, Muhammad Abu Zahra’s book.]

Notes & Refs

Main sources:
al-Khatib, Tarikh Baghdad 13:324-356;
al-Dhahabi, Manaqib Abi Hanifa 22-36 and Tabaqat al-Huffaz 1:168;
Ibn Hajar, Tahdhib al-Tahdhib 10:450;
Ibn Kathir, al-Bidaya wa al-Nihaya 10:114;
al-Suyuti, Tabyid al-Sahifa p. 94-95;
al-Haytami, al-Khayrat al-Hisan.

copyright As-Sunna Foundation of America

© Damas Cultural Society 2007 — Latest update:
Original site: damas-original.nur.nu

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Bio: Imam Abul Hasan al-Shadhili

Sayyidi Imam Abul Hasan al-Shadhili

سيدي الإمام أبو الحسن الشاذلي الحسني
b. 593 – d. 656 H in Humaythira. Egypt
qaddasa Allah sirrahu

‘Ali ibn ‘ Abd Allah ibn ‘ Abd al- Jabbar ibn Tamim ibn Hurmuz ibn Hatim ibn Qusay ibn Yusuf ibn Yusha ‘ ibn Ward ibn Battal ibn Idris ibn Muhammad ibn ‘lsa ibn Muhammad ibn al-Hasan ibn ‘ Ali ibn Abi Talib.

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English

1. From Durrat al-Asrar by Ibn al-Sabbagh
– On His Noble Lineage, Travels and Rank
– Meeting with al-Khidr (s)
– How he became the Qutb
– Shaykh Izz al-Din and the Pilgrimage
– His Last Journey
2. From Lataif al-Minan of Imam Ibn ‘Ata Allah al-Sakandari
3. From Tabaqat al-Shadhiliyya of Kuhin

1. Excerpts from “Durrat al-Asrar wa Tufat al-Abarar” by Ibn al-Sabbagh
Translated by Elmer H. Douglas as “The Mystical Teachings of al-Shadhili”
Book cover, page 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 26, 27-28


On His Noble Lineage, Travels and Rank

With reference to his noble lineage, it is: ‘Ali ibn ‘ Abd Allah ibn ‘ Abd al- Jabbar ibn Tamim ibn Hurmuz ibn Hatim ibn Qusay ibn Yusuf ibn Yusha ‘ ibn Ward ibn Battal ibn Idris ibn Muhammad ibn ‘lsa ibn Muhammad ibn al-Hasan ibn ‘ Ali ibn Abi Talib.

His birthplace was in Ghumara} He entered the city of Tunis when a young lad, turned toward the East, performed many pilgrimages, and went into lraq.

He related,
When I came to lraq, I met the Shaykh Abu al-Fath al-Wasiti, the like of whom I have not seen in Iraq. My quest was for the qutb. One of the saints said to me, “Are you searching for the qutb in lraq while he is in your country? Return to your land and you will find him.

So, he returned to the Maghrib where he met his teacher, who is my master the shaykh, the saint, the gnostic, the trustworthy, the qutb, the ghawth, Abu Muhammad ‘ Abd al-Salam ibn Mashish al-Sharif al-Hasani.

He related,
When I drew near him, while he was living in Ghumara in a lodge on the top of a mountain, I bathed at a spring by the base of that mountain, forsook all dependence on my own knowledge and works, and went up toward him as one in need. Just then he was coming down toward me, wearing a patched cloak, and on his head a cap of palm leaves. “Welcome to ‘ Ali ibn ‘ Abd Allah ibn ‘ Abd al-Jabbar:’ he said to me, and repeated my lineage down to the Apostle of God. Then he said to me, “O , Ali, you have come up to us destitute of your knowledge and works, so you will receive from us the riches of this world and the next:’

He (al-Shadhili) continued,
Awe of him seized me. so I remained with him for some days until God awakened my perception, and I saw that he possessed many supernatural powers (kharq al-‘adat). For example, one day as I sat before him while a young son of his played with him on his lap, it came into my mind to question him concerning the greatest name of God. The child came to me, threw his arms about my neck, and shook me, saying, “O Abu al-Hasan, you desired to question the master concerning the greatest name of God. It is not a matter of importance that you should ask about the greatest name of God. The important thing is that you should be the greatest name of God, that is to say, that the secret (sirr) of God should be lodged in your heart:’ When he had finished speaking, the shaykh (Ibn Mashish) smiled and said to me, ‘Such a one has answered you for me:

He was, then, the Qutb of that time.
Then he said to me, “O ‘Ali, depart to the Province Ifriqiya and dwell there in a place called Shadhila, for God will name you al-Shadhili. After that you will move to the city of Tunis where charges will be brought against you before the authorities. Then you will move to the East where you will inherit the rank of qutb:’

I said to him, “O my master, give me your spiritual bequest:’ So he replied, “0 ‘ Ali, God is God and men are men. Keep your tongue from the mention of them, and your heart from inclining before them, and be careful to guard the members (jawarih) and to fulfill the divine ordinances; thus the friendship (wilaya) of God is perfected in you. Have no remembrance of them except under obligation that duty to God imposes on you; thus your scrupulousness is perfected. Then say: 0 God, relieve me from remembrance of them and spare me disturbances from them. Save me from their evils, enable me to dispense with their good through Thy good, and as a special favour assume Thou care of me among them. Verily, Thou art mighty over all things:’

Meeting with al-Khidr (s)

He related,
When I entered the city of Tunis as a young man, I found there a great famine, and I came upon men dying in the market places. I said to myself, “Had I wherewith to buy bread for these hungry people, I would surely do it:’ Then I was instructed inwardly: “Take what is in your pocket:’ So I shook my pocket and, lo, there was silver money in it. So I went to a baker at Bab al-Manara and said to him, “Count up your loaves of bread:’ He counted them for me. Then I offered them to the people who took them greedily. I drew out the pieces of money and handed them to the baker. He found them to be spurious and said, “These are Moroccan, and you Moroccans practice alchemy:’ So I gave him my burus and small bag as a pawn on the price of the bread, and turned toward the gate. Right there by the gate stood a man who said to me, “O ‘ Ali, where are the pieces of money?” So I gave them to him, and he shook them in his hand, then returned them to me, saying, “Pay them to the baker, for they are genuine:’ So I paid them to the baker who accepted them from me, saying, “These are good:’ I took my burus and bag and then looked for the man, but did not find him.

Consequently, I remained for some days inwardly perplexed until, on Friday, I went into the Zaytuna mosque, near the reserved section on the east side of the mosque, and performed two cycles of the greeting of the mosque and pronounced the salutation. Suddenly, I saw a man on my right. I greeted him and he smiled at me, saying, “O ‘ Ali, you say, ‘Had I wherewith to feed these hungry people, I should surely do it: You would presume to be more generous than God toward His creatures. Had He willed it, He would surely have fed them, for He is more cognizant of their welfare than you:’

Then I said to him, “O my master, by God, who are you?” He replied, “I am Ahmad al-Khidr. I was in China and I was told, ‘Go and look for my saint ‘ Ali in Tunis: So I came hurriedly to you:’ When 1 had performed the Friday worship, I looked about for him, but did not find him.


How Imam Abul Hasan al-Shadhili became the QutbView page scan

I journeyed together with these two [Abu ‘Ali and al-Shadhilij in the service of Abu ‘Ali and, on reaching the city of Tripoli, the Shaykh al-Shadhili said, “Let me travel along the road of the interior!’ But the Shaykh Abu ‘Ali chose the coast road. The latter saw the Apostle of God who said to him, “Abu ‘Ali, you are a saint of God and Abu al-Masan is a saint of God, and God will never arbitrate between two saints in the matter of a road to follow. Take the road which you have chosen and let him proceed along the road which he has chosen:’ So we went our separate ways until we met on the road near Alexandria.

When we had performed the morning prayers, the Shaykh Abu ‘Ali approached the tent of the Shaykh Abu al-Hasan, we being in his company. He entered into his presence, sat down before him, and behaved toward him in a way which was not customary with him. He conversed with him in speech of which we understood not a word. When he was about to depart, he said, “0, my master, extend your hand so that I may kiss it!’ So he kissed his hand and departed weeping. We were amazed at his conduct with him.

When Abu ‘Ali was well on his way, he turned toward his companions and said, “0 Yunus, Abu al-Hajjaj al-Qusuri was in the land of Egypt and he was the Qutb of his time. Last night, he died and God caused him to be succeeded by Abu al-Hasan al-Shadhili.”

So I went to al-Shadhili and gave allegiance to him as one possessing the office of Qutb. When we reached Alexandria, and the people came out to meet the party of travelers, I saw Abu ‘Ali strike with his hand the forepart of the saddle and say weeping, “0 people of this region, if you knew who it is who is advancing toward you in this caravan, you would kiss the feet of his camel, which, by God, have brought you the blessing!’


Shaykh Izz al-Din and the PilgrimageView page scan

One in whom I have confidence related to me., In the year in which he went on pilgrimage there took place the movement of the Tararsu against Egypt. As the Sultan was occupied with operations against them, he did not prepare the military escort for the caravan of pilgrims. The shaykh sent out his tent to al-Birka (where the pilgrims make a halt outside of Cairo] and certain people followed him. So the people met with the jurist, judge, and Mufti ‘Izz al-Din ibn ‘Abd al-Salam, and questioned him regarding the journey. “The journey,” he replied, “undertaken presumptiously and lacking an escort, is not allowable!’ The people informed the shaykh of that. “Let me meet with him,” he responded. He met him in the mosque on Friday. A large crowd gathered around the two. “0 jurist,” he asked, “is it your opinion that, if a man had the whole world reduced to the size of a single step for him, he would be permitted to undertake a journey amidst dangers or not?” The judge replied, “If anyone should find himself in such a circumstance, he would be beyond the bounds of a legal pronouncement (fatwa) or anything of the sort?’ “By God, beside Whom there is no other god,” the shaykh said to him, “I am of those for whom the entire world has been made into the size of a single step. Whenever I see something that causes men to fear, I walk with them to a place of security. For you and me, there is no escape from standing before God (on the Day of Judgment] that He may question me concerning the truth of what I have told you?’ So al-Shadhili departed and many charismatic events attended him on the way. The following is one of them. Thieves would attack the caravan by night, and they would find a wall built around it, as if it were a city. At the break of dawn, they would come to him, inform him of their deeds, repent to God, and travel in the company of the shaykh on the pilgrimage to Mecca. The pilgrimage accomplished, he returned and entered Cairo the first of the people. His pilgrimage companions related to others the miracles he [Abu al-Hasan] had performed. Then the jurist ‘Izz al-Din went out to meet him at al-Birka, which is a place about six miles outside of Cairo. On entering into his presence, al-Shadihili said to him, “0 jurist, by God, were it not for the training that I have received with my ancestor the Apostle of God, I would have taken the caravan on the Day of ‘Arafa and I would have stepped over with it to ‘Arafat.” “I am resigned to God:’ the mufti exclaimed. Thereupon the shaykh added, “Look at the reality of that.” So everyone present looked at the Ka’ ba. The people cried out and the jurist lowered his head between his hands and said, “You are my shaykh from this very hour.” “Rather:’ the shaykh replied, “you are my brother, if God wills:’


His last Journey – View html

The Master Abu al-Hasan ash-Shadhdhuli had made it his custom that every other year he would travel to Mecca for the Pilgrimage. Likewise in the year 656 A.H./1258 C.E., the very year in which a few weeks earlier the Mongol ruler Hulugu Jenghiz Khan had sacked Baghdad, he made preparations to go on the Pilgrimage as usual. However, this time he asked that a pickaxe, shovel, and a shroud should be included in their baggage. As was his custom he set out on the southern route, known as the spice route, overland to Damanhur, then via Qahira, up the Nile to ‘Idfu in Upper Egypt. From there he would cross the Red Sea to Jiddah, and finally make the two-day camel ride to Mecca. At Damanhur, a young boy, who was a student of the Qur’an, begged his mother to let him go with the Shaykh and his party to make the Pilgrimage. His mother, who was a widow, earnestly requested the Shaykh for her son that he be allowed to travel with his party, to which he replied, “We will look after him as far as Humaythira.”

And so it happened. It was related that Abu al-Hasan, may Allah have mercy upon him, had said, “When I entered the land of Egypt and established my dwelling there, I prayed to Allah, the Most High, saying: Ya Rabb, have You caused me to dwell in the land of the Copts, to be buried amongst them, until my flesh becomes mingled with their flesh and my bones with theirs? A reply then came to me: No `Ali, you will be buried in a land which Allah has never oppressed.” It is also recorded that in the year of his death Abu al-Hasan ash-Shadhdhuli was heard to say, “Once when I fell ill, I said: Allah, O Allah, when will the encounter with You take place? I was told: Ya `Ali, when you reach Humaythira, then the encounter will come.” He said, may Allah have mercy upon him, “I saw as if I were buried at the base of a mountain before a well containing a little salty water, which became more abundant and sweet.” And he said to his beloveds, “This year I shall perform the Pilgrimage of substitution (hajjat an-niyaba).

“One of Abu al-Hasan’s followers recorded what happened: Soon after entering the desert of `Aydhab, both the young boy and the Shaykh fell ill, the boy dying the day before we reached the watering-place of Humaythira. The followers wanted to bury the youth where he had died, but the Shaykh said, “Carry him to Humaythira.” When we arrived at this resting-place we washed the boy, and the Shaykh prayed over him before we buried him. That evening the Shaykh, who was also very sick, called his companions around him and spoke to us, counselling us to recite his Litany of the Sea (Hizb al-Bakhr) often, and he said, “Teach it to your children for the Greatest Name of Allah (al-ismu ‘l-`azam) is in it.” Then he talked privately to Sidi Abu al-`Abbas al-Mursi, giving him his orders as his successor with his special blessing. He, may Allah have mercy upon him, said to his followers, “When I am dead, look to Abu al-`Abbas al-Mursi for he is the Caliph (Khalifa) to come after me. He will have an exalted station amongst you for he is one of the Doors (abwab) of Allah, Praised and Exalted is He.” Later that evening he called for a jar of water to be filled from the well of Humaythira. When he was told, “Ya Sidi, its water is salty and bitter, but the water we have is fresh and sweet,” he replied, “Give me some of it for my intention is not what you think.” When we brought him the well-water he drank a little of it, rinsed his mouth with it and spat into the jar. Then he said, “Pour the water into the well.

“Immediately the well-water turned sweet and fresh to taste, and it was abundant enough to refresh all the travellers who stopped to replenish themselves at this place. His followers said, “The Shaykh passed the night in holy preparation and discourse with his Beloved God, continually mentioning His Name until the dawn came when he was still.”



2. From Lata’if al-Minan of Imam Ibn ‘Ata Allah al-Sakandari

t.b.d.
p.96-97 (about the well)

3. From Tabaqat al-Shadhiliyya of Kuhin
From: Kuhin: Tabaqat Al-Shadhiliyyah Al-Kubra, translated by Ahmad Ali al-Adani as “Biographies of Prominent Shadhilis”


t.b.d.

Türkçe

t.b.d.
 

Svenska

Imam Abul Hasan al-Shadhili
(f. 593 – d. 656 H.)
Biografiska noter sammanställda av bmk
Kultursällskapet Damas © 2006 – Se ursprunglig artikel

Hans fullständiga namn är: Taqi al-Din Abul Hasan `Ali ibn `AbdAllah ibn `Abd al-Jabbar. Hans släkband går på fädernet tillbaka till Profeten Muhammads (s) dotterson al-Hasan ibn `Ali ibn Abi Talib, och på mödernet till al-Husayn. Han har benämnts efter by Shadhila nära staden Tunis, dit hans läromästare Ibn Mashish sände honom för att förankra tariqan,

Imam Abul Hasan föddes i byn Gumara i Rif-området som ligger i Atlasbergen i Maghrib (dagens Marokko) år 593 H. Hans första lärare var `AbdAllah ibn Harazim (d. 633), som var elev till Abu Madyan. Som ung reste han österut för att söka sin läromästare. I Bagdad mötte han år 618 H en av den tidens störste andlige ledare, al-Sayyid Abu al-Fath al-Wasiti. Denne sade till honom: “Du har kommit hit för att söka al-Qutb – men han finns där du kommer ifrån – i Maghrib.” Så återvände och leddes till Ibn Mashish. Han klättrade upp för det berg där Ibn Mashish vistades, och fann där en brunn, där han tvättade sig ren från kroppslig och andlig smuts, och bad till Allah: “O Allah, jag har tvättat bort min kunskap och mina gårningar, så att jag inte har någon annan kunskap eller gärning än vad som kommer från denne Sheikh”. Därefter hälsade honom Ibn Mashish med orden: “Välkommen (och han nämnde hans namn och härkomst). Du kom till oss fattig på kunskap och gärning, och av oss tog du emot rikedomar från denna världen och nästa.”

Efter att ha vistats en tid i Ibn Mashish’s sällskap sände denne honom till Ifriqiya (Tunisien) ochg sade till honom: “Du kommer att bli denna tids qutb.” Abul Hasan drog sig tillbaka i en grotta i Zaghwan-beget nära byn Shadhila som ligger mellan Tunis och Qairwan. År 640 H. kom han sedan ned till staden Tunis. Han bosatte sig i al-Balad (vid “den kakelprydda moskén”) och började kalla människor till Allah. Han stannade i flera år i Tunis, och det var där han för första gången träffade den man som skulle bli hans efterträdare: Abu al-`Abbas al-Mursi. Imam Abul Hasan sade om honom: “Denne Abul `Abbas – så länge han känt Allah, har det aldrig funnits någon slöja som skilt honom från Allah. Om han så hade bett om en slöja, skulle han inte funnit någon.”

År 646 lämnade Imam Abul Hasan Tunis och bosatte sig i Alexandria i Egypten, där han sedan tillbragte resten av sitt liv. Han stred år 648 H (1250), tillsammans med sina följeslagare och andra `ulema och awlia, i slaget vid al-Masura, till försvar mot den franske kungen Louis’ korståg mot Egypten. I ett stort torn som hörde till stadsmuren inredde han bostäder till sin familj och sina följeslagare, en moské, gästrum, och utrymmen för undervisning. Bland dem som tog tariqa av honom befann sig många av hans samtida stora lärda, som `Izz al-Din ibn `Abd al-Salam, Ibn Daqiq al-Id, Makin al-Din al-Asmar, `Abd Allah al-Laqqani och många andra. Sammanlagt fostrade han 40 murider till rättfärdiga och värdiga bärare av tariqan, främst bland dem Abul `Abbas al-Mursi.

Imam Abul Hasan brukade göra hajj vartannat år. År 656 H (1258), några veckor efter det att Hulugu Jengis Khan hade skövlat Baghdad, stadde han sig på sin årliga hajj-resa. Denna gång bad han att en spade och en likskrud skulle packas i hans bagage. Hajj-rutten gick genom Damanhur, via Kairo, uppför Nilen till `Idfui övre (södra) Egypten, varifrån man korsade Röda Havet till Jeddah. Och Imam Abul Hasan gick bort i Humaythira i `Aydhab-öknen – enligt ett löfte han fått från Allah på en plats som aldrig vederfarits förtryck.

I “Lataif al-Minan” återberättas från Imam Abul Hasans son och vår mästare, Shihab al-Din Ahmad: “Sheykhen sade då han dog: ‘Sannerligen, jag tillfört denna väg, något som ingen annan kommit med,’ ” Hans kropp tvättades i Humaythiras vatten, som därefter blev välsmakande och överflödande och räckt till alla släcka törsten hos alla de ressällskap som gjort halt där sedan dess. Abu `AbdAllah ibn al-Nu`man, som brukade skriva dikter till Imam Abul Hasans ära, antyder detta i några diktrader:

“Efter hans död bevittnade jag hans underverk
Som tydligt framstår mot dem som förnekar hans upplysthet.”

Sheikh ibn `Ata Allah säger i Lata’if al-Minan: “Hans tariqa härstammar från Sheikh `Abd al-Salam ibn al-Mashish, och Sheikh `Abd al-Salam har sin härstamning från `Abd al-Rahman Sheikh al-Madani, osv. led efter led fram till al-Hasan ibn `Ali ibn Abi Talib, må allah finna behag i honom. Jag hörde vår Mästare Abu al-`Abbas säga: ‘Denna vår Väg härstammar inte fårn öster och inte från väster, utan den återförs led efter led till al-Hasan ibn `Ali ibn Abi Talib, må allah finna behag i honom, som var den förste Qutben.’ ”

“Han brukade nämna sin Sheikh, och avstå från att framhålla sina egna meriter, till en dag en person sade till honom: ‘Mästere, vi hör dig säga: “Sheikhen sade”, och det är sällan du tillskirver dig själv något.’ Sheikhen [Abul Hasan] sade då till honom: ‘Om jag med varje andetag ville säga: “Allah sade”, skulle jag sagt “Allah sade”; och om jag med varje andetag ville säga: “Allah’s Sändebud sade”, skulle jag säga “Allah’s Sändebud sade”; och om jag med varje andetag ville säga: “Jag sade”, skulle jag säga “Jag sade”. Men jag säger “Sheikhen sade” och låter bli att nämna mig själv av adab gentemot honom.’ ”

Han efterlämnade inga skrifter – han brukade säga: “Mina följeslagare är min böcker” – men det finns ett stort antal brev från den korrespondens han upprätthöll med sina följeslagare i Tunis. Dessa brev är värdefulla dokument för den som vill förstå hans lära. De genomsyras av den kärlek han hyste för sin följeslagare – ja han såg det som sin uppgift som Sheikh att vara en fader och fostrare (rabib) för dem, han kände dem mycket nära och hyste en intim vänskap med dem var de än befann sig. En del av dessa brev sammanställdes av en av Imamens tunisiska följeslagare, Muhammad ibn al-Sabbagh, i boken “Durrat al-Asrar”.

Mötet mellan Imam Abul Hasan och Qadi `Izz al-Din ibn `Abd al-Salam

Muhammad ibn Ibrahim ibn `Ayyad berättar [2/ Al-Mafakhir]:
Ett år då Sheikhen (Abul Hasan) stadde sig till Hajj-resa, var det uppror mot Kairos härskare, så denne var upptagen med att kväsa upprorsrörelsen och försåg inte (de hajj-resande) med några skyddstrupper. Sheikhen lämnade sitt tält och gav sig av, och folk följde honom. Folk samlades kring Qadin `Izz al-Din ibn `Abd al-Salam och frågade honom angående resan. Denne sade: Det är inte tillåtet att resa utan skyddstrupper när det råder fara. Sheikhen uderrättades om detta och sade då: Låt mig träffa (qadin), så ett möte anordnades i moskén samma fredag. (Sheikhen) sade till (qadin): “O faqih, om det finns någon, för vilken världen inte är mer än ett enda språng, anser du då att det är tillåtet för honom att resa trots faran eller ej?” (Qadin) sade: “Den som befinner sig på den nivån omfattas inte av fatwan.” Sheikhen sade då: “Vid Allah – ingen gud finns utom Han – jag tillhör dem, för vilka världen inte är mer än ett enda språng, och om jag ser något som utgör en fara för folk, för jag dem med ett steg till trygghet, Du vet lika väl som jag vilken ställning vi har inför Allah den Upphöjde, den Majestätiske. Du må därför be mig bekräfta sanningen i vad jag sagt.”

(Sheikhen) – må Allah finna behag i honom – reste, och på vägen framträdde många underverk. Ett av dem var t.ex. att tjuvar kom till karavanen under natten. När de befann sig mitt i karavanen reste sig runt omkring dem murar som hindrade dem från att komma ut, precis som om de befann sig i en befäst stad. På morgonen kom de til Sheikhen med ånger och omvände sig till Allah den Upphöjde.

Vid återkomsten till Cairo kom Qadin dem tillmötes och folk berättade om vad de hade sett av Allah’s underverk, Väl inne i staden avlade Qadi `Izz al-Din besök hos Sheikhen, och denne sade till honom: “O faqih, vore det inte av artighet inför min förfader, Allah’s Sändebud, välsignelser och fred vare med honom, skulle jag på `Arafat-dagen ha tagit karavanen till `Arafat-berget i ett enda språng.” Muftin svarade: “Jag tror på Allah.” Sheikehn fortsastte: “O faqih `Izz al-Din, se här bekräftelsen av det jag sagt.” Så sträckte han ut sin välsignade högra hand mot Qibla, och alla som var närvarande såg i denna stund Ka`ba framför sig, och folk ropade högt av häpnad. Qadin sänkte sitt huvud inför (Sheikhen ) och sade: “Min Mästare, från dendda stund är du min Sheikh.” Sheiken svarade honom: “Du är min broder, insha’Allah.” Må Allah den Upphöjde finna behag i dem.

I “Lata’if al-Minan” berättas förljande:

En gång när Sheikh Abul Hasan återvände till Kairo från en hajj-resa, besökte han Sheikh `Izz al-Din `Abd al-Salam, innan han gick till sitt eget hem, och sade till honom: “Allah’s Sändebud, välsignelser och fred vare med honom, hälsar dig.” Sheikh `Izz al-Din kände då sin egen ringhet och att han inte var värd en sådan hälsning. Några dagar senare besökte han Imam Abul Hasan och fann i hans sällskap bl.a. Sheikh al-`Alam Ya-Sin, en av eleverna till Shiekh Muhiy al-Din Ibn al-`Arabi, som sade: Vi är mycket glada över det vi fått höra. Det är inte många nuförtiden som hälsas av Allah’s Sändebud.” Sheikh `Izz al-Din sade: “Må Allah dra en slöja över oss.” Då sade al-`Alam Ya Sin: “Må Allah dra undan slöjan så att sanningen blir tydlig.”

Någon sade till Imam Abul Hasan: “Ingenslans på jordens ytan finner man en mera lysande cirkel för (studiet av) rättslära än Sheikh `Izz al-Din `Abd al-Salam’s, eller en mera lysande cirkel för att studiet av hadithkunskap soänSheikh Zaki al-Din `Abd al-`Azim’s, eller en mera lysande cirkel för att studiet av de (gudomliga) realiterna än din.” [Lata’if al-Minan]

Uttalanden av Imam Abul Hasan

Imam Abul Hasan brukade säga: “En Sheikh är inte den som leder till det som tröttar ut dig, utan den som leder dig till det som ger dig ro.” [Lata’if al-Minan]

Han sade: “Tecknet på att ens hjärta har befriats from kärlek till denna värld är att när han förvärvar jordiska egendomar, så använder han dem fritt, och när han förlorar dem upplever han en känsla av befrielse.” [Lata’if al-Minan]

عربي

1. From Imam al-Sha’rani: Al-Tabaqat al-Kubra (PDF) – View | Download
2. From Kuhin: Tabaqat al-Shadhiliyya: View book | Download | Chapter [1] (see below)

[1] سيدي أبو الحسن الشاذلي رضى الله عنه([1])
(591- 656هـ)

شيخ الطريقة الشاذلية، وأصلُ مددها، وعنصر مشربها، وقطب دائرتها الذي تدور عليه، وهو السيد الأَجَلُّ الكبير سيدنا وسَندُنا ومولانا القطب الرباني العارف الوارث المحقق بالعلم الصَّمداني، صاحبُ الإشارات العلية، والحقائق القدسية، والأنوار المحمدية، والأسرار الربانية، والمنازلات العرشية، الحامل في زمانه لواء العارفين، والمُقيمُ فيه دولة علومِ المحققين، كهفُ الواصلين، وجلاءُ قلوب الغافلين، منشئ معالم الطريقة ومظهر أسرارها، ومبدئ علوم الحقيقة بعد خفاء أنوارها، ومظهرُ عوارف المعارف بعد خفائها واستتارها، الدَّالُّ على الله وعلى سبيلِ جنته، والدَّاعي على علمٍ وبصيرة إلى جنابه وحضرته، أوحدُ أهل زمانه علمًا وحالًا، ومعرفة ومقالًا، الحسيبُ ذو النِّسبتين الطاهرتين الروحية والجسمية، والسلالتين الطيبتين الغيبية والشاهدية، والوارثتين الكريمتين الملكية والملكوتية، المحمدي العلوي الحسني الفاطمي، الصحيح النسبتين، الكريم العنصرين، فحلُ الفحول إمام السالكين، ومعراج الوارثين، الأستاذُ الواصل المرّبي الكامل أبو الحسن سيدي عليٌّ الشاذلي الحسني بن عبد الله بن عبد الجبار بن تميم بن هرمز بن حاتم بن قصي بن يوسف بن يوشع بن ورد بن بطال بن علي بن أحمد بن محمد بن عيسى بن إدريس المُبايع له ببلاد المغرب ابن عبد الله بن الحسن المثنى ابن سيد شباب أهل الجنة وسبط خير البرية أبي محمد الحسن بن أمير المؤمنين سيدنا علي بن أبي طالب كرم الله وجهه ومولاتنا فاطمة الزهراء بنت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم. وهذا هو النسب الصحيح لسيدي أبي الحسن الشاذلي على قول، وسيأتي لصاحب «السلوة» رضى الله عنه أن الصحيح في نسبه وهو ما ذكره أعني صاحب «السلوة» عن الإمام القصَّار عن صاحب «النبذة»، وسيأتي بلفظه إن شاء الله تعالى، وهو ما أعني الشيخ سيدنا ومولانا أبا الحسن الشاذلي رضى الله عنه صاحبَ الطريق، ومُظهرَ لواء التحقيق، الذي قال فيه الإمام البوصيري صاحب «البردة» و«الهمزية» في قصيدة مدحَ بها سيِّدي أبا العباس المُرسي، وشيخَه سيدي أبا الحسن الشاذلي رضي الله عنهما:

أمَّا الإمامُ الشاذليُّ طريقه

أمَّا الإمامُ الشاذليُّ طريقه * في الفضلِ واضحةٌ لعينِ المُهتدي
فانقل ولو قدما على آثاره * فإذا فعلتَ فذاك أخذٌ باليدِ
أَفدي عليًّا بالوجودِ وكلُّنا * بوجوده من كلِّ سوء نفتدي
قطبُ الزَّمان وغوثُه وإمامُه * عينُ الوجود لسانُ سرِّ المُوجِدِ
سادَ الرِّجالَ فقصَّرَت عن شأوه * هممُ المآرب للعُلى والسُّؤدد
فتلقَّ ما يلقي إليك فنطقُه * نطقٌ بروحِ القُدس أيّ مؤيد
وإذا مررتَ على مكان ضريحه * وشممتَ ريح النَّدِّ من تُرب ندي
ورأيتَ أرضًا في الفلاة بخضرةٍ * مُخضَرةٍ منها بقاعُ الغرقد
والوحشُ آمنةٌ لديه كأنَّها * حُشرت إلى حرمٍ بأوَّلِ مسجد
ووجدتَ تعظيمًا بقلبك لو سَرى * في جَلْمَدٍ سجدَ الوَرى للجَلمدِ
فقل: السلامُ عليك يا بحرَ النَّدى * الطَّامي وبحرَ العلم بل والمرشدِ

وقال الشيخ إبراهيم بن محمد بن ناصر الدين بن الميلق:

ولو قِيلَ لي من في الرِّجالِ مُكمَّلٌ * لقلتُ إمامي الشَّاذليُّ أبو الحسنْ
لقد كانَ بحرًا في الشرائع راسخًا * ولا سيَّما علمَ الفرائض والسننْ
ومن مَنهلِ التَّوحيدِ قد عبَّ وارتوى * فللَّه كم أَرْوى قلوبًا بها مِحَنْ
وحاز علومًا ليس تُحصى لكاتبٍ * وهل تحصر الكتاب ما حازَ من فَنْ
فكنْ شاذليَّ الوقتِ تَحظَ بسرِّه * وفي سائر الأوقات مُستغنيًّا بعنْ
فإنِّي له عبدٌ وعبدٌ لعبده * فيا حبذا عبدٌ لعبدِ أبي الحسنْ
إذا لم أَكنْ عبدًا لشيخي وقُدوتي * إمامي وذخري الشاذلي أَكنْ لمنْ

فيا ربِّ بالسرِّ الذي قد وهبتَه

* تمنُّ علينا بالمواهب والفطنْ

وما أحسن قول العارف سيدي علي بن عمر القرشي بن الميلق:

أنا شاذليٌّ ما حييتُ فإنْ أَمتْ * فمشورتي في النَّاس أن يَتَشذَّلوا

وقال بعضهم:

تمسَّكْ بحبلِ الشاذليِّ ولا ترد * سواه من الأشياخ إنْ كنتَ ذا لبِّ
فأصحابُه كالشَّمسِ زاد ضياؤها * على النجمِ والبدرِ المُنير من الحبِّ

وقال آخر:

تمسَّكْ بحبِّ الشاذليِّ فإنَّه * له طُرقُ التَّسليك في السرِّ والجهرِ
أبو الحسنِ السَّامي على أهلِ عصرهِ * كراماتُه جلَّتْ عن الحدِّ والحصرِ

وقال آخر:

تمسَّك بحبِّ الشَّاذليِّ فتلقَ ما * تَرومُ وحققْ ذا المناط وحصّلا
توسَّل به في كلِّ حالٍ تُريدُه * فما خابَ من يأتي به متوسِّلا

اِقرأ المزيد…

 

Photos

Humaytrhira Slideshow: View | damas.nur.nu | rahma.se

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Bio: Imam Ahmad Raza Khan

Imam Ahmad Raza Khan

d. 1340 H. (1921 CE.) in Bareilly, India

Imam Ahmad Raza Khan
By Mohammad Monawwar Ateeq

Imam Ahmad Raza Khan (d.1921), conventionally known as a leader of the twentieth century Ahl-e Sunnat wa Jama’at tradition (people of the Sunna and the majority) to its followers and to others as the Barewli Movement, was an alim and sufi in British India. He was born a year before the civil and military revolt of 1857 and was traditionally educated by his father, Mufti Naqi Ali Khan (d.1880) at home in Bareilly, under whom he completed the Dars-e Nizami syllabus studying a range of twenty-one Islamic sciences by the age of thirteen. He studied with other teachers too and traces intellectual links to the three centers of Islamic learning in India; Lakhnouw, Khayrabad and Dehli.1 In his licenses and Isnad certificates to the scholars of Makkah and Madinah in 1905, he put on record to have pursued an extensive spectrum of twenty eight sciences alone. He authored works in more or less everything he studied2 some of which received compliments from leading Sunni scholars of Hijaz, Yemen, Syria and Egypt.

Imam Ahmad Raza occupied most of his time in writing responses to people seeking guidance in religious, social, moral and political affairs which absorbed him to the very end of his life producing a bulky fatawa compendium in the Hanafi Law, now fully edited and indexed in thirty-three over sized volumes.4 He was an authoritative author, gifted scholar of classical Islamic sciences both the rational (ma’qulat) and transmitted sciences (manqulat) offering original contributions in nearly every field he studied, phenomenal Arabist, distinguished Mufti, a genius in the pantheon of great thinkers and recognized as a maker of the Muslim world5. He never wavered from supporting the Sunni doctrines and remained mindful of the positions of his elders as he was not just a scholar of Law but also a committed student of a Sufi father and devout murid of the Barakatiyya Sayyids of Marahra, who followed the Qadiri path.

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Bio: Imam Ahmad Zarruq

Sayyidi Imam Ahmad Zarruq al-Fasi

الشيخ أحمد زَرُّوق الفاسي
b. 846 H. in Fas – d. 899 H. i Misrata
qaddasa Allah sirrahu

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English

Imam Ahmad Zarruq
(d. 899/1493)
From: Kuhin: Tabaqat Al-Shadhiliyyah Al-Kubra, translated by Ahmad Ali al-Adani as “Biographies of Prominent Shadhilis”

He is the ocean of sciences and gnoses, the teacher of every gnostic and enraptured one [majdhub], the godly qutb and lordly colossus, our master Abu’l-‘Abbas Ahmad b. Ahmad b. Muhammad b. ‘isa al-Burnusi al-Fasi, known as Zarruq [1].

He — may Allah have mercy on him — was a scholar who applied his knowledge, an ascetic who was scrupulous in matters of the din. He authored many books, whose exact number cannot be ascertained. They include an exegesis of the Mighty Qur’an, and a commentary on the Risala of Ibn Abu Zayd al-Qayrawani. He also penned three commentaries on the scholarly text Al-Qurtubiyya, thirty commentaries on Al-Hikam ´Ata’iyya, an elucidation of Allah’s Most Beautiful Names, and a commentary on Dala’il al-Khayrat. Other works of his also include Al-Nasa’ih al-Kafiya, Qawa’id al-Sufiyya (also known as Qawa’id al-Tasawwuf), and Al-´Aqa’id al-Khams. He authored other writings on Sufism, and quite a number of precious tracts and epistles.

He lived until the age of sixty three. Biographers have ascribed to him a work of autobiography, covering his life from birth to death, wherein he was wont to jot down things in the latter part of every day. He was born on Thursday, 12 Muharram AH 846. His maternal grandmother took care of his upbringing. She was one of Allah’s Friends and a woman of righteousness and purity. When he reached four years of age, she had had him memorize the Qur’an. She thus brought him up through precept and the inculcation of perfection, until he grew up fond of worship and consistently recitating litanies.

At this point, he commenced seeking knowledge of the outward sciences, the pursuit of which occupied him until people pointed to him as an authority. He came to then teach these sciences, engage in circles of learning to admonish people, and deliver lessons. As a result, he became famous and scholars were drawn to him, basking in his pesence, and taking from his sciences and gnoses. After all this, Sufism became endeared to him, and he joined the path of the Sufis at the hand of the guide in spiritual wayfaring, our master ‘Abdullah al-Makki. From him he took the spiritual way, serving him continuously for some time.

While in his service, it so happened that one day when visiting his guide [‘Abdullah al-Makki] during the latter’s solitary retreat, he beheld two women of beautiful form in his guide’s company, one on his right and the other on his left. The wide appeared to turn now to this one and then to that one.

Upon seeing this, our master Zarruq whispered to himself: ‘This man is a heretic’, whereupon the teacher retorted: `Go away, you jew!’

Sidi Ahmad Zarruq thus went away, and it was as if his teacher had cast the descriptive attribute of a jew upon him. He wept on account of this, and beseeched Allah Most High, setting out for one of his beloved companions and requesting that he go to the teacher and seek to win his favour. His dear friend accompanied him to the teacher and tried to attract his sympathetic compassion back towards Zarruq. Al-Makki pardoned and accepted him, saying: ‘On condition you do not sit with us in a country where I happen to be in.’ Thereafter, al-Makki turned to him and said: ‘O Zarruq, the two women who appeared to be ambiguously unclear to you, and who resembled one another in your perception, are this world and the Next. This world desires my advancement towards it, and the Hereafter requires from me that I should approach it, but I do not turn attentively to the utterance of either of them.’

After this incident, our master Zarruq left the city of Fez and set out for Cairo, where he met up with our liege and master, Abu’l-‘Abbas al-Hadrami. He took the path from him and received instruction in devotional recitations [awrad] from him. At his hand, a mighty spiritual illumination was bestowed upon him, so he too became a guide of spiritual instruction. He became affiliated to Abu’l-‘Abbas al-Hadrami and cleaved to his company. He was the only guide on whom he exclusively relied for journeying across the path.

When Egyptian scholars and pious men heard about his arrival, they paid visits to him in delegations, kept his company and attended his lessons. He took up a lecturing post at the noble institute of al-Azhar, his classes there being attended by approximately six thousand people from Cairo and the surrounding areas of Egypt.

He performed the functions of imam of the Malikiyya, becoming the main teacher of the portico allocated to their school in al-Azhar. They set up a tall chair for him, resting on firm pillars and with a strikingly original and well-constructed shape. He would seat on it, deliver his lectures and enrich the attendees by his knowledge. Both free men and slaves benefited from his presence. This chair still exists until the present time by the portico of the Moroccan masters in the noble institute of al-Azhar.

He exercised tremendous influence and authority over the Emirs of Egypt, while all Egyptians, the elite and commonality alike, accepted him.

After his time in Egypt, he relocated to Libya’s Tripoli, where he brought the signposts of the path to life and shed clear light on the actualization of ultimate reality. There, he lent fame to the Shadhili Path and turned their radiant luminaries into household names. Committed disciples yielded to him submissively, while the kings of the world were awe-struck by him. He gathered with the master of all Messengers ﷺ, and a path was ascribed to him when the lights of the folk of ultimate reality manifested on him. While holding his beard, he was instructed by his spiritual state to say about the arena of real men: ‘There is no shaykh after this beard.’

He was a man endowed with a mighty spiritual state, radiance, beauty and bravery. Allah Most High acquainted him with hidden realities, so he spoke in languages other than Arabic, no two people disagreeing about this fact, and no conflicting statements on this having issued forth from any two individuals. He possessed the greatest capacity of disposal in matters, and was the brightest succour of men.

Saintly miracles emanated from him, and he was gifted veracious states. Among his miracles is when he passed an Arab tribe of Tripoli, consisting of brigands and highway robbers, no caravan passing by them but that they would plunder it. They looted him and his companions, forcing them to cover their private parts with their hands (as everything had been seized and pilloried from them). A disciple looked at our master and found him in an unchanged state, and said to one of the bedouins who had plundered the group: ‘Look at that teacher, he has some gold in his trousers.’ The bedouin thus came up to our master and instructed him to remove his trousers, whereupon the shaykh replied: ‘Glory be to Allah! It is forbidden for us to lay bare our private parts.’ The bedouin repeated the order a second time, saying, ‘Take it off, or else I shall kill you!’ Our master admonished him, saying, ‘It is prohibited for us to expose our private parts.’ The bedouin advanced towards our master, who instructed the earth, saying ‘Swallow them!’ The earth seized all of the bedouins, so they began humbly imploring our master, saying, ‘We have turned (in repentance) to Allah.’ Our master then told the earth, ‘Release them, earth’, and it set them free from its clasp, whereupon they came out of it and proclaimed their repentance in unison. Thereafter, they kept our master’s company, all of them without exception, and became servants of the Zarruqiyya Zawiya. To this day, their descendants serve the zawiya, and they are called “the servants of the Zarruqiyya Zawiya”.

Among his sayings are these verses from his poem rhyming in ta’ [ta’iyyah]:

I have fled from creation, all without exception
Perchance I’ll see my heart’s Beloved with my eye.
I have ruled the Western world, no part of it excepted;
While all Eastern nations are in my grip seized
To my committed disciple, I gather his loose threads
Whenever oppressive times by my own force pounce down.
If you, then, are in grief; tightness or hardship,
Call out, ‘0 Zarruq! ‘ I’ll be there in a moment.
How many a sorrow is removed when our name is mentioned,
And how many a sorrow is removed by instants of my company.

He passed away — may Allah be pleased with him and benefit [us] through him — in AH 899 and was buried in Misurata, near Tripoli in Libya. A large mosque has been built over his remains, in which the Islamic rites are established, together with a shrine and mausoleum visited by people: no one directs himself to Allah there through him but that he attains what he hopes for.

O Allah, we direct ourselves to You through him so that You might be for us a Helper and a Supporter, and so that You might raise us in the company of Your Friends, succesfully convoy us to service fort hem, and cause us to die with love fort hem until we meet Y7u, O Lord of the worlds!

Footnotes:
[1] See his biography in al-A’lam (1/91), Ibn Jadhwat al-Igtibas li Dhikr Man Halla min al-A’lam Madina Fas (p. 60), Ibn al-‘Imad’s Shadharat al-Dhahab (7/363), where he is named as Ismail b. Muhammad al-Burlusi, Mu’jam al-Matbu’at (p. 965), al-Khazanat al-Taymuriyya (3/121), Dar al-Kutub (1/269, 317, 376) and Tabaqat al-Shadhiliyyat al-Kubra by Muhyi al-Din al-Tu`mi (p. 136).

Reference:
Muhammad b. Qasim al-Kuhin(2016), Tabaqat Al-Shadhiliyyah Al-Kubra Biographies of Prominent Shadhilis, Visions of Reality Books.

Svenska

Imam Ahmad Zarraq
Samanfattning från: Kuhin: Tabaqat Al-Shadhiliyyah Al-Kubra
Kultursällskapet Damas © 2008

Hans fullständiga namn Abû al-‘Abbâs Ahmad ibn Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Isâ al-Barnûsî al-Fâsî, känd som al-Zarrûq. Han föddes 846 H. i Fas, och uppfostrades av sin mormor, som var en from och helig kvinna. Vid fyra års ålder började hon lära honom Koranen, och under hennes omvårdnad växte han upp med kärlek till ‘ibâda och regelbunden dhikr. Han studerade de religiösa vetenskaperna, tills han fick kallelsen att börja predika. Hans lektioner vann snabbt spridning, och både lärda och vanligt folk kom för att lyssna.

Hans första Sheikh i tasawwuf var Sheikh ‘Abd Allah al-Makki. En dag kom han in till honom i hans khalwa (privata bönerum) och fick syn på två vackra kvinnor som satt på varderaa sidan av Sheikhen, medan denne vände sig än till den ena och än till den andra. Imam al-Zarruq sade till sig själv: Den här mannen är en zindiq (gudlös person). Hans Sheikh vände sig då till honom och sade: Gå din väg, din jude! Han gick ut, gråtande över Sheikhens tilltal och bönföll Allah om förlåtelse. Sedan uppsökte han några vänner och bad dem göra förbön för honom inför Sheikhen. Sheikhen försonade sig med honom och omfamnade honom och kysste honom, men ställde som villkor att han måste lämna landet. Sedan sade han: O Zarruq, de två kvinnorna som du tyckte dig se i mitt sällskap var i själva verket denna världen (al-duniâ) och den nästkommande (al-âkhira). Denna världen ville att jag skulle ta emot henne, och den nästkommnade ville att jag skulle tillvända mig henne – men jag tog inte emot någon av dem.

Därefter lämnade Imam Zarruq Fas och reste till Egypten, där han mötte Sheikh Abu al-‘Abbas al-Hadrami, som blev hans slutgiltiga läromästare. Från honom antog han Shadhili-tariqan och lärde sig dess awrâd, och under honom nådde han stora andliga höjder. Han blev snart känd bland de egyptiska lärda, som började närvara vid hans lektioner och följa hans vägledning. Han blev mufti för Maliki-skolan, och fick stort inflytande bland landets ledare. Han undervisade vid Azhar-universitet, med ca. sextusen åhörare från Cairo och hela Egypten, och där byggdes en upphöjd stol som han kunde undervisa från (denna stol finns bevarad än idag).

Sedan reste han till Tripoli, där han spred Shadhili-tariqan och vägledde många murider. Många av landets ledare, som ägnade sig åt religiös kunskap, hade stor aktning för honom. Han dog i Tripoli år 899 H. En stor moské har upprättats i ansutning till hans begravningsplats.

Till hans skrifter hör:

– en Korankommentar
– en kommentar till Risâla Abî Zayd al-Qîrwânî
– tre olika kommentarer till Al-Matn al-Qurt?ûbiyya
– trettiosex olika kommentarer till Al-Hikam al-‘At?âiyya
– en komentar till Asmâ’ Allah al-husnâ
– en kommmentar till Dalâ’il al-Khayrât
– al-Nasâ’ih, Qawâ‘id al-Tasawwuf, Al-‘Aqâ’id al-Khams m.m.

———-

Ref: Tabaqât al-Shâdhiliyya av al-Hasan ibn Muhammad al-Kûhin al-Fâsî

عربي

1. From Kuhin : Tabaqat al-Shadhiliyya View book | Download | Read chapter [33] online
2. From shazellia.com


[33] الإمام الكبير مولانا أحمد زروق([1])
(846- 899)
بحر العلوم والمعارف، أستاذ كل مجذوب وعارف، القطب الرباني، والهيكل الصمداني أبو العباس مولانا أحمد بن أحمد بن محمد بن عيسى البرنوسي الفاسي المعروف بزرُّوق.

كان رحمه الله عالمًا عاملًا، زاهدًا ورعًا، له تآليف عديدة لا تكاد تنحصر؛ منها تفسيره للقرآن العظيم، وشرحه على «رسالة ابن أبي زيد القيرواني»، وله ثلاثة شروح على متن «القرطبية»، وستة وثلاثون شرحًا على «الحكم العطائية»، وشرح على أسماء الله الحسنى، وشرحٌ على «دلائل الخيرات»، وله كتاب «النصائح»، وكتاب «قواعد الصوفية»، و«العقائد الخمس»، وله تآليف عديدة في التصوف، ورسائل، وعدة مؤلفات نفيسة.

عاش من العمر ثلاثًا وستين سنة، حسبوا له من يوم ولادته إلى يوم وفاته كرَّاسًا في النصف في كل يوم.

ولد رحمه الله يوم الخميس اثني عشرة محرم عام ثمان مئة وستة وأربعين، وتولى تربيته جدته لأمِّه، وكانت من الأولياء، ومن الصالحات الطاهرات، فلما تم عمره أربع سنوات حفظته القرآن، وصارت تربيه بالدلال والكمال، حتى نشأ محبًّا للعبادة، ملازمًا للأذكار.

فأخذ رحمه الله في تلقي العلوم الظاهرية، واستمر في طلبها حتى أُشير إليه، وتكلم، وجلس للوعظ، وتحضير الدروس، فاشتهر أمره، وقصدته العلماء، ونزلت بساحته، واقتبست من علومه ومعارفه، ثم حُبِّبَ إليه التصوف، فانتظم في طريق القوم على يد المسلك مولانا عبد الله المكي، فأخذ عنه الطريقة، ولازم خدمته زمانًا.

واتفق له أنه دخل على شيخه في خلوته يومًا فرأى عنده امرأتين جميلتي الصورة، إحداهما عن يمينه، والأخرى عن يساره، وهو يلتفتُ إلى هذه تارةً، وإلى هذه تارةً، فقال مولانا زروق في نفسه: إن هذا لزنديق([2]). فقال له الأستاذ: اذهب يا يهودي. فخرج من عنده، فكأنه ألقى عليه سمة اليهود، فصار يبكي، ويتضرع إلى الله تعالى، ومشى إلى بعض أحبابه، فسأله أن يمشي معه إلى الأستاذ، ويستعطفه، فمشى معه إلى الأستاذ، فاستعطفه، فعطفَ عليه وقبله، وقال له: بشرط ألا يجلسَ معنا في بلادٍ أنا فيها، ثم التفت إليه وقال له: يا زروق المرأتان اللتان تشبهتا عليك فهي الدنيا والآخرة، فالدنيا تُريد إقبالي عليها، والآخرة تريد إقبالي عليها، وأنا لا ألتفت إلى قولهما.
فبعد ذلك خرج مولانا زروق من مدينة فاس، وقدمَ إلى مصر، وتلاقى مع مولانا سيدنا أبي العباس الحضرمي رضى الله عنه، وأخذ عنه الطريق، وتلقّن الأوراد، وفُتح له على يديه، وصار شيخه في التربية، وانتسب إليه، ولازمه، وهو شيخه الذي لا معول له في الطريق إلا إليه.

ولما سمعت بقدومه العلماء والفضلاء من أهل مصر وفدوا عليه، وتمثلوا بين يديه وحضروا دروسه، وصار يدرس في الجامع الأزهر الشريف، وكان يحضر درسه زهاء ستة آلاف نفس من مصر والقاهرة وأحوازها.
وتولى إمامة المالكية، وصار أستاذ رواقهم، ونصبوا له كرسيًّا عالي الأركان، بديع الإتقان، صار يجلس عليه، ويملي الدروس ويفيد، فانتفعت على يديه الأحرار والعبيد، وهذا الكرسي موجود إلى وقتنا هذا برواق السادة المغاربة بالأزهر الشريف.

وكانت له صولةٌ ودولة عند أمراء المصريين، وله عندهم القبول التام عند الخاص منهم والعام.

ثم توجه إلى طرابلس الغرب فأحيا بها معالم الطريق، وأوضح بيان التحقيق، وأشهر بها الطريقة الشاذلية، ونشر أعلامها السنية، فانقادت إليه المريدون، وهابته ملوك العالمين، واجتمع بسيد المرسلين، ونُسبت إليه الطريقة لما ظهرت عليه أنوار أهل الحقيقة، وأمر بلسان الحال أن يقول في ميدان الرجال ماسكًا بلحيته: لا شيخ بعد هذه اللحية.

كان رضى الله عنه صاحب حال، وبهاء وجمال ودلال، أطلعه الله على المغيبات، فنطق بسائر اللغات، لم يختلف فيه اثنان، ولا تقوّل فيه قولان، فهو صاحبُ التصريف الأكبر، وغوثُ الأنام الأزهر.

وله كرامات خارقة، وأحوال صادقة، فمن كراماته رضى الله عنه: أن قبيلة من قبائل عرب طرابلس كانوا قطاع طريق، لا تمر بهم قافلة إلا نهبوها، فمر عليهم مولانا رضى الله عنه، فنهبوه هو وتلامذته، حتى تركوهم مستوري العورة، فنظر بعض المريدين إلى مولانا، فوجده لم يتغير، فقال لبعض العربان الذين نهبوا مولانا، انظروا إلى ذلك الأستاذ عنده ذهبٌ في سرواله([3])، فجاء البدوي إلى مولانا وقال: انزع السروال. فقال: سبحان الله، العورةُ يحرمُ علينا كشفها. فقال له مرة ثانية: انزعه، وإلا قتلتك، ومولانا يعظُه بقوله: العورة حرام علينا كشفها. فتقدَّم البدوي إلى مولانا، فقال مولانا للأرض: ابلعيهم يا أرض. فأخذتهم الأرض جميعًا، فصاروا يتضرَّعون إلى مولانا، ويقولون: تبنا إلى الله، فقال مولانا للأرض: أطلقيهم يا أرض. فأطلقتهم. فخرجوا منها، وتابوا جميعًا، وصاروا مع مولانا، لم يتخلف منهم أحد، وصاروا خدام الزاوية الزروقية وإلى الآن باقي من نسلهم يخدمون هذه الزاوية ويقال لهم خدَّام الزاوية الزروقية.

ومن كلامه رضى الله عنه في تائيته:
فإني هجرت الخلق طرًّا بأسرِها * لعلي أرى محبوب قلبي بمقلتي([4])
وملكت أرض الغرب طرًّا بأسرِها * وكل بلاد الشرق في طي قبضتي
أنا لمريدي جامعٌ لشتاته * إذا ما سطا جورُ الزمان بسطوتي
فإنْ كنتَ في كربٍ وضيق وشدة * فناد أيا زروق آت بسرعة
فكم كربة تجلى إذا ذكر اسمنا * وكم كربة تجلى بأفراد صحبتي

توفي رضي الله عنه ونفع به عام ثمان مئة وتسعة وتسعين، ودفن بسملاطة من طرابلس الغرب، وله مسجد كبير، تقام فيه الشعائر، ومقامٌ وضريح يزار، وما توسَّل به متوسل إلى الله إلا ونال ما يرتجيه.

اللهم، إنا نتوسل به إليك في أن تكون لنا ولإخواننا مُعينًا وناصرًا، واحشرنا في زمرة الأولياء، ووفقنا لخدمتهم، وأمتنا على حبهم حتى نلقاك يا ربَّ العالمين.

([1]) أحمد بن أحمد بن محمد بن عيسى البرنسي الفاسي، أبو العباس، زروق، فقيه محدث صوفي. من أهل فاس، تفقه في بلده وقرأ بمصر. ولد سنة 846 هـ وتوفي في تكرين سنة 899 هـ. غلب عليه التصوف فتجرد وساح، له تصانيف كثيرة منها: «الاختصار مع التحرير» و«شرح مختصر الخليل»، و«إعانة المتوجه» في التصوف وغير ذلك. [«الأعلام» (1/91)].
([2]) الزنديق: من يبطن الكفر ويخفيه ويظهر الإيمان.
([3]) السروال: لباس يغطي السرة والركبتين وما بينهما أو البنطال.
([4]) الطُّرُّ: الجماعة.


سيدي أحمد زروق قدس الله سره العظيم

نسبه

هو أحمد بن أحمد بن محمد بن عيسى البرنوسي الفاسي الشهير بزروق، العالم الفقيه المحدث الصوفي المتضلع المتبحر الولي الصالح العارف بالله، بحر العلوم والمعارف القطب الرباني والهيكل الصمداني ذو التصانيف العديدة والمناقب الحميدة.

مولده:

ولد رحمه الله ورضي عنه ثامن وعشرين المحرم عام 846وتولى تربيته جدته بعد وفاة والده فتربى في حجرها وكانت تدعى أم البنين وكانت فقيهة فكفلته وأدخلته المكتب فحفظ القرآن وهو ابن عشر سنين وقيل ابن أربع سنين وصارت تربيته بالدلال والكمال حتى نشأ محباً للعبادة ملازماً للأذكار.

الشيخ زروق قبل التصوف:

لما اشتد عود الشيخ اشتغل بالخرازة ثم تركها واشتغل بالعلم بإرشاد بعض الأكابر وقرأ العلوم على عدد من علماء عصره ، فقد قرأ بحرف نافع على الإمام القوري والزرهوتي والمجاصي وغيرهم وقرأ على الشيخ عبد الله الفخار والشيخ علي السبط وعبد الرحمن الثعالبي وإبراهيم التازي والسنوسي صاحب العقيدة وآخرين وقرأ البخاري على القوري وتفقه عليه حتى صار منارة في العلم فقصده العلماء من أكابر أهل عصره كالقسطلاني والقطب الشعراني والعارف بالله ابن الحسن البكري وكان معاصراً للحافظ السيوطي ولا يدرى هل التقى به أم لا ولما هاجر إلى مصر وفد إليه العلماء حتى صار يحضر درسه بالأزهر زهاء ستة آلاف نفس .

الشيخ بعد التصوف:

لم يكن سيدي زروق مع كل ما ناله من العلم بغنىً عن سلوك طريق التصوف وطلب الحق ومعالجة أمراض النفس ولقد نقل المترجمون عنه قصة بدء تصوفه فقد قال : طفت مشارق الأرض ومغاربها في طلب الحق واستعملت جميع الأسباب المذكورة في معالجة النفس بقدر الإمكان فما طلبت قرب الحق بشيءٍ إلا كان مبعدني ولا عملت في معالجة النفس بشيءٍ إلا كان معنياً لها ولا توجهت لإرضاء الخلق إلا كان غير موفٍ بالمقصود ففزعت إليه عز وجل فخرجت بفضل ذلك علة رؤية الأسباب ففزعت إلى الإستسلام فخرج لي منه رؤية وجودي وهو رأس العلل فطرحت نفسي بين يدي الحق سبحانه طرحاً لا يصحبه حول ولا قوة ، فصح عندي أن السلامة من كل شيء بالتبري من كل شيء والغنية من كل شيء بالرجوع إلى الله في كل شيء اعتباراً بالحكمة والقدرة وقياماً مع الطباع بشواهد الانطباع ولما يرد منه تعالى أمراً ونهياً وخيراً وقهراً ، وعبودية لا تصحبها رؤية ، ورؤية لا يصحبها اعماد ، واتساعاً لا يصحبه ضيق ، وضيقاً لا يصحبه اتساع ، متمثلاً قول القائل :

قد كنت أحسب أن وصلك يشترى…………. بنفائس الأموال والأرباح

وظننت جهلاً أن حبك هين………………… تفنى عليه كرائم الأرواح

حتى رأيتك تجتبي وتخص من……………… تختاره بلطائف الأمناح

فعلمت أنك لا تنال بحيلة………………….. فلويت رأسي تحت طي جناح

وجعلت في عشِّ الغرام إقامتي………….. فيه غدوي دائماً ورواحي

سلوكه في التصوف:

ولما حبب لسيدي زروق رضي الله عنه التصوف إنتظم على يد المسلك مولانا عبد الله المكي فلازمه وخدمه زماناً ، ثم سلك على يدي العارف أبي عبد الله سيدي محمد الزيتوني ، ثم هاجر من مدينة فاس ودخل مصر وهناك تم له اللقاء مع غوث زمانه ومرشده الذي ينتسب إليه إن انتسب إنه العارف بالله سيدي أحمد بن عقبة الحضرمي وهو شيخه الذي لا معول له في الطريق إلا إليه.

وكان الشيخ الحضرمي رضي الله عنه قد بشر بقدومه أصحابه قبل مجيئه فقال لهم : قوموا تلتقوا أخاكم.

ولما اتصل بالشيخ الحضرمي ضربه شيخه السابق الزيتوني من فاس ضربة وسلمه الله بواسطة سيدي الحضرمي الذي تلقى تلك الضربة حتى تكسرت يده وأراها لسيدي زروق رضي الله عنه مكسورة وقال له : الحمد لله الذي عصمك الله منه يا أحمد هذه آخر عقوبة الزيتوني ولقد ضربك ضربةً فدفعتها عنك .

فتحه للطريق وإكرام الله له:

لازم الشيخ الزروق سيدي الحضرمي حتى أخر عمره ثم توجه إلى طرابلس الغرب فأحيا بها معالم الطريق وأوضح بيان التحقيق وأشهر بها الطريقة الشاذلية ونشر أعلامها السنية فانقاد إليه المريدون وهابته ملوك العالمين واجتمع سيد المرسلين ونسبت إليه الطريقة حتى سميت (بالزروقية)وأمر بلسان الحال أن يقول في ميدان الرجال ماسكاً بلحيته : لا شيخ بعد هذه اللحية.

وكان رضي الله عنه صاحب حال وبهاء وجمال ودلال أطلعه الله على المغيبات ونطق بسائر اللغات لم يختلف فيه إثنان ولا تقول فيه قولان فهو صاحب التعريف الأكبر وغوث الأنام الأزهر.

وقد نسبت إليه هذه الأبيات وهو يخبر عن نفسه :

قد هجرت الخلق طرَّاً بأسرهم…………. علي أرى محبوب قلبي بمقلتي

ووجهت وجهي للذي فطر السما……….. وأعرضت عن أفلاكها المستنيرة

وعلقت قلبي بالمعالي تهمماً…………… وكوشفت بالتحقيق من غير مرية

وقلدت سيف العز في مجمع الوغى……… وصرت إمام الوقت صاحب رفعه

وملكت أرض الغرب طرَّاً بأسرها…………… وكل بلاد الشرق في طيِّ قبضتي

أنا لمريدي جامعٌ لشتاته………………….. إذا ما سطا جور الزمان بسطوتي

فإن كنت في كرب وضيقٍ وشدةٍ…………… فنادِ أيا زروقُ آتِ بسرعةِ

فكم كربةٌ تجلى بمكنون عزنا………………. وكم طرفةٍ تجنى بأفراد صحبتي

وهذه القصيدة تدل على أنه كان على قِدَمٍ عظيم في التمكين والتصريف وهي تدل على أنه كان من أكابر أهل الدوائر وقد نقل عن شيخه الأول الزيتوني أنه قال فيه: إنه رأس السبعة الأبدال نفعنا الله به.

كتبه رحمه الله:

لقد كان لسيدي زروق تآليف كثيرة من كافة فنون العلوم وعلى رأسها علم التصوف ولقد أحصوا مؤلفاته فوجدوا أنه قد ألف كَّراساً في النصف من كل يوم ولقد كانت مؤلفاته متعددة يميل فيها إلى الإختصار مع التحقيق والإفادة فيها :

1- تفسير القرآن العظيم .

2- شرح رسالة أبي زيد القيرواني .

3- ثلاثة شروح على متن القرطبية .

4- ستة وثلاثون شرحاً على الحكم العطائية .

5- شرح على أسماء الله الحسنى .

6- شرح على دلائل الخيرات .

7- كتاب النصائح .

8- قواعد الصوفية .

9- العقائد الخمس .

وله تآليف عديدة ورسائل نفيسة .

كراماته:

وله كرامات عديدة ومنها :

أن قبيلة من قبائل عرب طرابلس كانوا قطاع طريق لا تمرُّ بهم قافلة إلا نهبوها فمر بهم مولانا فنهبوه هو وتلاميذه حتى تركوهم مستوري العورة فنظر بعضهم إلى مولانا فقال أنظروا إلى هذا الأستاذ عنده ذهب في سرواله فأمروه بنزع السروال فقال : سبحان الله العورة يحرم علينا كشفها فقال له ثانيةً والأستاذ ينصحُهُ ، فتقدم بعضهم إلى مولانا ، فقال للأرض ابلعيهم فأخذتهم الأرض جميعاً ، فصاروا يتضرعون إلى مولانا ويقولون تبنا إلى الله فقال للأرض أطلقيهم فتابوا جميعاً وصاروا مع مولانا ولم يتخلَّف منهم أحد وصاروا خدَّام الزاوية ، وإلى الأن من نسلهم من يخدم الزاوية ويقال لهم خدام الزاوية الزروقية .

وفاته:

توفي رضي الله عنه ونفع به عام ثمانمئة وتسعة وتسعين عن عمرٍ يناهز الثالثة والستين ودفن بسملاطة في طرابلس الغرب وله مسجد كبير تقام فيه الشعائر ومقام وضريح يزار .

المراجع:

1- طبقات الشاذلية الكبرى ص144 الحسن بن كوهن الشاذلي المغربي .

2- المطرب في مشاهير أولياء المغرب ص143 عبد الله التليدي

3- طبقات الشاذلية الكبرى ص136 محيي الدين الطعيمي .

Writings


t.b.d.

Burial Place

Maqam of Sheikh Ahmad Zarruq in Misrata, Libya


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Alternative spellings:
zaruq zarouq zarrouq zerruk
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Bio: Imam al-Awza´i

`Abd al-Rahman ibn `Amr ibn Yuhmad Abu `Amr al-Awza`i

الإمام عبد الرحمن الأوزاعي
b. 88 – d. 158 H. in Beirut, Libanon (707 – 744 CE) tabi´i
radiya Allah anhu

Tabi´i, faqih and muhaddith of Sham

English

Al-Awza`i

By Dr. G.F. Haddad

`Abd al-Rahman ibn `Amr ibn Yuhmad Abu `Amr al-Awza`i (88-158), Shaykh al-Islam, the Wise Scholar of the People of Sham, one of the mujtahid imams of the Salaf along with the Four Imams, Sufyan al-Thawri, al-Tabari, Dawud al-Zahiri and others, the first – with Ibn Jurayj and Abu Hanifa – to compile the Sunna of the Prophet — Allah bless and greet him — and the Companions under fiqh subheadings. Born orphaned and poor in Ba`labak and raised in al-Kark in the Bekaa valley, he came to live in the area known as – and populated by – “the variegated tribes” (al-Awza`) in Damascus then moved to Beirut where he remained garrisoned until his death, his fame having spread to the entire Islamic world of his time. One of those who combined assiduous worship with science and the affirmation of truth, he is considered a Proof in himself (hujja) as a narrator, known for his superlative understanding of the Law, great erudition, and piety. Al-Shafi`i said: “I never saw a man whose fiqh resembled his hadith more than al-Awza`i.”1

He narrated from a host of Tabi`in, among them `Ata’ ibn Abi Rabah, Abu Ja`far al-Baqir, `Amr ibn Shu`ayb, Makhul – whom he surpassed in knowledge, – Qatada, Rabi`a ibn Yazid al-Qasir, Bilal ibn Sa`d, al-Zuhri, Yahya ibn Abi Kathir – his first shaykh,- `Abd al-Rahman ibn al-Qasim, `Ata’ al-Khurasani, `Ikrima, `Alqama, Ibn al-Munkadir, al-Walid ibn Hisham, Muhammad ibn Sirin, Nafi` – Ibn `Umar’s freedman – and many others. From him narrated his two shaykhs al-Zuhri and Yahya ibn Abi Kathir, Shu`ba, al-Thawri, Malik, Sa`id ibn `Abd al-`Aziz, Isma`il ibn `Ayyash, Baqiyya, Yahya al-Qattan, and many others.

Al-`Abbas ibn al-Walid said: I never saw my father admire anything in the world as much as he admired al-Awza`i. He used to exclaim about him: “Glory to You! You do what You wish.” O my son! Kings are powerless to discipline themselves and their own children the way that al-Awza`i disciplined himself. I never in my life heard him say an excellent word except the listener was bound to observe that it applied to him. Nor did I ever see him laugh without restraint. Whenever he addressed the subject of our return to our Maker, I would say to myself: I wonder, is there one heart in this gathering that is not weeping?

Al-Hiql said: “Al-Awza`i gave replies covering about seventy thousand issues.” `Abd al-Rahman ibn Mahdi said: “The People (al-nas) in their time were four: Hammad ibn Zayd in al-Basra, al-Thawri in al-Kufa, Malik in al-Hijaz, and al-Awza`i in al-Sham.”2 Isma`il ibn `Ayyash said: “I heard people say, in the year 140, that in our day the wise scholar of the Umma is al-Awza`i.” When the latter came to Mecca, Sufyan al-Thawri walked ahead of him shouting: “Open the way for the Shaykh!” Malik compared the two saying: “One of them [Sufyan] is more knowledgeable than the other, but is not fit to be the Imam [i.e. the Caliph], while the other [al-Awza`i] is.” This was also the opinion of al-Fazari, `Ali ibn Bakkar, and Ibn al-Mubarak.

He was fearless in telling the truth to princes. After massacring the Banu Umayya, the harsh king `Abd Allah ibn `Ali – al-Saffah’s uncle – summoned him and asked him in front of his court: “What is your opinion of what we have done?” Al-Awza`i related: “I thought to myself and decided to tell him the truth, bracing for certain death. I narrated to him the hadith: `Actions are only according to intentions.’3 He said: `What do you say about our killing the people of that dynasty?’ I narrated to him the hadith: `Killing a Muslim is forbidden except in three cases: adultery after marriage, apostasy after Islam, and unlawful manslaughter.’4 He continued: `Tell me about the caliphate, is it not our inheritance as stipulated by the Prophet — Allah bless and greet him?’ I replied: `Had this been the case, `Ali – Allah be well-pleased with him – would have never left anyone come before him.’ He said: `But what do we say about the treasury of the Banu Umayya?’ I replied: `If they were licit to them, they are illicit to you, and if they were illicit to them, they are even more illicit to you.'”

Al-Awza`i did not rise from his place of morning prayer until sunrise, and the sun did not pass the zenith except he was seen standing in prayer. Al-Walid ibn Mazyad said: “No-one surpassed him in intensity of worship.”Among his sayings:

* Marwan al-Tatari said that al-Awza`i said: “Whoever stands in prayer at night at length, Allah shall make the station of the Day of Resurrection easy for him.”

* Al-Walid ibn Muslim and `Abd Allah ibn al-Mubarak related that al-Awza`i said: “This science was noble, men would transmit it to one another, but when it spread to books, those other than its rightful custodians became involved with it.”5

* “Whoever holds on to the rare and unusual positions of the scholars has left Islam.” This is similar to Ibn `Abd al-Salam’s saying: “There is no good in one who over-maneuvers (yatahayyal) so as to impose his doctrine despite its weakness and the fact that his evidence is far removed from the truth – whether he interprets the Sunna, or the Consensus, or the Book – standing on bases that are neither right nor true, through corrupt figurative interpretations and rare responses.”6

* “The Book stands in greater need to the Sunna than the Sunna to the Book.” Ibn `Abd al-Barr said: “That is because the Sunna expounds the meaning of the Book (and not vice versa).”7

* Al-Walid ibn Mazyad said that al-Awza`i, asked about humility (khushu`) in prayer, replied: “Downcast gaze, lowering the wing of submission, and softness of heart which is sorrow and dread.” He also said: “I saw al-Awza`i, he was like a blind man due to his humility.”

* Al-Walid heard al-Awza`i define the naïve (al-ablah) as “he who is in blind ignorance of evil but acutely discerning of goodness.”

* “Whoever remembers death much, a little suffices him for livelihood; and whoever realizes that his utterances are counted as deeds, his speech becomes spare.”

* `Abd Allah ibn Ahmad narrated from al-Hasan ibn `Abd al-`Aziz from `Amr ibn Abi Salama al-Tinnisi that al-Awza`i said: “I saw myself as if carried up by two angels who camped me in front of the Lord of Power and Might. He said to me: `Are you my servant `Abd al-Rahman who commands good deeds?’ I replied: `By Your Power and Might! You know best.’ Then they descended again and brought me back where I first was.”

Among al-Awza`i’s notable rulings is that the thigh is part of a man’s legal nakedness in the mosque, but not in the bath.8

Muhammad ibn `Abd al-Rahman al-Sulami said: “I saw al-Awza`i, he was of above-average build, slim, somewhat swarthy, and he used henna.” He used to wear a round turban without a hanging extremity (`adhaba). Al-Dhahabi said: “In addition to his brilliance in the science and his foremost rank in works, he was also a master in the art of writing letters.” Four communities attended his funeral in Beirut: the Muslims carried his bier, followed by the Jews, the Christians, and the Copts. Yazid ibn Madh`ur said: “I saw al-Awza`i in my sleep and asked him: `Show me a level by which to draw near to Allah.’ He replied: `I did not see a level higher than that of the wise scholars of knowledge (al-`ulama’), and, after it, that of the grief-stricken (al-mahzunin).'” SAN 7:86-104 #1049.
_______________________

1 A reference to al-Awza`i’s faithful application of his knowledge in his life.

2 This is a notable example of the use of al-nas to mean the major ulamas.

3 Narrated from `Umar by Bukhari and Muslim.

4 Narrated from Ibn Mas`ud by Bukhari, Muslim, and in the Four Sunan; from `Uthman by al-Tirmidhi (hasan), al-Nasa’i, Ibn Majah, Ahmad, al-Hakim (4:350), al-Shafi`i in his Musnad, al-Bazzar in his Musnad; and from `A’isha by Abu Dawud. See al-Bayhaqi’s Kitab al-Murtadd in Ma`rifa al-Sunan (12:237-258).

5 This statement refers to the books which are passed on for circulation as in modern times, not to those used by the early narrators as mnemonic records when narrating. It is established that early hadith narrators did not narrate except from record, as demonstrated by M.M. Azami and others. ‘Abd Allah ibn Ahmad ibn Hanbal said: “I never saw my father narrate except from a book, save less than a hundred hadiths.” In al-Dhahabi, Siyar A`lam al-Nubala’ (9:457). The best source on the proof-texts for this fact is al-Khatib al-Baghdadi’s book Taqyid al-‘Ilm (“The Tethering of Knowledge”). This title is taken from Anas’s saying: “Tether knowledge with writing” (qayyidu al-‘ilma bi al-kitab). Anas also said: “We would not consider as knowledge the knowledge of those who did not write down their knowledge.” Taqyid (p. 96-97). See also al-Hakim al-Tirmidhi’s chapter entitled “Writing is the means to tether knowledge and preserve it from oblivion” in his Nawadir al-Usul (p. 39-41).

6 Ibn `Abd al-Salam, Al-Qawa`id al-Sughra (p. 144).

7 Narrated by al-Darimi and others and cited by Ibn `Abd al-Barr in Jami` Bayan al-`Ilm (2:1193-1194 #2351). and al-Shatibi in al-Muwafaqat (Salafiyya ed. 1343 4:10).

8 The rulings of the Four Schools agree that the definition of “nakedness” (`awra) for a man is all that is above the knees and below the navel front and back whether in public or private. Among the proofs for this is the Prophet’s — Allah bless and greet him — saying: “The [man’s] thigh is nakedness.” Narrated from Jarhad al-Aslami, `Ali, and Muhammad ibn Jahsh – with three sound chains according to al-Arna’ut – by Abu Dawud, Ibn Majah, Ahmad, Malik, al-Hakim (4:180-181), Abu Ya`la in his Musnad (#331), al-Tahawi in Sharh Mushkil al-Athar (4:401-406 #1697, #1699, #1700, #1704), al-Baghawi in Sharh al-Sunna (9:21-22), Ibn Hibban in his Sahih (4:609-611), and others. Al-Tahawi said in Sharh Ma`ani al-Athar (1:474): “Mass-narrated, sound reports from the Prophet — Allah bless and greet him — have reached us that the thigh is nakedness.” Al-Kattani cited it in Nazm al-Mutanathir.

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From wiki
الإمام عبد الرحمن الأوزاعي

الإمام الحافظ إمام بيروت وسائر الشَّام والمغرب والأندلُس أبو عمرو عبدُ الرحمٰن بن عمرو بن يُحمد الأوزاعي، فقيه ومُحدّث وأحد تابعي التابعين وإمام أهل الشام في زمانه. أُضيف إلى ألقابه لقب إمام العيش المُشترك في لُبنان في العصر الحديث، لِما مثَّلته مواقفه في عصره من تسامح مع المسيحيين واليهود من أهل الشَّام، ولُقِّب بِشفيع النصارى لِموقفه الحازم في مُواجهة والي الشَّام والخليفة العبَّاسي أبو جعفر المنصور، اللذان عزما على إجلاء أهالي جبل لبنان المسيحيين بعد أن ثارت جماعة منهم وتمرَّدت على العبَّاسيين وشقَّت عصا الطاعة، فرفض الأوزاعي إجلاء هؤلاء كُلُّهم طالما أنَّ فئةً منهم فقط كانت من ثارت، ووقف بوجه الخِلافة بِعناد مُذكرًا أهل السُلطة بالعدل بين الناس وأنَّ خطأ فئة لا يستوجب مُعاقبة الجماعة، فأُبطل هذا القرار، وسلم أهالي جبل لُبنان من تعسُّف السُلطة، وحفظوا لِلأوزاعي جميله.[1]

على الأرجح وُلد الأوزاعي في بعلبك، وعاش فترة من صباه في قرية الكرك البقاعيَّة يتيمًا فقيرًا، ثُمَّ انتقل مع أُمِّه إلى بيروت. وكان قبل ذلك قد عاش مع عائلته في دمشق، وتنقَّل بين حلب وحماة وقنسرين وسواها. أُطلق عليه اسم «الأوزاعي» نسبةً إلى «الأوزاع» وهي قبيلة يمنيَّة حميريَّة من بطن ذي الكلاع من قحطان. نزل أفرادٌ منها في دمشق قرب باب الفراديس، وقد أُطلق على المنطقة التي نزلوا فيها اسم قرية «الأوزاع». لم يذكر المُؤرخون والفُقهاء والعُلماء شيئًا عن والد الإمام الأوزاعي باستثناء ما أشار إليه الإمام نفسه، ولا عن والدته أو أخواله، غير أنَّهم أشاروا إلى أنَّ كان له عمٌّ واحد، والثَّابت أنَّهُ تزوَّج أكثر من مرَّة، ورُزق بِثلاث بنات وصبيٍّ واحد، وكان له حفيدين من بناته بِحسب الظاهر.[2]

عاش الأوزاعي في عهدين سياسيين هامين، فشهد نهاية الدولة الأموية وقيام الدولة العباسية، وعاصر من الخُلفاء: الوليد بن عبد الملك، وسليمان بن عبد الملك، وعمر بن عبد العزيز، ويزيد بن عبد الملك، وهشام بن عبد الملك، والوليد بن يزيد، ويزيد بن الوليد، وإبراهيم بن الوليد، ومروان بن محمد، وأبو العباس السفاح، وأبو جعفر المنصور. وكانت الفترة التي عاشها الإمام الأوزاعي تزخر بِالعلم والعُلماء والفُقهاء والقُرَّاء والمُحدثين، ومن أبرز عُلماء تلك الفترة الأئمَّة: مالك بن أنس، وجعفر الصادق، وسفيان الثوري، والحسن البصري، ومحمد بن سيرين، وأبو حنيفة النعمان، والليث بن سعد، وسواهم. وكان الأوزاعي من المُتفوقين علميًّا وفقهيًّا وجُرأةً على الكثير من عُلماء عصره، وقد أفتى وهو في الثالثة عشرة من عمره في مسائل فقهيَّة، بينما أفتى وهو في السابعة عشرة من عمره في مسائل عقائديَّة. وكان الأوزاعي مؤمنًا أشد الإيمان بالقاعدة الإسلامية «الرحلة في طلب العلم»، لذا تنقل في مُدن الشَّام وفي اليمامة والبصرة والمدينة المنورة وبيت المقدس، وحجَّ أكثر من مرة، لِذلك فقد تعمَّق في العُلوم الدينيَّة والشرعيَّة بِشكلٍ لافتٍ لِلنظر. أمَّا فيما يختص بالقضاء فقد رفض الأوزاعي منصب القضاء في العصرين الأُموي والعبَّاسي، فلمَّا وُلي زمن يزيد بن الوليد جلس مجلسًا واحدًا ثُمَّ استعفى، إيمانًا منه بِأنَّ القضاء مسؤوليَّة إسلاميَّة ضخمة لا يُمكن لِأي إنسان أن يتحمَّل وزر مسؤوليَّتها.[3]

وكان الأوزاعي من كبار الأئمَّة المُدافعين عن الإسلام والسُنَّة النبويَّة، لا سيَّما في فترة تزايد البدع والجدل والانحراف عن القُرآن والسُنَّة،[4] كما كان حريصًا على الجهاد والرباط والدفاع عن المظلومين وعن الحق، وكان استقراره في ثغر بيروت بدافع الرباط ورد الاعتداءات عن ديار الإسلام، وكانت الفترة التي قضاها في بيروت أكثر سني حياته المُنتجة والغزيرة، ففيها طوَّر مذهبه، وانتشر في كافَّة أنحاء الشَّام وانتقل إلى المغرب والأندلُس، لِيكون خامس مذاهب أهل السنة والجماعة، لكن لم يُكتب لمذهبه البقاء، فاندثر بعد أن لم يهتم تلامذته بتدوينه والحفاظ عليه، فحل مكانه المذهب الحنفي والشافعي في الشَّام والمالكي في المغرب والأندلس. توفي الأوزاعي في بيروت سنة 157 هـ، وكانت جنازته كبيرة وقيل أن من شارك فيها من المسيحيين واليهود كان أكثر ممن شارك من المسلمين، وأنَّ قسمًا من هؤلاء أشهر إسلامه يومها. دُفن الأوزاعي في قرية «حنتوس» جنوب بيروت، وشُيِّد على قبره مقام ومسجد عُرف بِمسجد الإمام الأوزاعي، ومع مُرور السنوات تغيَّر اسم القرية حتَّى أصبحت تُعرف بـ«الأوزاعي»، وشكَّلت جُزء من بيروت الكُبرى مع مرور الزمن.

تقديرًا لإنجازات الإمام الأوزاعي ورمزيَّته في بيروت، أُنشأت كُليَّة لِلدراسات الإسلاميَّة في المدينة سُميت على اسمه: كُليَّة الإمام الأوزاعي لِلدراسات الإسلاميَّة، وتمَّ إصدار طابع بريدي تذكاري سنة 2009م عن وزارة الاتصالات في لُبنان بعد موافقة مجلس الوزراء، وتبنَّت بلديَّة بيروت اقتراح المؤرخ الدكتور حسان حلاق بتسمية ساحة سوق الطويلة في وسط بيروت التجاري بساحة الإمام الأوزاعي، وبإعادة ترميم زاويته القائمة في ذات الساحة منذ عصره حتَّى اليوم.

Burial Place

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Imam Al-Bayhaqi

(384 – 458 H)
radiya Allah anhu


Dr. Jibril Haddad
Damascus

Ahmad ibn al-Husayn ibn `Ali ibn `Abd Allah ibn Musa, Abu Bakr al-Bayhaqi al-Naysaburi al-Khusrawjirdi al-Shafi`i al-Ash`ari (384-458), “the jurisprudent imam, hadith master, authority in the foundations of doctrine (usuli), scrupulous and devoted ascetic, defender of the School both in its foundations and its branches, one of the mountains of Islamic knowledge.” He is known in the books of the scholars of Naysabur and his direct students as “al-faqih Ahmad.” He took fiqh from the imam Abu al-Fath Nasir ibn al-Husayn ibn Muhammad al-Qurashi al-`Umari al-Marwazi al-Shafi`i al-Naysaburi (d. 444) among others.

(more…)

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Imam Al-Ghazali Muhammad b. Muhammad, Abu Hamid al-Tusi al-Shafi`i

(d. 505 i Tus)
radiya Allah anhu

English

Imam al-Ghazzali by Dr. G.F. Haddad

عربي

t.b.d.
 

His Khalwa in the Umawi mosque

He lived for some time in Damascus, and used the western minaret of the Umawi mosque as a khalwa room.

The Umayya mosque

o Overview diagram
o Maqam of Prophet Yahya
o Maqam of Sayyiduna Husayn
o Imam al-Ghazali’s khalwa room
o More…

 

Minaret
of Prophet `Isa (s)
and maqam of sayyiduna
al-Husayn     v
Main
dome
v
<
Western minaret,
with imam
al-Ghazali’s

khalwa room

 

Umayya mosque overview diagram

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Bio: Imam al-Jazuli

Sayyidi Imam Muhammad b. Sulayman al-Jazuli al-Hasani al-Shadhili

الإمام الجزولي – أبو عبد الله محمد الجُزُولي السملالي الحسني الشاذلي
d. 869/870/873 H. in Marrakash
qaddasa Allah sirrahu

Author of Dala’il al-Khayrat
 

English

1. From: Kuhin: Tabaqat Al-Shadhiliyya
2. Biograhical note by Anonymous

Imam al-Jazuli
(d. 870/1465)

From: Kuhin: Tabaqat Al-Shadhiliyyah Al-Kubra, translated by Ahmad Ali al-Adani as “Biographies of Prominent Shadhilis”

He is the godly imam, lordly qutb, and the solitary [fard]. He is the perfect man enamoured in the Divine Essence, and the realized gnostic who gathered the perfections of Muhammadan sanctity. He is the supporting foundation of instruction and guidance, and the mentor of disciples leading them to the path of the folk of lofty realities. He is the crème de la crème of the knowers of Allah, the model of those realized, the succour of saints, and the treasury of select mystics, by whose renown riding parties were set into motion, and whose fame spread across nations. He is our master and virtuous imam, the perfected gnostic who arrived at his destination, and the axis and unmatched pearl of his age. He is our liege, the noble scion from the Prophetic lineage, Abu’l ‘Abdullah Muhammad al-Jazuli al-Hasani al-Shadhili, son of our master ‘Abd al-Rahman, son of our master Abu Bakr al-Murtada, son of our master Sulayman, son of our master Sa’İd, son of our master Ya’la, son of our master Yakhluf, son of our master Musa, son of our master Yusuf, son of our master ‘Abdullah, son of our master Jundun, son of our master ‘Abd al-Rahman, son of our master Hassan, son of our master Isma’İl, son of our master Ja’far, son of our master ‘Abdullah, son of our master Abu Muhammad al-Hasan, the Prophet’s grandson and sweet basil. [1]

He passed away, having been poisoned, in Afughal, in the second prostration of the Dawn prayer’s first cycle, on 16 Rabi` I, AH 870 [2]. He was buried after the Midday prayer on the same day, in the middle of the mosque he had set up in that locality. I have read in someone’s handwriting that he left no son behind.

Seventy-seven years after his death, his remains were moved from Sus to Marrakech. They buried him in the ‘Arus Gardens and a mausoleum and shrine were built over his tomb. When they exhumed him from his noble grave in Sus, they found him in the same state in which he had died, so they decided not to throw any fresh earth over his corpse. Throughout the intervening time, his conditions were unaltered, and the trace of the shave on his head was exactly as it had been on the day of his death, as if it had only recently been shaved. One of those present placed his finger on his noble forehead, holding the skin back from what lay underneath, and when he lifted his finger the blood returned to the spot, as it would happen to a person who is still alive.

His tomb in Marrakech is enveloped by a tremendous majesty, a shining light, and a manifest force. People congregate around his noble grave and read the Dala’il al-Khayrat over it, while the fragrance of musk exuded from his tomb pervades the mosque entirely.

He spoke at length about Sufism, penned fine ghazals and was bestowed truthful spiritual states. He would say: ‘My Lord said to me, “My slave, I have preferred you over My entire creation by the abundance of your prayers over My Prophet.”‘ The author of Mumti’a al-Asma’ said, by way of clarification: ‘What is meant is His preference for him over His other creatures of his age’ Unequivocal signs, in fact, appeared in him.

He had the best of students whose number exceeded twenty thousand, and who transmitted Prophetic hadith and sayings about the spiritual path and Sufism from him.

He had taken the lofty Shadhili Path from his mentor, the knower of Allah Most High, our master Abu ‘Abdullah Muhammad Amghar. He taught him facets of Sufism that would dazzle intellects and unlocked recondite and ambiguous aspects associated with it, as a result of which he became one of its luminaries.

Among the prominent disciples who took the path from him was the complete ghawth, the radiant proof, our liege and master Abu ‘Abdullah Muhammad b. ‘Abd al-‘Aziz b. ‘Abd al-Haqq known as al-Tabba`. He was a supreme succour who encompassed the secrets of the folk of ultimate reality. He was a notable scholar endowed with virtue and beneficence, and who made peculiar statements on the sciences and allusions of the Sufis.

A mausoleum that draws visiters was built over his remains, becoming hub for people of virtue and the spiritually elite. He is one of the seven axial saints buried in the city of Marrakech and from its spiritual fotresses. O Allah, benefit us through Your righteous Friends, and pour their spiritual sustentations over us at all the times, amin.

Footnotes:
[1] See his biography in al-A’lam (6/151), Tabaqat al-Shadhiliyyat al-Kubra by Muhyi al-Din al-Tu`mi (p. 193), al-Khazanat al-Taymuriyya (3/59), Shawariq al-Anwar, which names him as Muhammad b. ‘Abd al-Rahman b. Sulayman, al-Qadi’s al-I’lam bi man Halla Marrakush wa Aghmat min al-A`lam (4/57-122), which reads: ‘Al-Jazuli or al-Juzuli with either the fath or the damm’, while al-Dhayl wa al-Takmila by lbn `Abd al-Malik al-Marrakushi refers to him al-Quzuli with a Qaf. It is said that in the Berber language it is pronounced Kuzuli. As for his other noun of ascription al-Simlali, it is an ascription to Simlala, one of Jazula’s tribal groupings.
[2] Muhammad b. Ahmad b. ‘Ali b. Abi’l-Mahasin Yusuf al-Fasi reports various reports on the date and year of his passing in Mumti’a al-Asma’ fi Dhikr al-Jazuli wa al-Tabba’ wa Ma Lahuma min al-Atba’. According to one opinion, he passed away on 4 Dhu al-Qa`da AH 869.

Source: Muhammad b. Qasim al-Kuhin, Tabaqat Al-Shadhiliyyah Al-Kubra, translated by Ahmad Ali al-Adani as “Biographies of Prominent Shadhilis”



Sidi Mohammed b. Sulayman al-Jazouli al-Hassani
(d. 869/1454)

See also: Indepth article from dar-sirr Link to original | View


Biographical note
From damas-original.nur.nu
Author: Anonymous

His full name is Abu Abdullah Muhammad Ibn Suleiman Ibn Abi Bakr Al-Jazuli Al-Simlali and was a descendant of Prophet Muhammad, praise and veneration be upon him, via his grandson Hasan, son of Ali, may Allah be pleased with them. Al Jazuli belonged to the Berber tribe of Jazula that settled in the Sus area of Morocco which lies between the Atlantic ocean and the Atlas mountains.

The date of his death is uncertain, however it occurred between the years 869-873 AH as he offered an obligatory prayer. In the Encyclopedia of Islam, 1957 Leiden, it is reported that seventy-seven years after his death his body was exhumed for reburial in Marrakesh and that his body had not decomposed.

He a descendant of the Prophet, Allah’s blessings and peace be upon him He belonged to the Berber tribe of Jazula which was settled in the Sus area of Morocco between the Atlantic Ocean and the Atlas Mountains. He studied locally and then went to the Madrasat AS-Saffareen in Fez where his room is still pointed out to visitors. After setting a tribal feud he left the area and spent the next forty years in Mecca, Medina and Jerusalem. After this, he returned to Fez where he completed Dala’il al-Khayrat.

He was initiated into the Shadhili Tariqa by Sharif Abu Adullah Muhammad Ibn Amghar. He spent forteen years in Kbalwa (seclusion) and then went to Safi where he gathered around him many followers. The governor of Safi felt obliged to expel him and as a result, Imam Jazuli called down Allah’s wrath on the town and it subsequently fell into the hands of the Portugese for forty years According to a tradition, it was the governor of Safi who poisoned Jazuli and caused his death, whilst engaged in prayer, in 869 H (or 870 or 873) Seventy seven years after his death his body was exhumed for removal to Marrakesh and found to be uncorrupted (adapted from The Encyclopaedia of Islam, 1957 Leiden).

It is said that the writer of Dala’il al-Khayrat once went on a journey , when in great need of water for making ablutions. he came upon a well but could not reach the water without a bucket and rope which he did not have. He became very worried . A young girl saw this and came to his assistance. She spat into the well whereupon the water rose to the top of its own accord. Seeing this miracle, he asked the girl ” And how is that possible?” The replied “I was able to do this through my asking for blessings upon the Prophet, Allah’s blessings and peace be upon the him.” Having thus seen the benefit of asking for blessings upon the Prophet, Allah’s blessings and peace be upon him , he decided to write Dala’il al-Khayrat.

عربي

From Kuhin: Tabaqat al-Shadhiliyya View book | Download | Read chapter [32] online
[32] الإمام الجزولي([1])
(…- 870)

الإمام الرباني، والقطب الصمداني، الفردُ الكامل في المحبَّة الذاتية، المحقّقُ الجامع لكمالات الولاية المحمدية، مسندُ أهل الإرشاد والهداية، مرشد المريدين وموصلهم إلى طريق أهل الحقائق العلية، زبدةُ العارفين، وقدوة المحققين، غوث الأولياء، وسُكُرْدان الأصفياء، من سارت بذكره الركبان، واشتهر صيته في سائر البلدان، مولانا الإمام الفاضل، الكامل العارف الواصل، قطب زمانه، وفريد دهره وأوانه، مولانا الشريف أبو عبد الله محمد الجُزُولي السملالي الحسني الشاذلي بن مولانا عبد الرحمن بن مولانا أبي بكر المرتضى بن مولانا سليمان بن مولانا سعيد بن مولانا يعلى بن مولانا يخلف بن مولانا موسى بن مولانا يوسف بن مولانا عبد الله بن مولانا جندون بن مولانا عبد الرحمن بن مولانا حسان بن مولانا إسماعيل بن مولانا جعفر بن مولانا عبد الله بن مولانا أبي محمد الحسن سبط النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم وريحانته.

توفي رضى الله عنه بأفوغال مسمومًا في صلاة الصبح، في السجدة الثانية من الركعة الأولى سادس عشر ربيع الأول عام ثمان مئة وسبعين، ودُفن لصلاة الظهر من ذلك اليوم بوسط المسجد الذي كان أسَّسه هنالك.
ووجدت بخطِّ بعضهم أنَّه لم يترك ولدًا ذكرًا.

ثم بعد سبع وسبعين سنة من موته نُقل من سوس إلى مراكش، فدفنوه برياض العروس منها، وبُني عليه ضريحٌ ومقام، ولما أخرجوه من قبره الشريف بسوس وجدوه كهيئته يوم دفن، لم تعد الأرض عليه، ولم يتغير طول الزمان من أحواله شيءٌ، وأثر الحلق على تنار رأسه كحال يوم موته، إذ كان قريب العهد بالحلق، ووضعَ بعض الحاضرين أصبعه على وجهه الشريف حاصر الأدم عما تحتها، فلما رفع أصبعه رجع الدم كما يقع ذلك في الحيِّ.

وقبره بمراكش عليه جلالةٌ عظيمة، ونور ساطع، وسطوة ظاهرة، والناس يتزاحمون على قبره الشريف، ويقرؤون «دلائل الخيرات» على قبره، ورائحة المسك تخرجُ من قبره، حتى عطرت رائحة ذلك العطر المسجدَ بأسره.
وله رضى الله عنه كلامٌ كثير في التصوف، وتغزلات رقيقة، وأحوال صادقة.

وكان يقول رضى الله عنه: قال لي ربي: يا عبدي، إني فضَّلتُك على جميع خلقي؛ بكثرة صلاتك على نبيي.

قال صاحب «ممتع الأسماع»: أي الذين في عصره.
وظهر منه ما لا يخفى.

وكانت له تلامذة أخيار، تنوف عشرين ألفًا، ينقلون عنه الحديث، وكلامًا في الطريق والتصوف.

تلقى رضى الله عنه الطريقة الشاذلية العلية من شيخه العارف بالله تعالى مولانا أبي عبد الله محمد امغار، فأتى فيها بما يُبهر العقول، وحلَّ غوامض مشكلاتها حتى صار من الفحول.

ومن أكابر أصحابه الآخذين عنه الطريق الغوثُ الجامع، والبرهان الساطع سيدنا ومولانا أبو عبد الله محمد بن عبد العزيز بن عبد الحق المعروف بالتَّباع، وكان رضى الله عنه غوثًا جامعًا، ولأسرار أهل الحقيقة والشريعة شاملًا، كان من العلماء الأعيان، ومن أهل الفضل والإحسان، وله كلام غريبٌ في علوم القوم وإشاراتهم، شهرته في بلاد المغرب تُغني عن وصفه، توفي رضى الله عنه بحضرة مراكش عام تسع مئة وأربعة عشر، وله مقام وضريح يزار، مورد أهل الفضل والأخيار، وهو أحد السبعة الأقطاب، المدفونين بحضرة مراكش، المرابطين بها، اللهم انفعنا بأوليائك الصالحين، وادرر علينا من إمداداتهم في كل وقت وحين. آمين.

([1]) محمد بن سليمان بن داود بن بشر الجزولي السملالي الشاذلي: صاحب «دلائل الخيرات» من أهل سوس المراكشية ولد سنة 807 هـ. تفقه بفاس، وحفظ «المدونة» في فقه مالك، وغيرها. وحج وقام بسياحة طويلة. ثم استقر بفاس. وكان أتباع يسمون (الجزولية) من الشاذلية، ومات مسمومًا فيما يقال بمكان يدعى (أفغال) سنة 870 هـ [«الأعلام» (6/151)].

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Abū ‘l-Qāsim al-Junayd bin Muhammad al-Baghdadi

(d. 297 H. in Baghdad)
radiya Allah anhu

.


Al-`Arif biAllah al-Junayd al-Baghdadi (d. 298 H. in Baghdad)
He was al-Junayd b. Muhammad b. al-Junayd al-Nehawandi al-Baghdadi, al-Khazzâr Abul Qasim. Sufi and one of the `ulema, he followed the fiqh of Abu Thawr. He took tasawwuf from his maternal uncle Sari al-Saqati and from al-Harith al-Muhasabi. He was called al-Khazzar because he was working with khazz (silk). He was the head of a large and influential school in Baghdad.
 

Silsila

Abu’l Qasim, Junayd al-Baghdadi (d. 298 H. in Baghdad)
As-Sari as-Saqati (d. 251 H. In Baghdad)
Ma´ruf al-Karkhi (d. 201 H.)
Imam `Ali al-Rida (d. 203 H.)
ImamMusa al-Kazim (d, 182 H.)
Imam Ja`far as-Sadiq (b, 83 – d. 148 H.)
his father Muhammad al-Baqir ibn ‘Ali (b. 59 – 114 H.)
his father Zayn al ‘Abidin ‘Ali ibn Husayn (b. 38 – d. 94H.)
his father Sayyid al-shuhadaa Imam Husayn ibn ‘Ali (b. 4 – d. 61 H.)
Imam al-Anbiya, Sayyiduna wa Mawlana Muhammad ibn `AbdAllah (d 11 H.)

English

Al-Junayd al-Baghdadi
by Sheikh G. F. Haddad

Al-Junayd ibn Muhammad ibn al-Junayd, Abu al-Qasim al-Qawariri al-Khazzaz al-Nahawandi al-Baghdadi al-Shafi`i (d. 298). The Imam of the World in his time, shaykh of the Sufis and “Diadem of the Knowers,” he accompanied his maternal uncle Sari al-Saqati, al-Harith al-Muhasibi, and others.

Abu Sahl al-Su`luki narrates that as a boy al-Junayd heard his uncle being asked about thankfulness, whereupon he said: “It is to not use His favors for the purpose of disobeying Him.”

He took fiqh from Abu Thawr – in whose circle he would give fatwas at twenty years of age – and, it was also said, from Sufyan al-Thawri. He once said: “Allah did not bring out a single science on earth accessible to people except he gave me a share in its knowledge.” He used to go to the market every day, open his shop, and commence praying four hundred rak`as until closing time.
Among his sayings about the Sufi Path: “Whoever does not memorize the Qur’an and write hadith is not fit to be followed in this matter. For our science is controlled by the Book and the Sunna.”
To Ibn Kullab who was asking him about tasawwuf he replied: “Our madhhab is the singling out of the pre-eternal from the contingent, the desertion of human brotherhood and homes, and obliviousness to past and future.” Ibn Kullab said: “This kind of speech cannot be debated.”
His student Abu al-`Abbas ibn Surayj would say, whenever he defeated his adversaries in debate: “This is from the blessing of my sittings with al-Junayd.”

Al-Qushayri relates from al-Junayd the following definitions of tasawwuf:

* “Not the profusion of prayer and fasting, but wholeness of the breast and selflessness.”1

* “Tasawwuf means that Allah causes you to die to your self and gives you life in Him.”

* “It means that you be solely with Allah with no attachments.”

* “It is a war in which there is no peace.”

* “It is supplication together with inward concentration, ecstasy together with attentive hearing, and action combined with compliance [with the Sunna].”

* “It is the upholding of every high manner and the repudiation of every low one.”

When his uncle asked him to speak from the pulpit he deprecated himself, but then saw the Prophet (s) in his dream ordering him to speak.
Ibn Kullab once asked al-Junayd to dictate for him a comprehensive definition of tawhid he had just heard him say. He replied: “If I were reading from a record I would dictate it to you.”
The Mu`tazili al-Ka`bi said: “My eyes did not see his like. Writers came to hear him for his linguistic mastery, philosophers for the sharpness of his speech, poets for his eloquence, and kalam scholars for the contents of his speech.”
Al-Khuldi said: “We never saw, among our shaykhs, anyone in whom `ilm and hal came together except al-Junayd. If you saw his hal you would think that it took precedence over his `ilm, and if he spoke you would think that his `ilm took precedence over his hal.”

Like the Sunni imams of his generation, al-Junayd hated theological disputations about Allah and His Attributes: “The least [peril] that lies within kalam is the elimination of Allah’s awe from the heart. And when the heart is left devoid of Allah’s awe, it becomes devoid of belief.”

Once a young Christian asked him: “What is the meaning of the Prophet’s hadith: ‘Beware the vision of the believer for he sees with the light of Allah’?”2 Al-Junayd remained immersed in thought then lifted his head and said: “Submit, for the time has come for you to accept Islam.” The young man embraced Islam on the spot.
Al-Junayd defined the Knower (al-`arif) as “He who addresses your secret although you are silent.” Ibn al-Jawzi cites another example of Junayd’s kashf in his Sifa al-Safwa:

Abu `Amr ibn `Alwan relates: I went out one day to the market of al-Ruhba for something I needed. I saw a funeral procession and I followed it in order to pray with the others. I stood among the people until they buried the dead man. My eyes unwittingly fell on a woman who was unveiled. I lingered looking at her. Then I held back and began to beg forgiveness of Allah the Exalted. On my way home an old woman told me: “My master, why is your face all darkened?” I took a mirror and behold! my face had turned dark. I examined my conscience and searched: Where did calamity befall me? I remembered the look I cast. Then I sat alone somewhere, asking Allah’s forgiveness assiduously. I decided to live austerely for forty days. [During that time] the thought came to my heart: “Visit your shaykh al-Junayd.” I travelled to Baghdad. When I reached the room where he lived I knocked at his door and heard him say: “Come in, O Abu `Amr! You sin in al-Ruhba and we ask forgiveness for you here in Baghdad.”3

About the Sufis al-Junayd said:

* “They are the members of a single household that none other than they can enter.”

* “The Sufi is like the earth: every kind of abomination is thrown upon it, but naught but every kind of goodness grows from it.”

* “The Sufi is like the earth: both the righteous and the sinners walk upon it. He is like the clouds: they give shade to all things. He is like the raindrop: it waters all things.”

* “If you see a Sufi caring for his outer appearance, then know that his inward being is corrupt.”

Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya related from al-Sulami that al-Junayd said: “The truthful seeker (al-murid al-sadiq) has no need for the scholars of knowledge” and: “When Allah desires great goodness for the seeker, He makes him flock to the Sufis and prevents him from accompanying those who read books (al-qurra’).”4
This is similar to al-Junayd’s saying reported by al-Dhahabi: “We did not take tasawwuf from what So-and-So said and what So-and-So-said, but from hunger, abandonment of the world, and severance of comforts.”
Al-Junayd also said: “Among the marks of Allah’s wrath against a servant is that He makes him busy with that which is of no concern to him.”5

Ibn al-Qayyim in al-Fawa’id asserts the superiority of the struggle against the ego (jihad al-nafs) over all other struggles and quotes al-Junayd:

Allah said: {Those who have striven for Our sake, We guide them to Our ways} (29:96). He has thereby made guidance dependent on jihad. Therefore, the most perfect of people are those of them who struggle the most for His sake, and the most obligatory of jihads (afrad al-jihad) are the jihad against the ego, the jihad against desires, the jihad against the devil, and the jihad against the lower world. Whoever struggles against these four, Allah will guide them to the ways of His good pleasure which lead to His Paradise, and whoever leaves jihad, then he leaves guidance in proportion to his leaving jihad.
Al-Junayd said: “[The verse means] Those who have striven against their desires and repented for our sake, we shall guide them to the ways of sincerity. And one cannot struggle against his enemy outwardly except he who struggles against these enemies inwardly. Then whoever is given victory over them will be victorious over his enemy. And whoever is defeated by them, his enemy defeats him.”6

Ibn `Abidin related in his fatwa on the permissibility of dhikr gatherings:

The Imam of the Two Groups,7 our master al-Junayd was told: “Certain people indulge in wajd or ecstatic behavior, and sway with their bodies.” He replied: “Leave them to their happiness with Allah. They are the ones whose affections have been smashed by the path and whose breasts have been torn apart by effort, and they are unable to bear it. There is no blame on them if they breathe awhile as a remedy for their intense state. If you tasted what they taste, you would excuse their exuberance.”8

In his Kitab al-Fana’ (“Book of the Annihilation of the Self”) al-Junayd states:

As for the select and the select of the select, who become alien through the strangeness of their conditions – presence for them is loss, and enjoyment of the witnessing is struggle. They have been effaced from every trace and every signification that they find in themselves or that they witness on their own. The Real has subjugated them, effaced them, annihilated them from their own attributes, so that it is the Real that works through them, on them, and for them in everything they experience. It is the Real which confirms such exigencies in and upon them through the form of its completion and perfection.9

Al-Junayd went on pilgrimage on foot thirty times. On his deathbed he recited the Qur’an incessantly. Al-Jariri related that he told him: “O Abu al-Qasim! Put yourself at ease.”
He replied: “O Abu Muhammad! Do you know anyone that is more in need of Qur’an at this time, when my record is being folded up?” He finished one khatma then started over until he recited seventy verses of Sura al-Baqara, then he died. Ibn `Imad al-Hanbali said: “If we were to speak of his merits we could fill volumes.”

Main sources: al-Qushayri, Risala 148-150; Ibn `Imad, Shadharat al-Dhahab 2:228-230; al-Dhahabi, Siyar A`lam al-Nubala’ 11:153-155 #2555; Ibn al-Subki, Tabaqat al-Shafi`iyya al-Kubra 2:260-275 #60.

NOTES

1In al-Qushayri, Kitab al-Sama` in al-Rasa’il al-Qushayriyya (Sidon and Beirut: al-Maktaba al-`Asriyya, 1970) p. 60.

2Narrated from Abu Sa`id al-Khudri by al-Tirmidhi (gharib) with a weak chain, Abu Imama by al-Tabarani with a fair (hasan) chain according to al-Haythami in the chapter on firasa in Majma` al-Zawa’id, Ibn `Adi, al-Hakim al-Tirmidhi, and al-Quda`i in Musnad al-Shihab (1:387). Also narrated by al-Bukhari in his Tarikh, Ibn al-Sani, and from Ibn `Umar by Ibn Abi Hatim, al-Tabari, and Ibn Kathir in their commentaries of the verse (Therein lie portents for those who read the signs( (15:75). Ibn al-Jawzi includes it in the forgeries. Al-Sakhawi in al-Maqasid al-Hasana (#23) rejects Ibn al-Jawzi’s grading of mawdu`, but considers its chains all weak, as do al-Albani in his Silsila Da`ifa (4:299-302) and al-Ahdab in Zawa’id Tarikh Baghdad (4:340-343 #687). However, al-Suyuti declares it hasan in al-La’ali’ al-Masnu`a (2:329-330) as do al-Shawkani in al-Fawa’id (p. 243-244) and al-Zuhayri – Albani’s student – in his edition of Ibn `Abd al-Barr’s Jami` Bayan al-`Ilm (1:677 #1197). The purported weakness of al-Tabarani’s chain revolves around the narrator `Abd Allah ibn Salih al-Juhani. Cf. al-Dhahabi, Mizan (2:440-445 #4383).

Al-Sakhawi cites another narration whereby the Prophet (s) said: “Allah has servants who know (the truth about people) through reading the signs” (tawassum). Narrated from Anas with a fair chain by al-Bazzar in his Musnad, al-Tabarani, and Abu Nu`aym in al-Tibb al-Nabawi as stated by al-`Ajluni in Kashf al-Khafa’.

3In Ibn al-Jawzi, Sifa al-Safwa 1(2):271, chapter on al-Junayd (#296).

4Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya, Madarij al-Salikin (2:366).

5In Ibn al-Jawzi, Sifa al-Safwa, chapter on al-Junayd.

6Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya, al-Fawa’id, ed. Muhammad `Ali Qutb (al-Iskandariyya: Dar al-Da`wa, 1992) p. 50.

7I.e. Sufis and fuqaha’.

8Seventh Letter in Shifa` al-`Alil wa Ball al-Ghalil fi Hukm al-Wasiyya bi al-Khatamat wa al-Tahalil (p. 172-173).

9Translation communicated to the author by Michael Sells, Haverford College.

Blessings and peace on the Prophet, his Family, and his Companions

GF Haddad ©
[1999-07-07]

Svenska

Ur: Al-Risala al-Qusahayriyya, översatt till svenska av Övers. Göran Ogén

1. [Han] var överhuvud [sayyid] och ledare [imām] för denna grupp (av sufier). Han hade sina släktrötter i Nihāwand men var själv född och uppvuxen i Iraq. Fadern handlade med glas och kallades därför “Flaskhandlaren” [al-qawārīrī]. Al-Djunayd var rättslärare [faqīh] enligt Abū Thawrs skola och brukade [redan] som tjogoåring avge rättsutlåtanden i dennes krets och i hans närvaro. Han umgicks med sin morbror al-Sarī (al-Saqatī) samt med al-Hārith al-Muhāsibī och Muhammad bin cAlī al-Qassāb. Al-Djunayd dog år 297 (år 910 A.D.).

2. Jag (al-Qushayrī) hörde al-Husayn {Gud förbarme sig över honom!} säga, att han hört Muhammad bin al-Husayn al-Baghdādī säga, att han hört al-Farghānī säga, att han hade hört al-Djunayd, när han tillfrågats ‘Vem är det som äger [mystik] insikt [cārif]?’, säga ‘Om någon talar om ditt innerstas hemlighet [sirr] under det att du själv förblir tyst [därom] (så äger du [mystik] insikt’.

3. Jag hörde sufimästaren al-Husayn Abū cAbd al-Rahmānī al-Sulamī {Gud förbarme sig över honom!} säga, att han hört Muhammad bin cAbd Allāh al-Rāzī säga, att han hört Abū cAbd Muhammad al-Djurayrī säga, att han hade hört al-Djunayd säga ‘Vi ansluter oss inte till sufismen på grund av det ena eller det andra som sägs om den utan på grund av hungern [djūc] (på andligt livet) och att vi önskar lämna Denna världen och kapa de band som håller oss fast vid invanda och vardagliga rutiner’.

4. Jag hörde Muhammad bin al-Husayn {Gud förbarme sig över honom!} säga, att han hört Abū Bakr al-Rāzī säga, att han hört Abū Muhammad al-Djurayrī säga, att han hört Muhammad bin al-Husayn säga, att han hade hört al-Djunayd svara en man, som diskuterat den [mystika] insikten [macrifa] och sagt, att de som äger [mystik] insikt om Gud [ahl macrifa bi’llāh] via fromhetens port och sitt närmande till Gud {mäktig och härlig är Han!} når fram till den punkt, där de lämnar gärningarna: ‘Nej, detta är verkligen prat från folk som talar om att eliminera gärningarna. Men i mina ögon är detta en stor synd. Ja, den som stjäl eller lever i skörlevnad befinner sig i ett bättre läge än den som säger detta! Ty de som äger [mystik] insikt om Gud den högste [al-ārifūn bi’llāh tacālā] tar emot gärningarna från Gud och återvänder till Honom i dem. Om jag så levde i hundra år,så skulle jag inte minska på fromhetens gärningar det minsta, såvida jag inte blev förhindrad därtill!’.

5. Al-Djunayd sade också: »Använd lera till dina hushållskärl, om det är möjligt för dig!»

6. Al-Djunayd sade också: »Alla vägar är spärrade för människorna utom för dem som följer i Apostelns spår {Gud välsigne och bevare honom!}.»

7. Jag hörde Muhammad bin al-Husayn {Gud förbarme sig över honom!} säga, att han hört Mansūr bin cAbd Allāh säga, att han hört Abū cUmar al-cAnmātī säga, att han hade hört al-Djunayd säga ‘Om en rättfärdighetens företrädare(2) så vore vänd mot Gud under tiotusen år men sedan vände sig bort från Honom för blott ett ögonblick, så skulle det som gick honom förlorat vara mer [värt] än det som tillföll honom!’.

8. Al-Djunayd sade också: »Man skall inte ta den till ledare i sufism som inte kan Koranen helt och hållet utantill och som inte upptecknar Traditionsuppgifter om Profetens seder och bruk [hadīth](3), ty vårt sufiska vetande är knutet till Skriften och till Profetens goda exempel [sunna].»

9. Jag hörde Muhammad bin al-Husayn säga, att han hört Abū Nasr al-Isbahānī säga, att han hade hört Abū cAlī al-Rūdhabārī citera al-Djunayd ‘Vår sufiska skolbildning [madhhab] är knuten till de grundprinciper som finns i Skriften och i Profetens goda exempel [sunna].’

10. Och han sade: »Vårt sufiska vetande är grundat på det som finns i Traditionsuppgifterna om Guds Utsändes {Gud välsigne och bevare honom!} seder och bruk [hadīth].»

11. Muhammad bin al-Husayn {Gud förbarme sig över honom!} berättade för oss, att han hört Abū ‘l-Husayn bin Fāris säga, att han hade hört Abū ‘l-Husayn cAlī bin Ibrāhīm al-Haddād säga ‘Jag var närvarande under en sammankomst med domaren Abū ‘l-cAbbās bin Shuraydj, som talade om [den av Gud uppenbarade] lagens [sharīca] överordnade och underordnade principer på ett så vackert sätt att jag förundrades över det. När han såg min förundran sade han ‘Vet du vad detta kommer ifrån?’, och jag svarade ‘Domaren talar om detta’. Då svarde han ‘Detta kommer genom välsignelsen från Abū ‘l-Qāsim al-Djunayds sammankomster!’.

12. Al-Djunayd tillfrågades ‘Varifrån har du inhämtat detta vetande?’, och svarade ‘Genom att jag i trettio år suttit ned framför Gud under den där trappan’ – och pekade på en trappa till sitt hus.

13. Jag hörde mäster Abū cAlī al-Daqqāq {Gud förbarme sig över honom!} berätta detta och jag hörde honom säga, att al-Djunayd sågs ha ett radband i sin hand och att man då hade frågat honom ‘Tar du trots din ädla ställning ett radband i din hand?’, och han hade svarat ‘Det, med vars hjälp jag har nått fram till min Herre, skiljer jag mig inte ifrån!’.

14. Jag hörde mäster Abū cAlī al-Daqqāq {Gud förbarme sig över honom!} säga ‘Al-Djunayd gick varje dag till sin affär, lät förhänget falla ned, förrättade fyra hundra prostrationer(4) och återvände sedan hem till sig’.

15. Abū Bakr al-cAtawī sade: »Jag befann mig hos al-Djunayd när han dog. Jag såg honom läsa igenom hela Koranen, varpå han började om från början med Suran om kon [sūrat al-baqara] och läste [sedan] sjuttio verser till. Därpå dog han {Gud förbarme sig över honom!}.»


1) Död 297/910. Erik Hermelins översättning av kapitlet om Al-Djunayd i cAttārs Tadhkiratu’l-awliyā´ finns att läsa i hans TAZKIRATÚL’L-AWLIYÁ – VÄNNERNAS MINNE, del II, pp. 293-246: Djunáid Bagh-dādī (Hermelin vill antagligen genom särskrivningen “Bagh-dādī” framhålla att al-Djunayd var “given av Gud” i analogi med etymologin till staden Bagdad, som på medelpersiska betyder “[staden] given av Gud”.

2) en rättfärdighetens företrädare: sādiq.

3) Jag översätter den komprimerade tekniska termen hadīth i lam yaktub al-hadīth med Traditionsuppgifter om Profetens seder och bruk.

4) prostration: rakca. En prostration eller rakca innebär att man sätter sig på knä, lägger pannan mot marken och därpå återgår till knäsittande läge.

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Sayyidi Al-Qutb al-Sha’rani al-Shafi´i al-Shadhili

الشيخ سيدنا أبو المواهب شرف الدين عبد الوهاب علي الشعراني الأنصاري الشافعي الشاذلي
d. 973 H. (1565 CE) in Cairo – radiya Allah ‘anhu

.


A Hanafi scholar of comparative fiqh and author of numerous works on Law, ‘Aqida and tasawwuf.
 

English

Al-Qutb al-Sha`rani
(d. 973/1565)
From Kuhin: Tabaqat al-Shadhiliyya Al-Kubra
Transl. by Ahmad Ali al-Adani as “Biographies of Prominent Shadhilis”

He is the imam who applied his knowledge, the perfect liege of exalted ambition, the pupil of the eye [insan ‘ayn] of the pious, and the source of men [ `ayn insan] who arrive at their spiritual destination. He is the devout worshipper, the ascetic, the jurist, the muhaddith, the mystic, and the educator steering travellers along the spiritual path. He is the axis of the circle of the firmament peopled by the god-fearing, and the exemplar of saints and gnostics. He is the matchless pearl of the religiously conscientious and from those who reached the Divine. He is the heir of the sciences of the Prophets and Messengers, the one arranged in the chain of the ‘scholars of my Umma are like the Prophets of the Children of Israel’. 198 He is the guide for mankind upon the straight path, and the one singled out for noble affections from the Ever-Relenting King. It is upon him that perfect mysteries and gnoses have been poured into directly from the All-Knowing and Ever-Giving. He is the pivot of the nobles, substitutes and axial mystics. He is the teacher of the folk of guidance and noble orientation along the path, in sense and meaning, and in virtue and lineage — without need of verification. He is the one endowed with two pure lineages, and gratified by direct witnessing of the Beauty of the two Presences. He is the crown of the din, the succour of Muslims, the teacher of those who dispose of matters in creation, and the shelter of the folk of stability. He is the one regaled with supreme sustentation and divine favour which cannot be encompassed. He is Abu’l-Mawahib199 Sharaf al-Din, our liege and master ‘Abd al-Wahhab, son of our master Ahmad, son of our master Shihab al-Din ‘Ali al-Sha’rani al-Ansari al-Shafi’i, al-Muhammadi (in essence and meaning), al-Shadhili (in terms of spiritual path and ultimate reality).200 He is the raiding warrior, the qutb of the Sha’rani [branch] of the Shadhili Order, and the springhead of the notables of exalted circles.

He was from the people of the supreme circles firmly realized in sanctity since the day of {Am I not your Lord?} [Sara al-A`raf: 172]. His inward and outward was Muhammadi; or you could say that he was Khidri and Nurani.

He grew up as an orphan under the care of Allah’s Prophet, our master al-Khidr and under the watchful eye of his grandfather, Sayyidi Shihab al-Din. He was thus born and grew up as a Friend of Allah Most High. When he reached the full bloom of his youth, the signs of surpassing noble-mindedness and sanctity manifested in him. He accordingly pursued knowledge, memorizing the Qur’an and some scholarly texts, and mastering sciences and branches of knowledge. He was veiled by jurisprudence until, when his mature guidance was completed and his fame spread widely, he busied himself with the spiritual path, whereupon the glad tidings of the accurate actualizers of truth shone upon him, and he turned into one of the relied upon pillars of the path. Allah established him as a mercy unto the world when he gathered with the master of Allah’s slaves [ﷺ]. He strove the way distinguished ones do until he became counted among the paragons of manly virtue.

He spent many years without ever lying down on the earth, whether in the daytime or at night. Nay, he would tie a rope from the ceiling of his solitary retreat to his neck at night so that he would not fall. He would go hungry for days, fast incessantly, and break the fast on a tiny piece of bread. He would gather tatters from garbage piles, and take them as threadbare clothes to cover himself. His turban was made with shreds taken from garbage piles and from torn strips.

This remained his habit until his spirituality was heightened, whereupon he could fly from the courtyard of the Ghamri Mosque to its roof. During his gathering, he would behold the Garden and the Fire, the Bridge [al-Sirat] , the Gathering [al-Hashr] and the Pool [al-Hawd]. As the veil was lifted from him, he witnessed astonishing matters, seeing what lay beyond Mount Oaf. He spoke in all the other languages. Wild beasts befriended him and he would utter words that dazzled intellects. Prominent imams attested to his surpassing virtue, while the necks of mankind lowered themselves to him and he was served by humans, jinn and wild animals from every hill. He became acquainted with the wonders of Allah’s creatures, and scrupulousness in the din and doing without superfluities reached their pinnacle in him. As a result, if he — may Allah have mercy on him — walked through the marketplaces, people enthusiastically darted forth in his direction, and all creatures had firm confidence in him, including Jews and Christians. Many of them, indeed, embraced Islam at his hand, while countless sinners turned back to Allah through him, and became part of his circle of dervishes, once he had nourished them through his spiritual aid. In his zawiya, one could hear, whether at night or during the day, a buzz like the buzz of bees from beyond the gates of Cairo.

He served shaykhs and saints, and in turn the inhabitants of both the earth and heaven served him, crawling towards him. Leaders yielded to him in spite of their pride. Requests for intercession would be directed by him to them, and they would accept them in self-abasement, putting right the affairs of such intercessors and granting them safety. He was granted acceptance of his supplications, and enjoyed vast renown. He was soft-mannered, smiled frequently, was humble and lived frugally. In his earlier days, he would wear expensive clothes, and sit with scholars whom he would treat kindly. He persistently adhered to the Muhammadan sunna, paying heed to the four schools of jurisprudence without discriminating between them. Allah, Glorified and Exalted is He, acquainted him with their stations, so he would say: ‘May Allah reward them on our behalf.’

He would divide his time between the different efforts of worship: writing and compiling, remembering Allah and reminding others of Him, sending prayers on the Bringer of glad tidings and the Warner [ﷺ], and educating people through precept and the inculcation of perfection.

He was made the spokeperson of the saints. Mystics sprouted forth from his courtyard as naturally and copiously as the earth brought out produce through rain from the sky.

He, was imbued with the character of Allah’s folk: preferring others to himself, being generous, lavishly gifts like kings, and spending on the poor and needy. Around one hundred paupers would gather with him in his zawiya, and he would see to their basic maintenance and clothing.

He was extremely awe-inspiring and highly venerable. Eminent leaders would come to his door, sometimes able to meet him and sometimes unable to do so.

He posssessed lofty spiritual ambition. A large book would reach him, and he would read it and then write annotating glosses on it, all in a single night. Nasir al-Din al-Laqqani201 once sent him the Mudawwana [on the legal school of] Imam Malik, through his representative [naqib], in order to ponder therein a single juristic issue [mas ‘ala] which had outwardly proved difficult for him. When the naqib brought him it, he handed it to him in the evening at his zawiya. As he was about to depart, Imam al-Sha’rani said to him, ‘You can stay the night with us, and take it back in the morning.’ The naqib thus slept over at his house, while Sayyidi ‘Abd al-Wahhab [al-Sha’rani] took the Mudawwana into his place of retreat. After a short while, he came out of his retreat and handed it back to the naqib. In the morning, [the latter] rose and headed for Sayyidi Nasir al-Din [al-Laqqani] with the copy of the Mudawwana he had come with. Sayyidi Nasir al-Din al-Laqqani opened it and found annotations and corrections penned it. He was astonished. He asked the naqib about this, and the latter replied, ‘All I know is that, when Sayyidi `Abd al-Wahhab took the book from me, he entered his place of retreat and then returned it to me after about twenty minutes. I did not open it myself, and brought it to you in the same state as he had handed it to me. I noticed, my master, that he neglected none of his regular litanies or optional night prayers.’

Rulers and the influential people would love him intensely and have deep trust in him on account of his excellence and scrupulousness in the din. Sultan al-Ghawri —may Allah have mercy on him — was deeply fond of him, and had resolute belief in him. Once he gifted him a prayer mat and a muslin, which was seven cubits wide and thirty cubits long. It had been a present for him from the Sultan of India who had given it to him inside the shell of a nut. Sayyidi ‘Abd al-Wahhab al-Sha’rani gifted the muslin to his own brother, our master Sayyidi `Abd al-Qadir, and kept the prayer mat, though he never used it in his lifetime, without however returning it to the Sultan out of courtesy. This was his inveterate practice, and the wellspring of propriety from which he engaged with leaders and those under them. He paid heed to the sacrosanct honour of the rich and the poor, and the elders and the young. This is but a drop in the ocean of his virtues.

How can we possibly list all of his virtues? He is in fact the imam of all actualizers of the ultimate reality, the educator of committed disciples who brought them up through principles of stability. He is the unlocker of recondite meanings in the spiritual allusions of those truly realized, and the interpreter of symbols found in the ambiguous expressions of the gnostics. He is the intermediary of the spiritual wayfarers’ necklace, and the sweet basil of spiritual accomplishers’ existence: established by Divine Power, arrayed by Godly Solicitude and the breezes of the Most Merciful. He accordingly treaded the path of the Divine, following the Majestic Book and Muhammadan Sunna, and learning jurisprudence until he reached the ultimate goal in the school of Shafi’i masters — after this, Allah granted him lorldly and mystical openings.

He enjoyed veneration in the hearts of leaders [sudur al-sudur] and reverence in the eyes of notables [ ‘uyun al-a’yan], until Allah Most High moved him unto the abode of His Noble Generosity in the year AH 973. He was buried in his zawiya between the two banks (of the Nile ). A huge number of scholars, jurists, leaders and dervishes attended his funeral. It was a well-attended day in Cairo. The funeral prayer for him was performed in the Noble Azhar Mosque, and his whole lineage was read out on the terraced bench. He was carried on shoulders to his burial place. The Friends of Allah, both living and dead, attended his funeral, together with members of the circles from both mankind and jinn, who inhabited the deserts, valleys and lands beyond the seas. Ultimately, no funeral like his was ever witnessed in Cairo. Birds uninterruptedly hovered above his bier, while inanimate objects wept over his departure and hearts were torn out of grief for him.

He — may Allah have mercy on him — left behind an enduring renown, and a pure and perfumed acclaim. After his death, beneficence cascaded onto his zawiya from everywhere. People established real estates and foundations as trusts, and built for him a mosque befitting his shrine, together with a mausoleum exclusively for him, surmounted by an arched dome and a closet, and arranged salaries for those looking after it. His mosque is regarded as one of Cairo’s most tremendous mosques, and his mausoleum as one of the most majestic mausoleums wherein supplications are answered. His spiritual succour flows upon Allah’s slaves there. It is a destination sought after by those in need or afflicted by hardships, who then stand before him and turn to Allah through his intercession so that their worries might be dispelled. No one has visited him save that he went back with his brooding mind set at ease.

He is the supporter of the weak in life and after death. People crowd around him, and make vows in his presence, carrying candles. No one has alighted at his courtyard except that an abundance of his spiritual succour is poured upon him, may Allah show mercy to him. Cairo’s inhabitants, of every religious orientation, set out for him, hoping to find abundant good therein. O Allah, nourish us through his overflowing aid, gather us in the Hereafter under his banner, and perpetuate his blessings for us, amin.

__________
Footnotes:
198 It has been reported by al-Fattani in Tadhkirat al-Mawdu’at (20), ‘Ali al-Qari in al-Asrar al-Marra fi al-Akhbar al-Mawdu’a (247), al-‘Ajluni in Kashf al-Khafa-(2/83), al-Sakhawi in al-Fawaid al-Majmu’a Li al-Ahadith al-Mawdu’a (786) and al-Suyuti in al-Durar al-Muntahira fi al-Ahaditbal-Mushtahira (113).
199 In al-A’lam (4/180), his patronymic (kunya) is said to be Abu Muhammad.
200 For his biography, see al-A’lam (4/180-1), Kutat Mubarak (14/109), Jurji Zaydan’s Adab al-Lughat al-Arabiyya (3/335), al-Fihris al-Tamhidi (393, 421), Majallat al-Kitab (2/344), al-Khazanat al-Taymuriyya (3/164), al-Kutubkhana (2/61, 65, 88, 103 and 104) and Tabaqat al-Shadhillyyat al-Kubra by Muhyi al-Din al-Tu`mi (p. 166).
201 Al-Nasir al-Laqqani is the polymath Abu ‘Abdullah Muhammad b. al-Hasan. He died on Wednesday, 14 Sha`ban AH 958, at the age of 84. His biography can be found in Ahmad Baba al-Tinbukti’s Kifayat al-Muhtaj and in Badr al-Din al-Qarafi’s Tawshib al-Dibaj wa Hilyat al-Ibtihaj.

The Path of the Sufis

The path of the Sufis is built on the Koran and sunna

The path of the Sufis is built on the Koran and sunna, and is based upon living according to the morals of the prophets and purified ones. It may not be blamed unless it violates an explicit statement from the Koran, sunna, or scholarly consensus, exclusively. If it does not contravene one of these, the very most that one may say of it is that it is an understanding a Muslim man has been given, so let whoever wishes act upon it, and whoever does not refrain, this being as true of works as of understanding. So no pretext remains for condemning it except one’s own low opinion of others, or interpreting what they do as ostentation, which is unlawful.

Whoever carefully examines the branches of knowledge of the Folk of Allah Most High will find that none of them are beyond the pale of the Sacred Law. How should they lie beyond the pale of the Sacred Law when it is the law that connects the Sufis to Allah at every moment? Rather, the reason for the doubts of someone unfamiliar with the way of the Sufis that it is of the very essence of theSacred Law is the fact that such a person has not thoroughly mastered the knowledge of the law. This is why Junayd (Allah Most High have mercy on him) said, ‘This knowledge of ours is built of the Koran and sunna,’ in reply to those of his time or any other who imagine that it is beyond the pale of the Koran and sunna.

The Folk unanimously concur that none is fit to teach in the path of Allah Mighty and Majestic save someone with comprehensive mastery of the Sacred Law, who knows its explicit and implicit rulings, which of them are of general applicability and which are particular, which supersede others and which are superseded. He must also have a thorough grounding in Arabic, be familiar with its figurative modes and similes, and so forth. So every true Sufi is a scholar is Sacred Law, though the reverse is not necessarily true.

To summarize, no one denies the states of the Sufis except someone ignorant of the way they are. Qushayri says, ‘No era of the Islamic period has had a true sheikh of this group, save that the Imams of the scholars of that time deferred to him, showed humility towards him, and visited him for the benefit of his spiritual grace (baraka). If the Folk had no superiority or election, the matter would have been the other way around.

_______________________________
From al-Tabaqat al-kubra al-musamma bi Lawaqih al-anwar fi tabaqat al-akhyar (1374/1954) (Reprint, Beirut: dar al-fikr, n.d.) 1:4. In Reliance of the Traveller p. 863-864.

With his teacher ´Ali al-Khawas

Excerpt from the Introduction to
Al-Anwar al-Qudusiyya fi Ma’rifa al-Qawa’id al-Sufiyya Transl. by thehiddentreasure

After that Allah proclaimed for him the spiritual opening and united him (Ash-Sha’rani) with al-Khawwas. Al-Khawwas was his mi’raj and his ladder by which he ascend to the doors of spiritual openings and heavens of bestowals and realms of light and inspirations. Their relationship is the manifest sign of the status of the Shaykh in the Path. It is the greatest sign of the status of divinely bestowed knowledge (العِلْم اللَّدنِّي) for al-Khawwas was unlettered while ash-Sha’rani was a scholar. But that was the external judgement, while the internal judgment says that al-Khawwas was the scholar while ash-Sha’rani was the unlettered one.

Ash-Sha’rani said: From the favours of Allah upon himself (ash-Sha’rani) was that his arrival and opening (in gnosis) was at the hands of an unlettered man who neither knew writing nor reading. He added in describing this unlettered man:

“A man who is totally hidden such that almost no one knew of his sainthood and knowledge except for the practicing scholars, for he is indeed a perfect man to us without any doubt! The perfect one is he whom when he reaches the station of the perfect men in knowledge of Allah (العرفان), he becomes a stranger in all the worlds.”

Ash-Sha’rani narrates to us his delightful spiritual experience of his arrival unto the ascending paths of divine illuminations at the hands of his Shaykh and the oceans of knowledge of his master :

My spiritual struggles at the hands of my master ‘Ali al-Khawwas were many and of various types. Amongst them, he would order me in the beginning to sell away all my books and to give away the money in charity, which I did. Those were precious books which could be sold for a high price. So I sold them and gave away the sales in charity but I became anguished at having to part with them as I had put much effort and had added notes and comments in them. It reached a point as if I was completely robbed of my knowledge. (At that time) he (al-Khawwas) said to me, “Strive to cut off your (heart’s) turning back (out of attachment) to them (the books) by much remembrance of Allah Exalted is He. Indeed they say, “One who turns back, does not arrive”. Thus, I strove in cutting off my attachment to them till I managed to free myself and praise be to Allah for that.

عربي

From Kuhin: Tabaqat al-Shadhiliyya View book | Download | Chapter [4]below

[41] القطب الشعراني([1])
(… – 973)

الإمام العامل، والهمام الكامل، إنسان عين ذوي الفضائل، وعين إنسان الواصلين، من ذوي الفضائل، العابد، الزاهد، الفقيه، المحدث، الصوفي، المربي المسلك، قطب دائرة فلك المتقين، قدوة الأولياء والعارفين، فريدةُ الأتقياء والواصلين، ووارث علوم الأنبياء والمرسلين، المنتظم بسلسلة «علماء أُمَّتي كأنبياء بني إسرائيل»([2])، مرشدُ الخلائق إلى سواء السبيل، المختصُّ بشرائف عواطف الملك التواب، المفيض عليه من كمال الأسرار والمعارف من لدن العليم الوهاب، قطب الأنجاب والأبدال والأقطاب، أستاذ أهل الإرشاد والتسليك الشريف حسًّا ومعنى، حسبًا ونسبًا، بلا تحقيق، طاهر النسبتين، المتمتع بمشاهدة جمال الحضرتين، تاج الدين، وغوث المسلمين، وأستاذ المتصرفين، وملاذ أهل التمكين، صاحب المدد الأكبر، والفضل الذي لا يحصر، أبو المواهب شرف الدين سيدنا ومولانا عبد الوهاب ابن سيدنا أحمد ابن سيدنا شهاب الدين علي الشعراني الأنصاري الشافعي، المحمدي ذاتًا وصفاتًا، الشاذلي طريقة وحقيقة، المجاهد الغازي، قطب الطريقة الشعرانية الشاذلية، وعين أعيان أهل الدوائر العلية.

كان رضى الله عنه من أصحاب الدوائر الكبرى المتمكنين في الولاية من يوم ﴿أَلَسْتُ بِرَبِّكُمْ﴾ [الأعراف: 172]، وكان باطنه وظاهره محمديًّا، وإن شئت قلت خضريًّا نورانيًّا.

تربى رضى الله عنه يتيمًا بكفالة نبي الله سيدنا الخضر عليه السلام، وبنظرات جده سيدي شهاب الدين رضى الله عنه، فولد ونشأ رضى الله عنه وليًّا من أولياء الله تعالى، ولما ترعرع، وصار في ريعان شبابه، ظهرت فيه علامات النجابة([3])، ومخايل الولاية، فاجتهد في طلب العلوم، وحفظ القرآن، وبعض المتون، وحاز العلوم والفنون، وتستر بالفقه حتى كمل رشده، وطار ذكره، اشتغل بالطريق فلاحت عليه بشارات أهل التحقيق، وصار ركنًا من أركان الطريق يعتمد عليه، وقد أقامه الله رحمة للعباد، لما اجتمع بسيد العباد، وجاهد جهاد الأبطال حتى عد من فحول الرجال.

ومكث سنين طوالًا لا يتضجع على الأرض ليلًا ولا نهارًا، بل اتخذ له حبلًا في سقف خلوته، فجعله في عنقه ليلًا حتى لا يسقط، وكان يطوي الأيام المتوالية، ويديم الصوم، ويفطر على أوقية([4]) من الخبز، ويجمع الخرق من الكيمان، فيتخذها مرقعة فيستتر بها، وكانت عمامته من شراميط الكيمان، وقصاصة الجلود.

واستمر على ذلك حتى قويت روحانيتُهُ، فصار يطير من صحن جامع الغمري إلى سطوحه، ورأى في مجلسه الجنة والنار، والصراط والحشر، والحوض، وكشف عنه الحجاب، فشاهد الأمور العجاب، ورأى ما خلف جبل قاف، وتكلم بسائر اللغات، واستأنست به الوحوش، وتكلم بما يُبهر العقول، وشهدت بفضله الأئمة الأعلام، ودانت له رقاب الأنام، وخدمته الإنس والجان، والوحوش من جميع الآكام([5])، واطلع على عجائب مخلوقات الله، وبلغ به الورع والزهد منتهاه، حتى إذا مشى رحمه الله في الأسواق، تندلق([6]) عليه الناس أيَّ اندلاق، واعتقدته جميع الخلائق، حتى اليهود والنصارى، وأسلم على يديه الكثير منهم، وتاب على يديه من العصاة ما لا يُحصر عدده، وصاروا من فقرائه، لما أمدَّهم بمدده، وكان يُسمعُ لزاويته دويٌّ كدوي النحل ليلًا ونهارًا من خارج أبواب مصر.

خدم المشايخ والأولياء، فخدمته أهل الأرض والسماء، وسعوا له حبوًا على وجوههم، وأذعنت له الأمراء رغم أنوفهم، كانت تأتي إليهم الشفاعات، فيقبلونها صاغرين، ويجبرون أصحابها ويردُّونهم سالمين.
وكان رضى الله عنه مُجاب الدعوة، عظيم السمعة، لين الجانب، بسامًا متواضعًا متقشفًا([7]).

وكان يلبس في بدايته الملابس الغالية، ويجالس العلماء ويلاطفهم، وكان مُواظبًا على السنة المحمدية، مراعيًا للمذاهب الأربعة لا يفرق بينهم وقد أطلعه الله سبحانه وتعالى على مقاماتهم، وكان يقول: جزاهم الله عنا خيرًا.
وكان رضى الله عنه موزِّعًا أوقاته على العبادة؛ ما بين تأليف وتصنيف، وذكرٍ وتذكير، وصلاة على البشير النذير، وتربية بالدلال والكمال.

أُعطي رضى الله عنه ناطقةَ جميع الأولياء، وكانت تنبت الأولياء بساحه، كما تنبت الأرض بماء السماء.

وكان رضى الله عنه متخلقًا بأخلاق أهل الله، مؤثرًا على نفسه، كريمًا، يُعطي عطايا الملوك، ويُنفق على الفقراء وذوي الحاجات، وكان يجتمع عنده بالزاوية نحو مئة من الفقراء، فكان يقوم بهم نفقةً وكسوة.
وكان عظيم الهيبة، وافر الحرمة، يأتي إلى بابه أكابر الأمراء، فتارة يجتمعون به، وتارة لا يجتمعون.

وكان رضى الله عنه ذا همةٍ عالية، فكان يأتيه الكتابُ الكبير الحجم، فيطالعه ويراجعه، ويضع عليه تقريراته في ليلة واحدة، وأرسل له ناصر الدين اللقاني «مدونة الإمام مالك» رضى الله عنه مع النقيب، ليراجع فيها مسألة أشكلت عليه في الظاهر، فلما أتى بها النقيب، وصل إليه في الزاوية مساءً، فأعطاها له، وأراد الانصراف، فقال له: حتى تأخذها في الصباح، وبات عندنا هذه الليلة، فبات النقيب، وأخذ «المدونة» سيدي عبد الوهاب، ودخل خلوته، وبعد مضي زمن يسير، خرج من الخلوة، وردَّها إليه، فأصبح الرجل، ومضى إلى سيدي ناصر الدين، و «المدونة» معه، ففتحها سيدي ناصر الدين اللقاني، فوجد عليها تقريرات وتصليحات، فتعجب غاية العجب، فسأل نقيبه عن ذلك، فقال: لا أعلم غير أن سيدي عبد الوهاب لمَّا أخذها منّي، ودخل خلوته، ردَّها إليَّ بعد عشرين درجة، فلم أفتحها، وأحضرتها إليك كما هي، ولقد رأيته يا سيدي والله ما ترك وردًا من أوراده، ولا تهجُّداته.
وكانت الأمراء، وأرباب الجاه يحبونه محبة شديدة، ويعتقدونه لصلاحه وورعه، وكان السلطان الغوري رحمه الله يحبه محبَّةً شديدة، ويعتقده اعتقادًا جازمًا، وأهدى له مرة سجادة وشاشًا عرضُه سبعة أذرع، وطوله ثلاثون ذراعًا، أهداه له سلطان الهند في قشرة الجوزة، فأعطى رضى الله عنه الشاش لأخيه سيدي مولانا عبد القادر وأبقى السجادة ولم يستعملها مدة حياته، ولم يردها على السلطان أدبًا منه، وكان هذا ديدنه([8])، ومشربه الأدب مع ولاة الأمور، ومن دونهم، يُراعي حرمة الفقير والغني، والكبير والصغير، وهذه قطرةٌ من بحر فضائله.

وكيف لنا أن نقوم بحصر مناقبه؟! فهو إمام المحققين على الإطلاق، ومربي المريدين بأقوى قواعد التمكين، وفاتح أقفال غوامض معنويات إشارات المحققين، ومُعّبرُ رموز محلات مشكلات العارفين، واسطة عقد السالكين، وريحانة وجود الواصلين، الذي أقامته القدرة الإلهية، ورتَبته العناية الربانية، واللطائف الرحمانية، فسلك الطريقة الإلهية، مُتَّبعًا للكتاب العزيز والسنة المحمدية، وتفقَّه حتى وصل إلى الغاية، في مذهب السادة الشافعية، وفتح الله عليه بالافتتاحات الربانية.

ولم يزل مُعظّمًا في صدور الصدور، مُبجَّلًا في عيون الأعيان، حتى نقله الله تعالى إلى دار كرامته، عام تسع مئة وثلاثة وسبعين، ودُفن بزاويته بين الصورين، وحضر جنازته جمعٌ حافل من العلماء والفقهاء والأمراء والفقراء، وكان يومًا مشهودًا في مصر، وصُلّي عليه بالأزهر الشريف، وقُرئ نسبه الشريف على الدكَّة([9])، وحملوه على الأعناق، حيث مدفنه، وحضرت جنازته الأولياء الأحياء والأموات، ورجال الدوائر من الإنس والجن من سكان البراري والوديان وما وراء البحار، حتى لم تُر قطُّ جنازةٌ بمصر مثل جنازته، وعكفت الطيورُ تحوم حول نعشه، وبكتْ عليه الجمادات، وتقطعت القلوب أسفًا عليه.

وخلَّف رحمه الله ذكرًا باقيًا، وثناءً عطرًا زاكيًا، وبعد وفاته تناثرت الخيرات على زاويته من كلِّ فج عميق، فأوقفوا العقارات والأطيان، وشيدوا له مسجدًا جامعًا يليق بمقامه، وضريحًا خاصًّا له، وبعاليه قبَّةٌ معقودةٌ ومقصورة، ورتَّبوا له المرتبات.

وصارَ مسجده يُعدُّ من أعظم مساجد مصر، وضريحه من أجلِّ الأضرحة التي يستجاب عندها الدعاء، ومدَدُه فائضٌ بين العباد، تقصدُه ذوو الحاجات والمتعسرين، فيقفون بين يديه، ويتوسَّلون إلى الله بكشف الكروب، وما زاره أحدٌ إلا ورُدَّ مجبورَ الخاطر.

وهو رضى الله عنه نصيرُ الضعفاء حيًّا وميتًا، تزدحم الناس عليه، وينذرون له النذور والشموع، وما من أحد حلَّ ساحته إلا وأفاض عليه من مدده، رحمه الله، وتقصدُه أهالي مصر قاطبةً، من كل ملة، ويؤملون عنده خيرًا كثيرًا، اللهم أمدنا بمدده الفياض، واحشرنا تحت لوائه، وأدم علينا بركاته. آمين.

([1]) عبد الوهاب بن أحمد بن علي الحنفي، نسبة إلى محمد ابن الحنيفية، الشعراني، أبو محمد: من علماء المتصوفين. ولد في قلقشندة بمصر سنة 898 هـ، ونشأ بساقية أبي شعره (من قرى المنوفية) وإليها نسبته: (الشعراني، ويقال الشعراوي) وتوفي في القاهرة سنة 973 هـ له تصانيف منها: «أدب القضاة» و «الأجوبة المرضية عن أئمة الفقهاء والصوفية» وغير ذلك. [«الأعلام» (4/180، 181)، و«شذرات الذهب» (8/3، 5)].
([2]) لا أصل له: انظر السلسلة الضعيفة للألباني حديث رقم (466).
([3]) النَّجَابَةُ: النباهة وظهور فضل الولد على أترابه.
([4]) الأُوقِيَّةُ: جزء من اثني عشر جزءًا من الرطل المصري.
([5]) الآكام: (ج) الأكمة: التل.
([6]) اندلق الشيء: اندفع من مكانه.
([7]) تقشف فلان: ترك الترفه والتنعم.
([8]) الدَّيْدَانُ: العادة والدأب. يقال: فلانٌ ديدنه أن يفعل كذا.
([9]) الدَّكَّةُ: بناء يسطع أعلاه للجلوس عليه. (ج) دِكاكٌ.

Writings

Book list: Writings of Imam al-Sha´rani View | Visit

List of wriings available online: View | Visit

List of writings available on archive.com
مكتبة عبد الوهاب الشعراني
1- إرشاد الطالبين إلى مراتب العلماء العاملين ومعه عقيدة اكابر أهل السنة والجماعة
2- الأنوار القدسية فى معرفة قواعد الصوفية
3- الانوار القدسية في بيان آداب العبودية
4- الأنوار في آداب الصحبة عند الأخيار
5- الجوهر المصون والسر المرقوم فيما تنتجه الخلوة من الأسرار والعلوم
6- الدرر واللمع في بيان الصدق في الزهد والورع
7- القواعد الكشفية الموضحة لمعاني الصفات الإلهية
8- الكبريت الأحمر في بيان علوم الشيخ الأكبر
9- الكوكب الشاهق فى الفرق بين المريد الصادق وغير الصادق
10- اليواقيت و الجواهر في بيان عقائد الأكابر
11- تنبيه المغترين اوائل القرن العاشر علي ما خالفوا فيه سلفهم الطاهر
12- درر الغواص على فتاوى سيدي علي الخواص
13- لطائف المنن والأخلاق بوجوب التحدث بنعمة الله على الإطلاق
14- لواقح الأنوار القدسية في بيان العهود المحمدية
15- مختصر الإعتقاد للبيهقى
16- مختصر تذكرة السويدي في الطب
17- مختصر تذكرة القرطبي
18- منح المنة في التلبس بالسنة
19- الميزان الذرية المبينة لعقائد الفرق العلية
20- الطبقات الصغرى
21- موازين القاصدين من شيوخ ومريدين – المنح السنية على الوصية المتبولية
22- كشف الحجاب والران عن وجه أسئلة الجان
23- ردع الفقراء ودعوى الولاية الكبرى
24- البحر المورود في المواثیق و العهود
25- منهاج الوصول الى مقاصد علم الاصول
26- تطهير أهل الزوايا من خبائث الطوايا
27- كشف الغمة عن جميع الأمة:
http://archive.org/details/Kashfghoma
28- الطبقات الكبرى المسمى لواقح الأنوار القدسية في مناقب العلماء والصوفية :
https://archive.org/details/tabaqatekoubra
29- الميزان الكبرى:
http://archive.org/details/almizane
30- الأخلاق المتبولية المفاضة من الحضرة المحمدية:
http://archive.org/details/akhlaqmatboulia

Photos

Imam al-Sha’rani is buried in باب الشعرية
Entries on msobieh.com: 1, 2
t.b.d.
 

Notes

He was a student of Imam Zakariyya al-Ansari.
He is buried in باب الشعرية
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Bio: Imam Al-Suyuti

Imam al-Suyuti

اﻺمام الحافظ عبدالرحمن بن أبي بكر بن محمد جلال الدين السيوطي
b. – d. 910 H. in Cairo ( CE)
qaddasa Allah sirrahu

English

t.b.d.

عربي

Burial Place

Ziyara 2007, Photo: Sh. Ahmad Darwish

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Abu Ja´far al-Warraq Al-Tahawi

الإمام أبو جعفر اوراق الطحاوي
b. – d. 321 C. H. in Cairo (… CE)
may Allah be pleased with him

English

عربي

Dr. Mahmud Sobieh
From Siyar al-A’lam View | Download
From Tarwid al-Mihan – ترويض المحن View | Download | Read online: Open | Close

Burial Place

Cairo

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Imam Abu ´Isa Muhammad b.´Isa al-Tirmidhi

الإمام محمد بن عيسى بن سورة الترمذي
b. 209 – d. 279 H. in … ( CE)
radiya Allah anhu

A student of Imam al-Bukhari.
Author of one of the six canonocal hadith collections

English

Imam Tirmidhi (209 – 279 H)

By Dr. G.F. Haddad

Imam Tirmidhi was born in the year 209 A.H. during the reign of the Abbasid Khalifa Ma’mun al-Rashid. The Abbasid Caliphate, despite its brilliant contributions to Islam, brought along with it many thorny problems. Greek Philosophy had a free flow into the Islamic world. This was fully sanctioned by the government until eventually it declared the Mu’tazila school of thought as the state religion. Anyone who opposed the Mu’tazila school of thought would be opposing the state. With the influence of Greek philosophy infiltrating within the people, many Muslims began attempting to reconcile between reason and revelation. As a result they deviated themselves and misled many innocent weak Muslims away from Allah and His Prophet (s). Many scholars of Islam had come to the fore in order to defend the Shari`ah. Forgeries and interpolations in Hadith by rulers who wished to fulfil their personal motives was common. In the first century `Umar bin Abdul `Aziz (r) initiated a movement for the compilation of the holy hadith of the the Prophet (s) as there was a fear of it being lost. Eventually this gigantic task was undertaken by six towering scholars of Islam. One of them was Imam Abu `Isa Muhammed ibn `Isa Tirmidhi

Having grown up in an environment of learning, together with possessing many great qualities naturally drove Imam Tirmidhi to dedicate his life totally towards the field of Hadith. He obtained his basic knowledge at home and later travelled to far off lands in search of this great science. He studied Hadith under great personalities such as Imam Bukhari, Imam Muslim and Imam Abu Dawud. In some narrations Imam Bukhari and Imam Muslim are his students as well.

Once Imam Bukhari mentioned to him “I have benefited more from you than you have benefitted from me.” Musa ibn `Alaq once said: “When Imam Bukhari passed away, he left no one in Khurasan who compared with Abu `Isa Tirmidhi in knowledge, memory, piety and abstinence.” According to `Abdullah ibn Muhammed Al-Ansari, Imam Tirmidhi’s Al-Jami` is more beneficial than the works of Bukhari and Muslim since their compilations can only be understood by a very deep sighted scholar whereas Al-Jami` can be understood by both the scholar and the layman.

Imam Tirmidhi said that he compiled this book and presented it to the learned of Hijaz, Iraq and Khurasan and they were pleased with it. Who ever has this book in his home, it is as though he has the Prophet (s) speaking to him there.

His remarkable memory:

Imam Tirmidhi had an exceptionally remarkable memory. If he heard something once he never forgot it. Once on his way to Makkah, Imam Tirmidhi met a scholar of hadith (muhaddith) from whom he had previously copied two chapters of hadith. Thinking that he had the notes with him he asked the scholar if he would allow him to read out these two chapters so that he could correct any errors. After realizing that he did not have those notes with him he took a blank piece of paper and read out the entire two parts from memory. When the muhaddith realized what he was doing he rebuked Imam Tirmidhi saying: “Have you no shame, why are you wasting my time.” Imam Tirmidhi assured him that he had committed all the ahadith to memory. The scholar was not convinced, even though Imam Tirmidhi had recited all the hadith from memory. Imam Tirmidhi requested him to recite to him some other hadith. The scholar recited forty ahadith which Imam Tirmidhi thenrepeated without making a single error, thus showing his remarkable power of committing hadith to memory.

Another incident has been recorded by Hakim ul-Ummat in his Al-Misk-us-Zaki, depicting the profound memory of Imam Tirmidhi. He writes:

Imam Tirmidhi had lost his sight towards the latter portion of his life. Once whilst on a journey, at a certain point he bowed his head. When asked as to why he did this, he replied: “Is there not a tree here whose branches hang over in such a manner that it harms those who are passing by.” They answered in the negative. He was quite shocked when he heard this as he distinctly remembered there being a tree and was worried as to whether his memory was failing him or not. He stopped the caravan immediately and asked his companions to enquire from the locals whether a tree had existed there or not. “If it is established that no tree existed then I will stop narrating the Hadith of the Prophet (s) due to my weak memory.” On inquiry it was shown to them that a tree had previously existed over there but due to it being a hindrance to travelers it was removed.

Imam Tirmidhi had a large number of students from all over the world. The most famous amongst them were Haysam ibn Kulaib, Abul Abbaas and Muhammed ibn Ahmed Shah Abdul `Aziz describes Imam Tirmidhi in the following words: “His memory was unique and his piety and fear of Allah ta’la was of a very high caliber. He would cry so much out of the fear of Allah, that towards the end of his life he lost his sight.”

According to Ibn Taymiyya and Shah Waliullah, Imam Timidhi was an independent Jurist (Mujtahid). Moulana Anwar Shah Kashmiri is of the opinion that he was a Shafi`i.

In the year 279 A.H. in a village called Bawag at the age of 70 , Imam Tirmidhi left this temporary abode for the everlasting life of the hereafter. May Allah swt fill his grave with light. The enormity of his sacrifices and the extent to which he served the religion can never be fully comprehended.

Many books of hadith were compiled before Imam Tirmidhi decided to compile his Al-Jami`. Dawud Tayalisi and Ahmed ibn Hanbal had compiled books consisting of both authentic and weak hadith. Later Imam Bukhari compiled his Sahih and omitted all weak narrations from it. His main objective was to derive masa’il / laws from the relevant hadith. Later Imam Muslim compiled his book with a primary focus on the isnad (different chain of narrators). Imam Nasa’i’s aim was to mention the discrepancies of the hadith whilst Abu Dawud prepared a book which became the basis for the fuqaha. Imam Tirmidhi had combined the styles of Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Dawud and Nasa’i by mentioning the discrepancies regarding the narrators and also making his compilation a basis for the jurists.

The Special characteristics of al-Jami` ut-Tirmidhi

1. It is a Sunan and a Jami`.

2. Only 83 hadith are repeated.

3. Imam Tirmidhi omits the major portion of the hadith and only mentions that part which is relevant to the heading. (title)

4. After mentioning a hadith he classifies it narration (whether it is authentic or weak, etc.)

5. He specifies the narrators names, e.g. if the narrators kunya (honorific name) was mentioned, he would then mention his proper name and vice versa.

6. One hadith in Tirmidhi is a thulaathiyaat i.e. the transmitters of the hadith betwen Imam Tirmidhi and the Prophet (s) are only three.

7. Every hadith in Tirmidhi al-Jami` is “ma’mul bihi” (practised upon by the jurists.)

8. He explains the different madhahib together with their proofs.

9. He gives an explanation to all difficult ahadith.

10. His book has been set out in an excellent sequence, hence to look for a hadith is very easy.

11. There is no fabricated hadith in the entire book.

The conditions of Imam Tirmidhi in the selection of hadith

According to the commentators of Al-Jami Imam Tirmidhi maintained the following conditions throughout the compilation of his book.

1. He never narrated hadith from those who fabricated hadith. 2. Allama Tahir Muqaddisi mentions that al-Jami` ut-Tirmidhicontains four types of hadith:

[1] Those ahadith that conform with the conditions of Bukhari and Muslim. [2] Those ahadith that conform with the conditions of Abu Dawud and Nasa’i. [3] Those ahadith that have certain discrepancies either in the sanad or matan. [4] Those weak hadith that some fuqaha have relied on.

3. Imam Tirmidhi accepts a hadith which is narrated with the word “a’n” provided both the narrators are contemporaries. 4. After mentioning a weak hadith, he explains the state of its weakness. 5. A mursal hadith is accepted by Imam Tirmidhi when it is supported by a chain of narrators which is not broken.

The status of al-Jami` ut-Tirmidhi among the six authentic books of hadith. al-Jami` ut-Tirmidhi has been categorized as fifth amongst the six most authentic books of hadith. According to the most preferred opinion, Bukhari enjoys the highest status, followed by Muslim, Abu Dawood, Nasai, Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah respectively. Haji Khalifa in al-Kashf al-Dhunoon has categorised Tirmidhi in third position. Al-Dhahabi has written that Tirmidhi in actual fact should be holding the third position, but due to him bringing weak narrators like Kalbi and Masloob its status has dropped. However, looking at the manner in which he set out his book it seems that Haji Khalifa’s opinion is best.

Some of the commentaries of Tirmidhi

{1.} ‘A’ridat-ul-Ahwazi

An Arabic compilation of Qadi Abu Bakr ibn `Arabi (r) in 7 volumes.

{2} Qut-ul Mughtazi

Compiled by Jalal ad-Din Suyuti (r).

{3} Tuhfat-ul Ahwadhi

Written by Sheikh Abdur Rahmaan Mubaarakpuri in 10 volumes. He is very critical against the Ahnaaf.

The Terminology of Imam Tirmidhi

The classification of hadith was firmly established by Ali ibn Madini (r) and later by his student Imam Bukhari (r). However Imam Tirmidhi was the first Imam to base his book on these classifications.

Imam Tirmidhi classifies most of the Ahadith and mentions its reliability. Altogether Imam Tirmidhi uses nine different terms.

1.) sahih: That hadith wherein each reporter must be trustworthy, he must have the power of retention and the sanad of the hadith must go back to Nabi (sallallahu alyhi wasallam) without any interruption, it must agree with those of other reliable reporters and there should be no hidden defect in the matan or the sanad. N.B. Imam Tirmidhi does not consider it a prerequisite that a sahih Hadith must have several chains of narrators.

2.) hasan: That hadith which does not contain a reporter accused of lying, it is not shaaz and the hadith has been reported through more than one sanad.

3.) da`eef: Such a hadith wherein the narrators are not trustworthy, or they don’t posses the ability of retaining, or there is a break in the chain of narrators, or the hadith is shaaz or mu’alall.

4.) gharib: According to Imam Tirmidhi a hadith is classified gharib for one of the following reasons..

(a) it is narrated from one chain only.

(b) there is some addition in the text.

(c) it is narrated through various chains of transmitters but having within one of its chains an addition in the sanad.

5.) hasan gharib: These two can be combined. i.e. hasan refers to the uprighteousness of the narrators whilst gharib implies that he is alone in transmitting the hadith.

6.) sahih gharib: This term implies that the hadith is authentic but there is only one sanad.

7.) hasan sahih gharib: This hadith is hasan since it has several chains of transmitters, it is sahih as the chains are all authentic and it is gharib in the words that Imam Tirmidhi narrated.

8.) hasan sahih: This term has caused much confusion amongst the Muhadditheen since hasan is lower in rank than sahih. While sahih indicates to the excellent retention power of a narrator, hasan indicates to a deficiency in this regard hence it seems that both are opposites and is not possible to reconcile. The mutaqaddimeen have given many explanations to this :

[1] Ibn Hajar (r) has mentioned that the word “aw” is omitted hence the hadith will be either hasan or sahih. [2] Ibn Salah is of the opinion that when a hadith is reported with two sanads, one should be considered as hasan and the other as sahih. [3] Ibn Kathir says that Imam Tirmidhi has made up a new term which implies the hadith to be higher than hasan but lower than sahih. [4] Ibn Daqiq ul `Eid is of this opinion that sahih and hasan are not opposites. Rather they belong to the same category. However hasan will be considered as inferior to sahih hence they both can be combined. This opinion has been given most preference by the Muhadditheen.

CONCLUSION

By the third century A.H. a number of collections on hadith were compiled. Imam Tirmidhi was one of those scholars who contributed greatly towards this field of hadith. In this modern age the world at large is deeply indebted to Imam Tirmidhi for his compilation of hadith. May Allah swt make it possible for all of us to benefit tremendously from this priceless collection of hadith.

عربي

t.b.d.

Books

t.b.d.

Burial Place

Muhammad ibn `Isa at-Tirmidhi was born during the reign of the Abbasid caliph al-Ma’mun. His year of birth has been reported as 209 AH (824/825).

Imam al-TIrmidhi died on Monday night, 13 Rajab 279 AH (Sunday night, 8 October 892) in Bugh. He is buried on the outskirts of Sherobod, a 60 kilometers north of Termez in Uzbekistan. [wiki]

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Sayyidi Imam Ibn Daqiq al-Id

أبو الفتح سيدي تقي الدين بن دقيق العيد
b 625 H. in Hijaz – d. 702 H. in Cairo (1228-1302 CE)

Shaykh al-Islam, from the companions of Sh. Ibn ‘Ata Allah al-Sakandari, buried next to him

“We know from our masters person having diverged the fact that Ibn Daqiq al-Eid renovator is the scientist sent to the seventh century, referred to in the prophetic hadith, and he was the master of his time by his knowledge and righteousness in religion.” – Sheikh Taqi al-Din al-Subki

English

1. From Kuhin: Tabaqat al-Shadhiliyya
2. Anonymous bio
3. facebook.com
4. What he said about bi’da

1. From Kuhin: Tabaqat al-Shadhiliyya

From: Kuhin: Tabaqat Al-Shadhiliyyah Al-Kubra, translated by Ahmad Ali al-Adani as “Biographies of Prominent Shadhilis”


t.b.d.



2. Brief Biography by Anonyous
From: pelitakalam.blogspot.se

Ibn Daqiq al-Eid (1228-1302), is accounted as one of Islam’s great scholars in the fundamentals of Islamic law and belief, and was an authority in the Shafi’i legal school. Although Ibn Daqiq al-‘Id studied Shafi’i jurisprudence under Ibn ‘Abd al-Salam, he was also proficient in Maliki fiqh. He served as chief qadi of the Shafi’i school in Egypt. Ibn Daqiq al-Eid taught hadith to al-Dhahabi and to many other leading scholars of the next generation. In his lifetime, Ibn-Daqiq wrote many books but his commentary on the Nawawi Forty Hadiths has become his most popular. In it he comments on the forty hadiths compiled by Yahya Al-Nawawi and known as the Nawawi Forty Hadiths. His commentary has become so popular that it is virtually impossible for any scholar to write a serious book about the forty hadiths without quoting Ibn Daqiq.

History

His namesake ‘ibn Daqiq al-Eid’ however was gained from his grandfather who was described as being fond of sporting a bright white turban, one as white as the flour used to make pastries during Eid celebrations. From that point on, the name was passed on to his son and later to Imam Taqiyy ad- Din Muhammad ibn` Ali Ibn Wahb who would often be addressed as Ibn Daqiq al-Eid.

qusAfter memorising the Quran as a child, he attended various halaqahs in the city of Qus and was initiated into the Maliki school of jurisprudence from his father. His quest for learning however later brought him to Sheikh Al-Baha ‘Al-Qifti, a disciple of his father. He also learnt the disciplines of Arabic with Sheikh Mohammad Abu Al-Fadl Al-Mursi. Further deepening his quest for knowledge, he later travelled to Cairo to study under the tutelage and guidance of Imam Al-`Izz Ibn `Abd As-Salam of whom was regarded as the ‘Sultanul Ulama”. He studied the laws and foundations of Shafi’i jurisprudence from the later and was under the guidance of Imam Ibn ‘Abd al-Salam to the day he died in AH 660 (1262 AD). He later went on to Damascus to learn Hadith from Damascene scholars before finally returning to Egypt and settling down in the city of his childhood, Qus.

Upon his return to Qus at 37 years old, he was appointed as a judge according to the Maliki mazhab. His appointment however was shortlived as he found himself unfamiliar with the fame linked to the newly gained appointment. He soon found himself returning to Cairo to teach Prophetic Hadith in Darul Hadith Al- Kamiliyyah , a school built by Sultan Al-Kamil in A. H. 621 (1224 AD).

His proficiency in Hadith was soon recognised, earning him the title of ‘Sheikh of Darul Hadith’, the highest position in this specialized institution. He was known for his rigour and thoroughness, constantly researching on the chains between hadiths. The methodology he employed in the study of hadith can be read in Al- Iqtirah fi Ma’rifat Al- Istilah.

He later taught law at the Nasiriyyah School of Salahuddin Al-Ayubi, a school primarily catering to the Shafie Madhab and built in close proximity to the tomb of Imam Ash-Shafie. Given his mastery of two law schools, Shafi’i and Maliki, he was asked to teach at Madrasah Fadiliyyah, a prestigious institution which was also hosting Andalucian born Sheikh Abu Abdillah Muhammad bin Umar Al-Qurthubi.

Chief Justice of Egypt

Observing such a stance, he remained steadfast and did not bend under pressures for undue favour. In one instance, he rejected the testimony of Monkutmar, the Secretary of the Sultanate, in an inheritance case holding that he was not a reliable man. Montkumar fought back and sent a stream of messengers to convince Ibn Daqiq on his testimony. Unfazed by the move, Ibn Daqiq finally resigned at the insistence of Monkutmar.

He also pioneered a center responsible for the management and administration of property of orphans to preserve until they reached majority. The move was unprecedented in Egypt. Under such a move, a heir would only be granted of any inheritance should he be an adult. Otherwise, his fortune would be initially entrusted to the centre. He put a system in place in order to look at the welfare and well being of orphans.

Sheikh of Islam Taqiyy Ad- Din Abu Al -Fath Muhammad Ibn `Ali Ibn Wahb Ibn Mutî` ibn Abi Al- At- Tâ`ah Qushayri Al- Manfaluti was born in the month of Shaban 625 AH (1228) on the sea whilst his family were on the way to Mecca for the Hajj pilgrimage. He is widely regarded as one of the most important scholar of Hadith. His path towards Islamic scholarship began with his father, Sheikh Majd Ad-Din Abu Al-Hasan `Ali Ibn Wahb who was himself a prominent scholar in Hadith and Islamic jurisprudence.

Following the death of Judge Ibn Bint Al-A`azz, Imam Ibn Daqiq was approached to assume the post of Chief Justice in 695 A. H. (1296 AD). Though he was initially hestitant, he finally relented to the request, exposing himself to influential individuals within Egypt. Under his leadership, he maintained the need for Islamic law to be applied scrupulously and fairly.



3.
From: facebook.com

Ibn Daqiq al-`Id.RA:The Mujaddid of 7thCentury Hijra [702AH]: Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Daqiq al-`Id, known in his his youth as Abu al-Fath al-Qushayri, later as Ibn Wahb: He is Muhammad ibn ‘Ali ibn Wahab ibn Muti’ al-Qushayri, Abu al-Fatah, Taqiyudin, Popularly known, just like his father and grand father, as Ibn Daqiq al-‘Id. Born in Cairo in 625 where he initialy studied under his father who was a Maliki and then after finishing studeis there went on to Sultan al-‘Ullama ‘Izzu Din ibn ‘Abd al-Salam, who was a Shafi’ and therefore consequently Ibn Daqiq became a Shafi’i. He was known for his impeccable skills in memorizing and his desire to learn more.IT IS RELATED THAT WHEN a copy of Imam Abdul Karim ar- Rafi[ra]’s al-Sharh al-Kabir reached Ibn Daqiq al-‘Id and he left everything but the obligatory prayers in order to study it.He had met IBN TAYMIYYAH,AT THE TIME ,WHEN LATER’S DEVIANT THOUGHTS HAD NOT BECOME OBVIOUS &IS SAID TO HAVE SPOKEN FAVORABLY.

He became known as the Renewer[The MUJADDID] of the seventh Islamic century. He also studied under the great SHADHILI SUFI,Shaykh Ibn `Ata’ Allah al-Isakandari [qs] next to whom he was buried. That day the entire Egyptian army prayed over him.
One of his disciples in HADITH, HAFIZ AD DHAHABI,had quoted Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Daqiq al-`Id.RA’s WARNING to CRITIC OF SUFIS,as,:”Our Shaykh Ibn Wahb [= Ibn Daqiq al-`Id] said – may Allah have mercy on him: `Among the predicaments that mar the discipline of narrator-discreditation are the divergences that take place between the followers of tasawwuf (al-mutasawwifa) and the people of external knowledge (ahl al-`ilm al-zahir); animosity therefore arose between these two groups and necessitated mutual criticism.’

Now this [animosity against Sufis] is a plunge from which none escapes unscathed except one thoroughly knowledgeable with all the evidentiary proofs of the Law. Note that I do not limit such knowledge to the branches [of the Law]. For, concerning many of the states described by the people of truth (al-muhiqqin) among the Sufis, right cannot be told from wrong on the mere basis of knowledge of the branches. One must also possess firm knowledge of the principles of the Law and be able to tell apart the obligatory from the possible, as well as the rationally impossible from the customarily impossible.

It is, indeed, a position fraught with danger! For the critic of a true Sufi (muhiqq al-sufiyya) enters into the hadith: “Whosoever shows enmity to one of My Friends, I shall declare war upon him.”While one that abandons all condemnation for what is clearly wrong in what he hears from some of them, abandons the commanding of good and the forbidding of evil.[Al-Dhahabi, al-Muqiza (p. 88-90).]



4. What Imam Ibn Daqiq al-Id said about bid’a
From: facebook.com

Imam Ibn Daqiq al Eid said:

“The statement of the Prophet, may God’s peace and blessings be upon him, “avoid new fallacies.” Be aware that novelties are divided into two. First: novelties that have no basis in sharia. Such novelties are null and void. Second: novelties that are based on other similar laws. Such novelties are not rejected. Novelties that contradict sunna and lead to misguidance are condemned. But not every novelty is a heresy. God, the Sublime, says, “Whenever novelties of the Qur’an from their Lord are revealed to them, they listen to them while playing.(Al-Anbiya :2)” ‘Umar, may God be pleased with him, said, “What a nice novelty this is! (Referring to the tarawih.)”

The Imam also said:

On the other hand, deriving branches from principles that do not go outside the boundary of sunna is not heresy. Examples of this include writing the Holy Qur’an in books, doctrines by good jurisprudents who base their interpretations on the sayings of God’s Messenger, may God’s peace and blessings be upon him, and books about grammar, arithmetic, commandments, and other scholarly fields that are based on the teachings and commands of God’s Messenger, may God’s peace and blessings be upon him. All those are outside the scope of this hadith.

عربي

From Kuhin: Tabaqat al-Shadhiliyya View book | Download | Chapter [22]below

[22] أبو الفتح سيدي تقي الدين بن دقيق العيد([1])
(625- 702)

محمد بن علي بن وهب بن مطيع بن أبي الطاعة القشيري، أبو الفتح تقي الدين ذاتًا ونعتًا، والسالكُ الطريق التي لا عوجَ فيها ولا أَمتًا([2])، الشيخ الإمام، علامة العلماء الأعلام، ذو العلوم الشرعية، والمعارف الصوفية، كان رحمه الله آيةً من آيات الله، قالت علماءُ عصره: إنه رأس المئة السابعة. ولا شكَّ أنه كذلك، فقد جمع رحمه الله بين العلم والعبادة والزهد والورع. ومناقبه رحمه اللهُ كثيرةٌ. وقد ترجمه غيرُ واحدٍ، وكان رحمه الله من أصحاب الكرامات الخارقة.

ولد ووالده متوجِّهٌ إلى الحجاز الشريف في البحر المالح يوم السبت خمس وعشرين من شهر شعبان عام 625 بساحل ينبع، البحر المالح، ثم إنَّ والده أخذه وطافَ ودعا الله تعالى أن ينشئه عالمًا عاملًا، وكان كما قال، فإنه نشأ رحمه الله محبًّا للعلم، فبدأ بقراءة كتاب الله العظيم حتى حصل منه على حظٍّ جسيم، ثم رحل في طلب الحديث إلى دمشق والإسكندرية، فسمع من الحافظ المُنذري.

وكان رحمه الله يدرِّسُ الحديث ويُمليه بدار الحديث الكاملية، وكان يحضر مجلسه أفاضلُ أهل عصره.

وكان قدس سره كريمًا جوادًا سخيًّا تولّى النيابة بمصر.

وكانت له كراماتٌ تُنسب إليه، وكان السلطان يُقبِّلُ يديه، وله مكانةٌ رفيعة عند الأمراء وأرباب الجاه والمناصب.

وله تصانيف عديدة منها كتاب «الإلمام» وهو كتابٌ بديع، وله نثرٌ أحسنُ من الدرر، ونظم أبهجُ من عقود الجوهر.

وكان رحمه الله يُحاسب نفسه على الكلام، ويأخذُ عليها بالملام.

توفي يوم الجمعة حادي عشر صفر عام سبع مئة واثنين. ودُفن يوم السبت بسفح المقطَّم بجوار شيخه سيدي ابن عطاء الله السكندري رضي الله عنهما، وكان يوم وفاته يومًا مشهودًا عزيزًا في الوجود، سارع الناسُ إليه، ووقفَ جيشُ مصر ينتظرُ الصلاة عليه رحمه الله تعالى.

وقد زرته، ووجدت عليه قبةً معقودة، وضريحًا قد نُقش بالآيات القرآنية بالخطِّ الجميل داخل زاوية مفردة، ورأيتُ على هذا المقام من التجلي والإكرام ما تنشرحُ لرؤيته الصدور ببركة أسراره، وضريحه قبل ضريح شيخه ببضع خطوات. اللهم انفعنا وأمدَّنا بإمداداتهم. آمين.


([1]) محمد بن وهب بن مطيع، أبو الفتح تقي الدين القشيري، المعروف كأبيه وجده بابن دقيق العيد، قاض من أكابر العلماء بالأصول، مجتهد، أبوه من منفلوط بمصر، انتقل إلى قوص وولد له ابنه صاحب الترجمة سنة 625هـ في ينبع (على ساحل البحر الأحمر) فنشأ بقوص، وتعلم بدمشق والإسكندرية ثم بالقاهرة، وولي قضاء الديار المصرية سنة 695هـ فاستمر إلى أن توفي بالقاهرة سنة 702هـ [«الأعلام» (6/283)، «شذرات الذهب» (5/388)].
([2]) الأَمْتُ: المكان المرتفع.

Writings

t.b.d.
 

Burial Place

Imam Ibn Daqiq al-Eid is buried next to his Shaykh, Ibn ‘Ata Allah al-Sakandari, in Cairo.
The entire Egyptian army prayed his funeral prayer.
 
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Abū ‘l-Ḥasan Sarī ibn al-Mughallis Saqatī

(b. 155 – d. 251 H. in Baghdad)
radiya Allah anhu

.


He was Abu al-Hasan Sari (al Sirri) b. al-Maghallis al-Saqati, the imam of Baghdad of his day, and one of the first formultators of sufi sayings. He was a student of Ma`aruf al-Karkhi, and one of the companions of Bishr al-Hafi. He was the maternal uncle of al-Junayd and his teacher. He took hadith from al-Fadil. From him narrated al-Junayd and Abu al-`Abbas b. Masruq, the first in Baghdad to speak about al-haqa’iq wa al-isharat. – He was born and died in Baghdad. He passed away in 251/253 H. at the age of ninety-eight.
 

Silsila

As-Sari as-Saqati (d. 251 H. In Baghdad)
Ma´ruf al-Karkhi (d. 201 H.)
Imam `Ali al-Rida (d. 203 H.)
ImamMusa al-Kazim (d, 182 H.)
Imam Ja`far as-Sadiq (b, 83 – d. 148 H.)
his father Muhammad al-Baqir ibn ‘Ali (b. 59 – 114 H.)
his father Zayn al ‘Abidin ‘Ali ibn Husayn (b. 38 – d. 94H.)
his father Sayyid al-shuhadaa Imam Husayn ibn ‘Ali (b. 4 – d. 61 H.)
Imam al-Anbiya, Sayyiduna wa Mawlana Muhammad ibn `AbdAllah (d 11 H.)

English

t.b.d.

Svenska

Ur: Al-Risala al-Qusahayriyya, översatt till svenska av Övers. Göran Ogén

Abu‑‘l‑Hasan Sarī b. al‑Mughallis al‑Saqatī [d. 251/865] var morbror till al‑Djunayd och dennes lärare, och själv var han lärjunge till Macrūf al‑Karkhī. Han var en av sin tids mest enastående vad gäller gudligheten, de sublima tillstånden(1) och enhetsbekännandets olika slags vetande(2).‑{1}

Jag (al‑Qushayrī) hörde Muhammad b. al‑Husayn berätta, att han hört cAbd Allāh b. cAlī al‑Tūsī berätta, att han hört Abū cAmr b. cAlwān berätta, att han hade hört Abu‑‘l‑cAbbās b. Masrūq berätta att al‑Sarī al‑Saqatī brukade idka handel på marknadsplatsen. En dag kom Macrūf al‑Karkhī – vars krets al‑Sarī tillhörde – till honom och hade ett föräldralöst barn med sig och sade: »Kläd denne föräldralöse!» Sarī sade: »Jag klädde honom då, och Macruf gladde sig därvid och sade ›Måtte Gud få dig att hata Denna Världen och befria dig från det du befinner dig i!‹. Därpå lämnade jag handelsboden, och inget är mig förhatligare än Denna Världen. Och allt som kommit mig till del har jag Macrūfs välsignelser att tacka för.»‑{2}

Jag hörde sufimästaren Abū cAbd al‑Rahmān al‑Sulamī {Gud förbarme sig över honom!} säga, att han hört Aū Bakr al‑Rāzī säga, att han hört Abū cUmar al‑Anmātī säga, att han hade hört al‑Djunayd berätta ›Jag har inte sett någon ägna sig mer åt gudstjänst än Sarī, som uppnådde en ålder av nittioåtta år(3) och aldrig sågs ligga ned – utom då han var dödssjuk!‹.‑{3}

Det berättas om Sarī att han har sagt: »Sufism [tasawwuf] är en beteckning med tre betydelser: (1) en sufier vars inre ljus ej släcker hans gudsfruktans ljus; (2) en sufier som ej talar om en inre mening i ett vetande på sådant sätt att den upphäver den yttre meningen i Skriften [al‑kitāb] eller i Profetens goda exempel [sunna]; (3) en sufier som inte låter miraklerna få honom att riva sönder slöjorna till Guds förbud.» al‑Sarī dog år 257 (år 871 A.D.)(4).‑{4}

Jag hörde mäster Abū cAlī al‑Daqqāq berätta om al‑Djunayd {Gud förbarme sig över honom!} att denne hade sagt: »Sarī frågade mig en dag om kärleken [mahabba], och jag svarade ›En del människor säger att kärlek är samförstånd [muwāfaqa], andra säger att kärlek är altruism [īthār], andra åter definierar kärlek än si och än så‹. Då tog Sarī tag i huden på sin arm och drog i den, men den ville inte tänjas ut, varpå han sade ›Vid den Upphöjdes allmakt! Om jag säger att denna hud på grund av kärlek till Gud har torkat ut på detta armben, så talar jag förvisso sant!‹. Därpå svimmade han av, och hans ansikte rörde sig runt likt en skinande måne, varvid Sarīs hy(5) tycktes anta en rödaktig nyans.»‑{5}

Det berättas om Sarī att han sade: »Sedan trettio år tillbaka ber jag ständigt om förlåtelse för att vid ett tillfälle ha sagt ›Lov vare Gud!‹. Då frågade man, hur det kom sig, och han svarade ›En eldsvåda drabbade Bagdad, och en man kom mig till mötes och sade till mig ›Rädda din handelsbod!‹, och då sade jag ›Lov vare Gud!‹. Och sedan trettio år tillbaka är jag ångerfull över det jag sade, eftersom jag önskade mig själv bättre än det som drabbade andra troende!» cAbd Allāh b. Yūsuf berättade detta för mig och sade, att han hört Abū Bakr al‑Rāzī säga, att han hört Abū Bakr al‑Harbī berätta, att han hade hört al‑Sarī berätta detta.‑{6}

Det berättas om Sarī att han sagt ›Jag tittar på min näsa alltsomoftast dagligen av rädsla för att den har blivit svart, eftersom jag fruktar att Gud gör mitt utseende svart på grund av det jag sysslar med‹.‑{7}

Jag hörde Muhammad b. al‑Husayn {Gud förbarme sig över honom!} säga, att han hört Muhammad b. al‑Husayn b. al‑Khashshāb säga, att han hört Djacfar b. Muhammad b. Nusayr säga, att han hört al‑Djunayd säga att han hade hört al‑Sarī säga ›Jag känner till en genväg som leder till Paradiset‹ och då frågat honom ›Vilken?‹. Han svarade ›Du skall inte be någon om något, och du skall inte ta emot något från någon, och du skall inte äga något som du kan ge någon något av!‹.‑{8}

Jag hörde cAbd Allāh b. Yūsuf al‑Isbahānī säga, att han hört Abū Nasr al‑Sarrādj al‑Tūsī säga, att han hört Djacfar b. Muhammad b. Nusayr säga, att han hört al‑Djunayd säga, att han hade hört al‑Sarī säga ›Jag önskar dö i någon annan stad än i Bagdad‹. Man frågade honom då ›Varför detta?‹, och han svarade ›Jag är rädd för att min grav inte kommer att ta emot mig och att mina missgärningar kommer i dagen!‹.‑{9}

Jag hörde cAbd Allāh b. Yūsuf al‑Isbahānī säga, att han hört Abu‑‘l‑Hasan b. cAbd Allāh al‑Fuwatī al‑Tarsūsī säga, att han hört al‑Djunayd säga, att han hade hört al‑Sarī säga ›O Gud! Hur mycket du än straffar mig med något, så straffa mig inte med beslöjningens vanära!‹.‑{10}

Jag hörde cAbd Allāh b. Yūsuf al‑Isbahānī säga, att han hört Abū Bakr al‑Rāzī säga, att han hört al‑Djurayrī säga, att han hade hört al‑Djunayd säga: »En dag gick jag in till al‑Sarī al‑Saqatī, som stod och grät, och jag frågade honom ›Vad är det som får dig att gråta?‹, och han svarade ›I går kom min dotter(6) till mig och sade ‘O du min fader! Den här natten är het, så jag hänger upp det här vattenkruset här. Därpå somnade jag in och drömde att jag såg en slavinna av skönaste skapnad som just stigit ned från himmelen, och jag frågade ‘Vem tillhör du?’, och hon svarade ‘Den som inte dricker det avkylda vattnet som finns i vattenkruset!‹. Då tog jag vattenkruset och slog det mot marken, varvid det gick sönder.» al‑Djunayd sade: »Jag såg lerskärvorna, som han inte tog bort och inte rörde vid, tills jord och skräp hade utplånat spåren av dem.»‑{11}
_________________________
1) al‑ahwāl al‑sanīya.
2) culūm al‑tawhīd.
3) Knysh översätter passagen helt oförklarligt så här: ”I visited him for ninety-eight years without ever seeing him lying down […]”!
4) Enligt al‑Sulamī: år 251 [år 865], Tabāqat al‑sūfīya, ed. Pedersen s. 41.
5) I den arabiska texten står det endast: Sarī.
6) I den arabiska texten står det: flickan [al‑sabīya].

Books & Refs


© Damas Cultural Society 2007 | Original site
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Imam Sharaf al-Din al-Busiri]

d. 684 H. in Alexandria
radiya Allah anhu

.


 

English

t.b.d.
 

Svenska

Biografisk not över Imam Sharaf al-Din al-Busiri
Hans fullständiga namn är sheikh Imam Sharaf al-Dîn Abu `Abdallah Muhammad b. Sa`id al-Sanhaji al-Dalasi al-Busiri, må Allah den Upphöjde visa honom barmhärtighet. Han föddes i Egypten år 608 H. och gick bort någon gång mellan år 694-696 H. Hans grav är belägen i ett mausoleum i Alexandrias gamla stadsdel, nära den moské under vilken Imam Abul `Abbas al-Mursi (d. 686 H.) vilar.

Imam al-Busiri var elev till Imam Abul `Abbas al-Mursi, som i sin tur var elev till och företrädare (khalifa) för sufimästaren Imam Abul Hasan al-Shadhili, må Allah vara nöjd med dem alla. Han var känd som kalligraf och Koranrecitatör, och han innehade olika ämbeten inom det mamlukiska väldet. Han vistades längre perioder i Jerusalem, Mekka och Medina, där Mantelhymnen – Qasidat al-Burda – kom till. Han skrev den efter att ha att han drabbats av en förlamning, i avsikt att genom lovord till Allah’s Sändebud söka förlåtelse och bot:

Jag tjänar honom med lovord, varigenom jag söker tillgift

för en livstids synder i lovdikt och tjänst (åt andra)

säger han i det nionde avsnittet av Qasidat al-Burdah. Men med Mantelhymnen sökte han varken ära, berömmelse eller furstars gunst:

Jag söker inte de världens blomster som skördats

av Zuhayr’s händer för hans eloge till Harim.

Han läste upp den i ensamhet – den var inte avsedd för andra människors öron, utan uteslutande ägnad Allah’s Sändebud, fred och välsignelser vare med honom. Så en natt visade sig Profeten Muhammad för honom och lade sin mantel (burdah) över honom, varefter han reste sig helbrägdagjord. Enligt en berättelse möttes han morgonen därpå av en man som bad honom läsa upp sin qasidah.
“Vilken qasidah?”, frågade imamen. “Jag har skrivit många välkända qasdidor.”
“Jag menar den som slutar på bokstaven mim”, svarade mannen.
Imamen blev förvånad.
“Jag har inte berättat för någon om den. Hur har du fått höra om den?”
Mannen berättade att han i en dröm fått reda på allt som hänt imam al-Busiri, och på så sätt kom Qasidat al-Burdah till eftervärldens kännedom.

Qasidat al-Burdah
Qasidat al-Burdah är den mest kända av Imam al-Busiri’s qasidor – ja man kan nog utan överdrift påstå att den är den mest kända arabiska dikt som skrivits någonsin. Den är spridd i hela den muslimska världen och har översatts till en mängd olika språk. Dess verser smyckar väggarna i moskéer och andra offentliga byggnader. Barn lär sig att sjunga den som små och vuxna reciterar den vid dhikr-möten eller i samband med religiösa festligheter. Om den läses med uppriktighet och adab tjänar den till bot mot sjukdomar och till andligt framsteg. Och vare sig den framförs som litterärt verk eller som andlig sång rör den sina åhörare till förundran och tårar och frammanar mötet med “den bästa av Allah’s skapade varelser” – khairu khalqi Allahi kullihimi – fred och välsignelser vare med honom.

Dess fullständiga titel är “Strålande stjärnor till hyllning av mänsklighetens främste”8. Den består av 160 tudelade versrader som alla slutar på bokstaven mim (därför kallas den ibland även för “Al-Mimiyya”). Dess språk är, trots sin sparsamhet i ord, överflödande i retoriska finesser, som kom att bli stilbildande för många senare generationer. Den är fylld med anspelningar på Koranen och Profeten Muhammads sunna (fred och välsignelser vare med honom), och för den som förmår tränga in dess finare nyanser är den en andlig vägvisare.

Ref: B. Muhammad-Klingman: “Qasida Burda – en presentation av imam al-Busiri’s Mantelhymn”, Minaret 2006

عربي

From Kuhin: Tabaqat al-Shadhiliyya View book | Download | Read chapter [16] online

[16] الإمام البوصيري([1])
(608- 694)
الإمام الرباني، والعارف الصمداني، الأستاذ الفاضل، والملاذُ الكامل، شمس الملة وبرهان الأمة، شيخ المحققين، وملاذ أهل التمكين، ذو المعارف الربانية، والمواهب الصمدانية أبو عبد الله شرف الدين محمد بن سعيد بن حماد الدَّلاصي الصُّنهاجي الشاذلي البُوصيري قدّس سره.

ولد رضى الله عنه بدَلاص أول شهر شوال سنة ثمانٍ وست مئة، وكان أبواه قدما من المغرب فاستوطنا هذه البلدة، فنشأ رضى الله عنه في حِجر أبيه حتى ترعرع ومال إلى العلم، فحفظَ القرآن وبعض المتون، وقدمَ الأزهر، وحضر على مشايخ العصر حتى كملت معالمه فأجازوه فأتى ودرس وصارت له هيبةٌ عظيمة، وبرع في النظم حتى فاق أهلَ عصره، وكانت له همَّةٌ عالية.

وكان في بدايته من مقربات السلاطين، وله عندهم الحظوة التامّة مقبولًا فيما بينهم، وكان يمدحهم بالشعر الرقيق، ويهجو أعداءهم، وانقطع على التصوف، ومال إليه، فسلك على يد المربي سيدي أبي العباس المرسي قدّس سره، وأخذ عنه علمَ الحقائق والأسرار، حتى لوحظَ بالأنوار والأسرار، وبدت عليه إشارات الولاية، وألوية الهداية، فعظمت هيبته، وأجلته العيون والأنظار، وشدَّت إليه الرِّحالُ من جميع الأمصار، وعمل القصائد البديعة، والموشحات([2]) الغريبة في مدح الرسول صلى الله عليه وسلم، ويكفي في فضله بردته الميمية المشهورة، وهي قصيدةٌ لم يأتِ بمثلها أحدٌ، لا من قبله ولا من بعده، وهي من الأسرار، اعتنتْ بشأنها مشايخُ الطرق، وذكروا لها فضائل وخواص وأسرار، وقد ذكرنا ما لها من الخواص والأسرار في كتابٍ مستقلٍّ، سميناه «تحفة الراغبين ونزهة الطالبين في خواص قصيدة الأستاذ شرف الدين» فمن أراده فليطلبه حيث يوجد.

بلغ رضى الله عنه مقامَ الغوثية الكبرى، ودام له الاجتماع بالنبي صلى الله عليه وسلم في اليقظة والمنام.

وكان إذا مشى رضى الله عنه في الأزقة تندلقُ الناسُ عليه، يقبّلون يديه حتى الصغار، وكانت تشم رائحة جسده روائح طيبة.

وكان رضى الله عنه يرتدي الملابس الحسناء، منوّر الشيبة، بسّام الثغر، طلق الوجه، جميل اللقاء، متواضعًا زاهدًا، ذا عفَّة ووقار.

أخذ عنه جماعةٌ من أفاضل العصر.

توفى رضي الله عنه وأرضاه بإسكندرية سنة أربع وتسعين وست مئة.

وله مقامٌ يُزار، ومسجد تُقام فيه شعائر أمة المختار، وتتساقط على ضريحه أنوار وأسرار تبدو للزائرين، والمتوسِّلُ به إلى الله لا شكَّ من الناجين، اللهم، نتوسَّلُ إليك أن تعطفَ علينا قلبَ مولانا رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم آمين.

Qasida al-Burda

Links to Qasida al-Burda:

  1. text, translation & audio (load audio-archive)
  2. manuscripts & calligraphies (load picture archive)

Introdction
The Burda, or the Prophet’s Mantle is a qasida (hymn) composed by the great Sufi Shaykh Imam Sharafuddin Muhammad Al-Busiri Rahmatullahi ‘Alaih who was born in Misr (Egypt) in 608 A.H. (1212 C.E) and died in 695 A.H. (1296 C.E). He was a disciple of Imam Abu’l ‘Abbas al-Mursi Rahmatullahi ‘Alaih who was a Khalifa of Imam Abu’l Hasan ash-Shazili Rahmatullahi ‘Alaih.

He composed the Burda while suffering from a stroke which had paralysed half of his body. After praying to Allah Sub’hanahu wa Ta’ala to heal him, he fell asleep and in his dream recited this qasida to the Holy Prophet Sayyidina wa Mawlana Hadhrat Muhammad Mustafa Sallallahu ‘Alaihi wa Sallam who touched the paralysed part of his body and threw his mantle (Burda) over him. On arising, he was miraculously cured, the news of which spread far and wide. Hence the qasida came to be called Qasida tu’l Burda and received veneration among all Muslims as a qasida especially approved by the beloved Prophet Sallallahu ‘Alaihi wa Sallam. Its verses are often learned by heart and inscribed on the walls of public buildings. It is congregationally recited in the majalis (spiritual gatherings) of the Zaakireen (those who remember Allah Ta’ala) all over the world. It cures diseases as well as purifies hearts if recited with love and devotion.

More than 90 commentaries have been written on this qasida and it has been translated in Persian, Urdu, Turkish, Berber, Punjabi, English, French and German, among other languages.

The Burda is in 10 parts and has 160 verses all of which end in the Arabic letter Meem, hence it is a “Meemiyya”. The 10 parts of the Burda are about:

  1. Love for Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alaihi wa Sallam
  2. A warning against the desires of the nafs
  3. Praise of the beloved Prophet Sallallahu ‘Alaihi wa Sallam
  4. Events occuring on his birth
  5. His miracles
  6. Praise of the Glorious Qur’an
  7. The “Isra” and “Mi’raj” of the noble Prophet Sallallahu ‘Alaihi wa Sallam
  8. His battles
  9. Repentence, asking forgiveness of Allah Sub’hanahu wa Ta’ala and seeking intercession of the beloved Prophet Sallallahu ‘Alaihi wa Sallam
  10. Supplication to Allah Sub’hanahu wa Ta’ala

Ref: Siddiq Osman Noormuhammad, Iqra Islamic Publications

Photos

Courtyard of the mosque adjacent to the maqam of Imam al-Busiri in Alexandria

Refs

© Damas Cultural Society 2007 — Latest update: 2008-05-01
Original site: damas-original.nur.nu
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Bio: Jamil Buthayna

Jamil b. ´AbdAllah b. Ma´mar

(known as Jamil Butahyna)
b. in Hijaz – d. 82 H. in Misr

Tabi’i, love poet of Banu´Udhra, transmitted one hadith – may Allah be pleased with him

علقتُ الهوى منها وليداً، فلم *** يزلْ إلى اليومِ ينمي حبه ويزيدُ

I took to loving her from childhood,
and up til today this love continues to thrive and grow

(more…)

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Moulay Idris II – Founder of the City of Fas

سيدنا ومولانا إدريس الأزهر  
b. 157 H. – d. 213 H. in Fas

.


He is Idris b. Idris b. `Abdullah b. al-Hasan II, Abu’l-Qasim. His father was Mawlay Idris I of Zarhun (d. 157 H.). The Idrisis are scions of the Prophet who settled in Morocco and nearby areas. They are from the progeny of Imam al-Hasan b. ‘Ali b. Abu Talib, may Allah have mercy on both of them.

English

Sayyiduna Idris al-Azhar was the second ruler of Morocco from the Adarisa Dynasty, and the founder of Fez. He was born in Walild, his father passing away while he was still a foetus. Upon his father’s death, the political affairs of the Berbers were managed by Rashid. After the latter’s death in AH 186, Idris was switched to the guardianship of Abu Khalid al-‘Abdi until he turned