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Bio: ‘Amr ibn al-‘As | عمرو بن العاص

Bio: 'Amr ibn al-'As  | عمرو بن العاص

‘Amr ibn al-‘As

عمرو بن العاص
b. in Makka – d. 43 H. in Cairo, Egypt
radiya Allah anhu

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Bio: Abu Ayyub al Ansari

Bio: Abu Ayyub al Ansari

Abu Ayyub al Ansari

أبو أيوب الأنصاري
d.54 H. (674 CE) in Constantinopel (Istanbul)
Sahabi - radiya Allah anhu

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Bio: Abu Shayba al Khudri

Bio: Abu Shayba al Khudri

Abu Shayba al Khudri

أبو شيبة الخدري
d. 49 H. in Istanbul, Turkey (670 CE) sahabi
radiya Allah anhu

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Bio: Al-Harith al-Muhasibi

Bio: Al-Harith al-Muhasibi

Al-Harith al-Muhasibi

أبو عبد الله الحارث بن أسد البغدادي المحاسبي
b. 165 H. in Basrah – d. 243 H. in Baghdad
may Allah be pleased with him

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Bio: Al-Layth ibn Sa’d | الإمام الليث بن سعد

Bio: Al-Layth ibn Sa'd | الإمام الليث بن سعد

Imam Al-Layth ibn Sa'd

الإمام الليث بن سعد
b. 94 - d. 175 H. in Cairo
tabi'i, Shaykh of the Imams Bukhari and Muslim may Allah be pleased with him


السلام عليك يا إمام الليث يا إمام مع الأئمة الأربة يا فقيه الأمة عامة وفقيه مصر خاصة يا إمام المحدثين رحمة الله وبركاته عليك
Peace be upon you O Imam Al-Layth, o Imam at the rank of the four Imams, o scholar of fiqh of the Ummah in general and of Egypt in particular, o Imam of the hadith narrators, may Allah have mercy on you bless you!

English

wiki

Al-Layth ibn Saʿd ibn ʿAbd al-Raḥmān al-Fahmī al-Qalqashandī (Arabic: الليث بن سعد بن عبد الرحمن الفهمي القلقشندي) was the chief representative, imam, and eponym of the Laythi school of Islamic Jurisprudence. He was regarded as the main representative of an Egyptian tradition of law. Imam al-Shafi’i used to say that he was more learned in fiqh than Imam Malik, however his students did not write down his teachings.


mazaratmisr.org

When Imam al-Shafi’i came to Egypt and visited Imam al-Layth’s grave, he said, “Your eminence is from Allah O Imam! You attained four characteristics—knowledge, [good] deeds, asceticism, and generosity—no scholar has attained all four of them.”

It is confirmed that Imams al-Layth and Malik were contemporaries and that they both devoted themselves to studying hadiths and jurisprudence; they were almost equal in scholarship. They exchanged letters whose subject matter focused on hadiths, jurisprudence, and edicts. Malik’s letter to al-Layth on jurisprudence is well known and al-Layth replied with a longer letter. Imam Malik’s letter is the epitome of scholarly dialogue between two of the great jurists and scholars of the Islamic community.

The letter shows that these two great jurists considered the opinions of the people during the time of Abu Bakr, Umar, and Uthman, may Allah be pleased with them, tantamount to consensus and must not be contended. Moreover, it demonstrates that it is not possible for those who come after them to change or alter what these Companions agreed upon.

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شيخ الاسلام الامام الحافظ العالم ابو الحارث الليث بن سعد بن عبد الرحمن الفهمي القلقشندى (94 هـ/713 م – 175 هـ/791 م) كان فقيه و محدث و امام اهل مصر فى زمانه, و صاحب واحد من المذاهب الاسلاميه المندثره, اتولد فى قريه قلقشنده فى مصر, و اسرته اصلها فارسى من اصبهان.

كان واحد من اشهر الفقهاء فى زمانه, فاق فى علمه و فقهه امام المدينه المنوره مالك بن انس, بس تلامذته ما دونوش علمه و فقهه و لا نشروه زى تلامذة الامام مالك, و كان الامام الشافعى بيقول: «الليث افقه من مالك الا ان اصحابه لم يقوموا به». كان عنده من العلم و الفقه الشرعى اللى خلا متولى مصر و قاضيها و ناظرها يرجع لرايه و مشورته. اتعرف بانه كان كتير الاتصال بمجالس العلم, قال ابن بكير: «سمعت الليث يقول: سمعت بمكه سنه 3 عشره ومائه من الزهري وانا ابن عشرين سنه».

Maqam

Acknowledgement:
Photos taken by Bruce Allardice 2021-2022 (flickr)

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Bio: Imam al-Awza´i

Bio: Imam al-Awza´i

`Abd al-Rahman ibn `Amr ibn Yuhmad Abu `Amr al-Awza`i

الإمام عبد الرحمن الأوزاعي
b. 88 – d. 158 H. in Beirut, Libanon (707 – 744 CE) tabi´i
radiya Allah anhu

Tabi´i, faqih and muhaddith of Sham

English

Al-Awza`i

By Dr. G.F. Haddad

`Abd al-Rahman ibn `Amr ibn Yuhmad Abu `Amr al-Awza`i (88-158), Shaykh al-Islam, the Wise Scholar of the People of Sham, one of the mujtahid imams of the Salaf along with the Four Imams, Sufyan al-Thawri, al-Tabari, Dawud al-Zahiri and others, the first – with Ibn Jurayj and Abu Hanifa – to compile the Sunna of the Prophet — Allah bless and greet him — and the Companions under fiqh subheadings. Born orphaned and poor in Ba`labak and raised in al-Kark in the Bekaa valley, he came to live in the area known as – and populated by – “the variegated tribes” (al-Awza`) in Damascus then moved to Beirut where he remained garrisoned until his death, his fame having spread to the entire Islamic world of his time. One of those who combined assiduous worship with science and the affirmation of truth, he is considered a Proof in himself (hujja) as a narrator, known for his superlative understanding of the Law, great erudition, and piety. Al-Shafi`i said: “I never saw a man whose fiqh resembled his hadith more than al-Awza`i.”1

He narrated from a host of Tabi`in, among them `Ata’ ibn Abi Rabah, Abu Ja`far al-Baqir, `Amr ibn Shu`ayb, Makhul – whom he surpassed in knowledge, – Qatada, Rabi`a ibn Yazid al-Qasir, Bilal ibn Sa`d, al-Zuhri, Yahya ibn Abi Kathir – his first shaykh,- `Abd al-Rahman ibn al-Qasim, `Ata’ al-Khurasani, `Ikrima, `Alqama, Ibn al-Munkadir, al-Walid ibn Hisham, Muhammad ibn Sirin, Nafi` – Ibn `Umar’s freedman – and many others. From him narrated his two shaykhs al-Zuhri and Yahya ibn Abi Kathir, Shu`ba, al-Thawri, Malik, Sa`id ibn `Abd al-`Aziz, Isma`il ibn `Ayyash, Baqiyya, Yahya al-Qattan, and many others.

Al-`Abbas ibn al-Walid said: I never saw my father admire anything in the world as much as he admired al-Awza`i. He used to exclaim about him: “Glory to You! You do what You wish.” O my son! Kings are powerless to discipline themselves and their own children the way that al-Awza`i disciplined himself. I never in my life heard him say an excellent word except the listener was bound to observe that it applied to him. Nor did I ever see him laugh without restraint. Whenever he addressed the subject of our return to our Maker, I would say to myself: I wonder, is there one heart in this gathering that is not weeping?

Al-Hiql said: “Al-Awza`i gave replies covering about seventy thousand issues.” `Abd al-Rahman ibn Mahdi said: “The People (al-nas) in their time were four: Hammad ibn Zayd in al-Basra, al-Thawri in al-Kufa, Malik in al-Hijaz, and al-Awza`i in al-Sham.”2 Isma`il ibn `Ayyash said: “I heard people say, in the year 140, that in our day the wise scholar of the Umma is al-Awza`i.” When the latter came to Mecca, Sufyan al-Thawri walked ahead of him shouting: “Open the way for the Shaykh!” Malik compared the two saying: “One of them [Sufyan] is more knowledgeable than the other, but is not fit to be the Imam [i.e. the Caliph], while the other [al-Awza`i] is.” This was also the opinion of al-Fazari, `Ali ibn Bakkar, and Ibn al-Mubarak.

He was fearless in telling the truth to princes. After massacring the Banu Umayya, the harsh king `Abd Allah ibn `Ali – al-Saffah’s uncle – summoned him and asked him in front of his court: “What is your opinion of what we have done?” Al-Awza`i related: “I thought to myself and decided to tell him the truth, bracing for certain death. I narrated to him the hadith: `Actions are only according to intentions.’3 He said: `What do you say about our killing the people of that dynasty?’ I narrated to him the hadith: `Killing a Muslim is forbidden except in three cases: adultery after marriage, apostasy after Islam, and unlawful manslaughter.’4 He continued: `Tell me about the caliphate, is it not our inheritance as stipulated by the Prophet — Allah bless and greet him?’ I replied: `Had this been the case, `Ali – Allah be well-pleased with him – would have never left anyone come before him.’ He said: `But what do we say about the treasury of the Banu Umayya?’ I replied: `If they were licit to them, they are illicit to you, and if they were illicit to them, they are even more illicit to you.'”

Al-Awza`i did not rise from his place of morning prayer until sunrise, and the sun did not pass the zenith except he was seen standing in prayer. Al-Walid ibn Mazyad said: “No-one surpassed him in intensity of worship.”Among his sayings:

* Marwan al-Tatari said that al-Awza`i said: “Whoever stands in prayer at night at length, Allah shall make the station of the Day of Resurrection easy for him.”

* Al-Walid ibn Muslim and `Abd Allah ibn al-Mubarak related that al-Awza`i said: “This science was noble, men would transmit it to one another, but when it spread to books, those other than its rightful custodians became involved with it.”5

* “Whoever holds on to the rare and unusual positions of the scholars has left Islam.” This is similar to Ibn `Abd al-Salam’s saying: “There is no good in one who over-maneuvers (yatahayyal) so as to impose his doctrine despite its weakness and the fact that his evidence is far removed from the truth – whether he interprets the Sunna, or the Consensus, or the Book – standing on bases that are neither right nor true, through corrupt figurative interpretations and rare responses.”6

* “The Book stands in greater need to the Sunna than the Sunna to the Book.” Ibn `Abd al-Barr said: “That is because the Sunna expounds the meaning of the Book (and not vice versa).”7

* Al-Walid ibn Mazyad said that al-Awza`i, asked about humility (khushu`) in prayer, replied: “Downcast gaze, lowering the wing of submission, and softness of heart which is sorrow and dread.” He also said: “I saw al-Awza`i, he was like a blind man due to his humility.”

* Al-Walid heard al-Awza`i define the naïve (al-ablah) as “he who is in blind ignorance of evil but acutely discerning of goodness.”

* “Whoever remembers death much, a little suffices him for livelihood; and whoever realizes that his utterances are counted as deeds, his speech becomes spare.”

* `Abd Allah ibn Ahmad narrated from al-Hasan ibn `Abd al-`Aziz from `Amr ibn Abi Salama al-Tinnisi that al-Awza`i said: “I saw myself as if carried up by two angels who camped me in front of the Lord of Power and Might. He said to me: `Are you my servant `Abd al-Rahman who commands good deeds?’ I replied: `By Your Power and Might! You know best.’ Then they descended again and brought me back where I first was.”

Among al-Awza`i’s notable rulings is that the thigh is part of a man’s legal nakedness in the mosque, but not in the bath.8

Muhammad ibn `Abd al-Rahman al-Sulami said: “I saw al-Awza`i, he was of above-average build, slim, somewhat swarthy, and he used henna.” He used to wear a round turban without a hanging extremity (`adhaba). Al-Dhahabi said: “In addition to his brilliance in the science and his foremost rank in works, he was also a master in the art of writing letters.” Four communities attended his funeral in Beirut: the Muslims carried his bier, followed by the Jews, the Christians, and the Copts. Yazid ibn Madh`ur said: “I saw al-Awza`i in my sleep and asked him: `Show me a level by which to draw near to Allah.’ He replied: `I did not see a level higher than that of the wise scholars of knowledge (al-`ulama’), and, after it, that of the grief-stricken (al-mahzunin).'” SAN 7:86-104 #1049.
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1 A reference to al-Awza`i’s faithful application of his knowledge in his life.

2 This is a notable example of the use of al-nas to mean the major ulamas.

3 Narrated from `Umar by Bukhari and Muslim.

4 Narrated from Ibn Mas`ud by Bukhari, Muslim, and in the Four Sunan; from `Uthman by al-Tirmidhi (hasan), al-Nasa’i, Ibn Majah, Ahmad, al-Hakim (4:350), al-Shafi`i in his Musnad, al-Bazzar in his Musnad; and from `A’isha by Abu Dawud. See al-Bayhaqi’s Kitab al-Murtadd in Ma`rifa al-Sunan (12:237-258).

5 This statement refers to the books which are passed on for circulation as in modern times, not to those used by the early narrators as mnemonic records when narrating. It is established that early hadith narrators did not narrate except from record, as demonstrated by M.M. Azami and others. ‘Abd Allah ibn Ahmad ibn Hanbal said: “I never saw my father narrate except from a book, save less than a hundred hadiths.” In al-Dhahabi, Siyar A`lam al-Nubala’ (9:457). The best source on the proof-texts for this fact is al-Khatib al-Baghdadi’s book Taqyid al-‘Ilm (“The Tethering of Knowledge”). This title is taken from Anas’s saying: “Tether knowledge with writing” (qayyidu al-‘ilma bi al-kitab). Anas also said: “We would not consider as knowledge the knowledge of those who did not write down their knowledge.” Taqyid (p. 96-97). See also al-Hakim al-Tirmidhi’s chapter entitled “Writing is the means to tether knowledge and preserve it from oblivion” in his Nawadir al-Usul (p. 39-41).

6 Ibn `Abd al-Salam, Al-Qawa`id al-Sughra (p. 144).

7 Narrated by al-Darimi and others and cited by Ibn `Abd al-Barr in Jami` Bayan al-`Ilm (2:1193-1194 #2351). and al-Shatibi in al-Muwafaqat (Salafiyya ed. 1343 4:10).

8 The rulings of the Four Schools agree that the definition of “nakedness” (`awra) for a man is all that is above the knees and below the navel front and back whether in public or private. Among the proofs for this is the Prophet’s — Allah bless and greet him — saying: “The [man’s] thigh is nakedness.” Narrated from Jarhad al-Aslami, `Ali, and Muhammad ibn Jahsh – with three sound chains according to al-Arna’ut – by Abu Dawud, Ibn Majah, Ahmad, Malik, al-Hakim (4:180-181), Abu Ya`la in his Musnad (#331), al-Tahawi in Sharh Mushkil al-Athar (4:401-406 #1697, #1699, #1700, #1704), al-Baghawi in Sharh al-Sunna (9:21-22), Ibn Hibban in his Sahih (4:609-611), and others. Al-Tahawi said in Sharh Ma`ani al-Athar (1:474): “Mass-narrated, sound reports from the Prophet — Allah bless and greet him — have reached us that the thigh is nakedness.” Al-Kattani cited it in Nazm al-Mutanathir.

Copyright As-Sunna Foundation of America

Türkçe

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عربي

From wiki
الإمام عبد الرحمن الأوزاعي

الإمام الحافظ إمام بيروت وسائر الشَّام والمغرب والأندلُس أبو عمرو عبدُ الرحمٰن بن عمرو بن يُحمد الأوزاعي، فقيه ومُحدّث وأحد تابعي التابعين وإمام أهل الشام في زمانه. أُضيف إلى ألقابه لقب إمام العيش المُشترك في لُبنان في العصر الحديث، لِما مثَّلته مواقفه في عصره من تسامح مع المسيحيين واليهود من أهل الشَّام، ولُقِّب بِشفيع النصارى لِموقفه الحازم في مُواجهة والي الشَّام والخليفة العبَّاسي أبو جعفر المنصور، اللذان عزما على إجلاء أهالي جبل لبنان المسيحيين بعد أن ثارت جماعة منهم وتمرَّدت على العبَّاسيين وشقَّت عصا الطاعة، فرفض الأوزاعي إجلاء هؤلاء كُلُّهم طالما أنَّ فئةً منهم فقط كانت من ثارت، ووقف بوجه الخِلافة بِعناد مُذكرًا أهل السُلطة بالعدل بين الناس وأنَّ خطأ فئة لا يستوجب مُعاقبة الجماعة، فأُبطل هذا القرار، وسلم أهالي جبل لُبنان من تعسُّف السُلطة، وحفظوا لِلأوزاعي جميله.[1]

على الأرجح وُلد الأوزاعي في بعلبك، وعاش فترة من صباه في قرية الكرك البقاعيَّة يتيمًا فقيرًا، ثُمَّ انتقل مع أُمِّه إلى بيروت. وكان قبل ذلك قد عاش مع عائلته في دمشق، وتنقَّل بين حلب وحماة وقنسرين وسواها. أُطلق عليه اسم «الأوزاعي» نسبةً إلى «الأوزاع» وهي قبيلة يمنيَّة حميريَّة من بطن ذي الكلاع من قحطان. نزل أفرادٌ منها في دمشق قرب باب الفراديس، وقد أُطلق على المنطقة التي نزلوا فيها اسم قرية «الأوزاع». لم يذكر المُؤرخون والفُقهاء والعُلماء شيئًا عن والد الإمام الأوزاعي باستثناء ما أشار إليه الإمام نفسه، ولا عن والدته أو أخواله، غير أنَّهم أشاروا إلى أنَّ كان له عمٌّ واحد، والثَّابت أنَّهُ تزوَّج أكثر من مرَّة، ورُزق بِثلاث بنات وصبيٍّ واحد، وكان له حفيدين من بناته بِحسب الظاهر.[2]

عاش الأوزاعي في عهدين سياسيين هامين، فشهد نهاية الدولة الأموية وقيام الدولة العباسية، وعاصر من الخُلفاء: الوليد بن عبد الملك، وسليمان بن عبد الملك، وعمر بن عبد العزيز، ويزيد بن عبد الملك، وهشام بن عبد الملك، والوليد بن يزيد، ويزيد بن الوليد، وإبراهيم بن الوليد، ومروان بن محمد، وأبو العباس السفاح، وأبو جعفر المنصور. وكانت الفترة التي عاشها الإمام الأوزاعي تزخر بِالعلم والعُلماء والفُقهاء والقُرَّاء والمُحدثين، ومن أبرز عُلماء تلك الفترة الأئمَّة: مالك بن أنس، وجعفر الصادق، وسفيان الثوري، والحسن البصري، ومحمد بن سيرين، وأبو حنيفة النعمان، والليث بن سعد، وسواهم. وكان الأوزاعي من المُتفوقين علميًّا وفقهيًّا وجُرأةً على الكثير من عُلماء عصره، وقد أفتى وهو في الثالثة عشرة من عمره في مسائل فقهيَّة، بينما أفتى وهو في السابعة عشرة من عمره في مسائل عقائديَّة. وكان الأوزاعي مؤمنًا أشد الإيمان بالقاعدة الإسلامية «الرحلة في طلب العلم»، لذا تنقل في مُدن الشَّام وفي اليمامة والبصرة والمدينة المنورة وبيت المقدس، وحجَّ أكثر من مرة، لِذلك فقد تعمَّق في العُلوم الدينيَّة والشرعيَّة بِشكلٍ لافتٍ لِلنظر. أمَّا فيما يختص بالقضاء فقد رفض الأوزاعي منصب القضاء في العصرين الأُموي والعبَّاسي، فلمَّا وُلي زمن يزيد بن الوليد جلس مجلسًا واحدًا ثُمَّ استعفى، إيمانًا منه بِأنَّ القضاء مسؤوليَّة إسلاميَّة ضخمة لا يُمكن لِأي إنسان أن يتحمَّل وزر مسؤوليَّتها.[3]

وكان الأوزاعي من كبار الأئمَّة المُدافعين عن الإسلام والسُنَّة النبويَّة، لا سيَّما في فترة تزايد البدع والجدل والانحراف عن القُرآن والسُنَّة،[4] كما كان حريصًا على الجهاد والرباط والدفاع عن المظلومين وعن الحق، وكان استقراره في ثغر بيروت بدافع الرباط ورد الاعتداءات عن ديار الإسلام، وكانت الفترة التي قضاها في بيروت أكثر سني حياته المُنتجة والغزيرة، ففيها طوَّر مذهبه، وانتشر في كافَّة أنحاء الشَّام وانتقل إلى المغرب والأندلُس، لِيكون خامس مذاهب أهل السنة والجماعة، لكن لم يُكتب لمذهبه البقاء، فاندثر بعد أن لم يهتم تلامذته بتدوينه والحفاظ عليه، فحل مكانه المذهب الحنفي والشافعي في الشَّام والمالكي في المغرب والأندلس. توفي الأوزاعي في بيروت سنة 157 هـ، وكانت جنازته كبيرة وقيل أن من شارك فيها من المسيحيين واليهود كان أكثر ممن شارك من المسلمين، وأنَّ قسمًا من هؤلاء أشهر إسلامه يومها. دُفن الأوزاعي في قرية «حنتوس» جنوب بيروت، وشُيِّد على قبره مقام ومسجد عُرف بِمسجد الإمام الأوزاعي، ومع مُرور السنوات تغيَّر اسم القرية حتَّى أصبحت تُعرف بـ«الأوزاعي»، وشكَّلت جُزء من بيروت الكُبرى مع مرور الزمن.

تقديرًا لإنجازات الإمام الأوزاعي ورمزيَّته في بيروت، أُنشأت كُليَّة لِلدراسات الإسلاميَّة في المدينة سُميت على اسمه: كُليَّة الإمام الأوزاعي لِلدراسات الإسلاميَّة، وتمَّ إصدار طابع بريدي تذكاري سنة 2009م عن وزارة الاتصالات في لُبنان بعد موافقة مجلس الوزراء، وتبنَّت بلديَّة بيروت اقتراح المؤرخ الدكتور حسان حلاق بتسمية ساحة سوق الطويلة في وسط بيروت التجاري بساحة الإمام الأوزاعي، وبإعادة ترميم زاويته القائمة في ذات الساحة منذ عصره حتَّى اليوم.

Burial Place

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Damas Cultural Society © 2007

Bio: Imam al-Jazuli

Bio: Imam al-Jazuli

Sayyidi Imam Muhammad b. Sulayman al-Jazuli al-Hasani al-Shadhili

الإمام الجزولي – أبو عبد الله محمد الجُزُولي السملالي الحسني الشاذلي
d. 869/870/873 H. in Marrakash
qaddasa Allah sirrahu

(more…)

Bio: Imam al-Sha’rani | الإمام الشعراني

Bio: Imam al-Sha'rani | الإمام الشعراني

Sh. 'Abd al-Wahhab al-Sha'rani al-Shadhili

القطب الإمام أبو المواهب شرف الدين عبد الوهاب بن أحمد بن علي الشعراني الأنصاري الشافعي
d.973 H. (1565 CE) in Cairo
radiya Allah ‘anhu

(more…)

Bio: Imam Al-Suyuti | الإمام جلال الدين السيوطي

Bio: Imam Al-Suyuti | الإمام جلال الدين السيوطي

Imam al-Suyuti

الإمام الحافظ عبد الرحمن بن أبي بكر بن محمد جلال الدين السيوطي
b. 849 in Cairo - d. 911 H. in Cairo

(more…)

Bio: Imam Al-Tahawi | الإمام الطحاوي

Bio: Imam Al-Tahawi | الإمام الطحاوي

Imam Abu Ja´far al-Warraq Al-Tahawi

الإمام أبو جعفر اوراق الطحاوي
b. - d. 321 C. H. in Cairo
may Allah be pleased with him

English

عربي

Dr. Mahmud Sobieh

From Siyar al-A’lam View | Download
From Tarwid al-Mihan – ترويض المحن View | Download | Read online: Open | Close

wiki

Books

Books
• «الشفا بتعريف حقوق المصطفى – ط»
• و «الغنية – خ» في ذكر مشيخته،
• و «ترتيب المدارك وتقريب المسالك في معرفة أعلام مذهب الإمام مالك – ط» أربعة أجزاء وخامس للفهارس،
• و «شرح صحيح مسلم – خ» [ثم طُبع]  
• و «مشارق الأنوار – ط» مجلدان، في الحديث،
• و «الإلماع إلى معرفة أصول الرواية وتقييد السماع – ط» في مصطلح الحديث وكتاب في «التاريخ».

كتب المصنف بالموقع

Burial Place

Map

Bio: Imam al-Tirmidhi

Bio: Imam al-Tirmidhi

Imam Abu ´Isa Muhammad b.´Isa al-Tirmidhi

الإمام محمد بن عيسى بن سورة الترمذي
b. 209 – d. 279 H. in … ( CE)
radiya Allah anhu

A student of Imam al-Bukhari.
Author of one of the six canonocal hadith collections

English

Imam Tirmidhi (209 – 279 H)

By Dr. G.F. Haddad

Imam Tirmidhi was born in the year 209 A.H. during the reign of the Abbasid Khalifa Ma’mun al-Rashid. The Abbasid Caliphate, despite its brilliant contributions to Islam, brought along with it many thorny problems. Greek Philosophy had a free flow into the Islamic world. This was fully sanctioned by the government until eventually it declared the Mu’tazila school of thought as the state religion. Anyone who opposed the Mu’tazila school of thought would be opposing the state. With the influence of Greek philosophy infiltrating within the people, many Muslims began attempting to reconcile between reason and revelation. As a result they deviated themselves and misled many innocent weak Muslims away from Allah and His Prophet (s). Many scholars of Islam had come to the fore in order to defend the Shari`ah. Forgeries and interpolations in Hadith by rulers who wished to fulfil their personal motives was common. In the first century `Umar bin Abdul `Aziz (r) initiated a movement for the compilation of the holy hadith of the the Prophet (s) as there was a fear of it being lost. Eventually this gigantic task was undertaken by six towering scholars of Islam. One of them was Imam Abu `Isa Muhammed ibn `Isa Tirmidhi

Having grown up in an environment of learning, together with possessing many great qualities naturally drove Imam Tirmidhi to dedicate his life totally towards the field of Hadith. He obtained his basic knowledge at home and later travelled to far off lands in search of this great science. He studied Hadith under great personalities such as Imam Bukhari, Imam Muslim and Imam Abu Dawud. In some narrations Imam Bukhari and Imam Muslim are his students as well.

Once Imam Bukhari mentioned to him “I have benefited more from you than you have benefitted from me.” Musa ibn `Alaq once said: “When Imam Bukhari passed away, he left no one in Khurasan who compared with Abu `Isa Tirmidhi in knowledge, memory, piety and abstinence.” According to `Abdullah ibn Muhammed Al-Ansari, Imam Tirmidhi’s Al-Jami` is more beneficial than the works of Bukhari and Muslim since their compilations can only be understood by a very deep sighted scholar whereas Al-Jami` can be understood by both the scholar and the layman.

Imam Tirmidhi said that he compiled this book and presented it to the learned of Hijaz, Iraq and Khurasan and they were pleased with it. Who ever has this book in his home, it is as though he has the Prophet (s) speaking to him there.

His remarkable memory:

Imam Tirmidhi had an exceptionally remarkable memory. If he heard something once he never forgot it. Once on his way to Makkah, Imam Tirmidhi met a scholar of hadith (muhaddith) from whom he had previously copied two chapters of hadith. Thinking that he had the notes with him he asked the scholar if he would allow him to read out these two chapters so that he could correct any errors. After realizing that he did not have those notes with him he took a blank piece of paper and read out the entire two parts from memory. When the muhaddith realized what he was doing he rebuked Imam Tirmidhi saying: “Have you no shame, why are you wasting my time.” Imam Tirmidhi assured him that he had committed all the ahadith to memory. The scholar was not convinced, even though Imam Tirmidhi had recited all the hadith from memory. Imam Tirmidhi requested him to recite to him some other hadith. The scholar recited forty ahadith which Imam Tirmidhi thenrepeated without making a single error, thus showing his remarkable power of committing hadith to memory.

Another incident has been recorded by Hakim ul-Ummat in his Al-Misk-us-Zaki, depicting the profound memory of Imam Tirmidhi. He writes:

Imam Tirmidhi had lost his sight towards the latter portion of his life. Once whilst on a journey, at a certain point he bowed his head. When asked as to why he did this, he replied: “Is there not a tree here whose branches hang over in such a manner that it harms those who are passing by.” They answered in the negative. He was quite shocked when he heard this as he distinctly remembered there being a tree and was worried as to whether his memory was failing him or not. He stopped the caravan immediately and asked his companions to enquire from the locals whether a tree had existed there or not. “If it is established that no tree existed then I will stop narrating the Hadith of the Prophet (s) due to my weak memory.” On inquiry it was shown to them that a tree had previously existed over there but due to it being a hindrance to travelers it was removed.

Imam Tirmidhi had a large number of students from all over the world. The most famous amongst them were Haysam ibn Kulaib, Abul Abbaas and Muhammed ibn Ahmed Shah Abdul `Aziz describes Imam Tirmidhi in the following words: “His memory was unique and his piety and fear of Allah ta’la was of a very high caliber. He would cry so much out of the fear of Allah, that towards the end of his life he lost his sight.”

According to Ibn Taymiyya and Shah Waliullah, Imam Timidhi was an independent Jurist (Mujtahid). Moulana Anwar Shah Kashmiri is of the opinion that he was a Shafi`i.

In the year 279 A.H. in a village called Bawag at the age of 70 , Imam Tirmidhi left this temporary abode for the everlasting life of the hereafter. May Allah swt fill his grave with light. The enormity of his sacrifices and the extent to which he served the religion can never be fully comprehended.

Many books of hadith were compiled before Imam Tirmidhi decided to compile his Al-Jami`. Dawud Tayalisi and Ahmed ibn Hanbal had compiled books consisting of both authentic and weak hadith. Later Imam Bukhari compiled his Sahih and omitted all weak narrations from it. His main objective was to derive masa’il / laws from the relevant hadith. Later Imam Muslim compiled his book with a primary focus on the isnad (different chain of narrators). Imam Nasa’i’s aim was to mention the discrepancies of the hadith whilst Abu Dawud prepared a book which became the basis for the fuqaha. Imam Tirmidhi had combined the styles of Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Dawud and Nasa’i by mentioning the discrepancies regarding the narrators and also making his compilation a basis for the jurists.

The Special characteristics of al-Jami` ut-Tirmidhi

1. It is a Sunan and a Jami`.

2. Only 83 hadith are repeated.

3. Imam Tirmidhi omits the major portion of the hadith and only mentions that part which is relevant to the heading. (title)

4. After mentioning a hadith he classifies it narration (whether it is authentic or weak, etc.)

5. He specifies the narrators names, e.g. if the narrators kunya (honorific name) was mentioned, he would then mention his proper name and vice versa.

6. One hadith in Tirmidhi is a thulaathiyaat i.e. the transmitters of the hadith betwen Imam Tirmidhi and the Prophet (s) are only three.

7. Every hadith in Tirmidhi al-Jami` is “ma’mul bihi” (practised upon by the jurists.)

8. He explains the different madhahib together with their proofs.

9. He gives an explanation to all difficult ahadith.

10. His book has been set out in an excellent sequence, hence to look for a hadith is very easy.

11. There is no fabricated hadith in the entire book.

The conditions of Imam Tirmidhi in the selection of hadith

According to the commentators of Al-Jami Imam Tirmidhi maintained the following conditions throughout the compilation of his book.

1. He never narrated hadith from those who fabricated hadith. 2. Allama Tahir Muqaddisi mentions that al-Jami` ut-Tirmidhicontains four types of hadith:

[1] Those ahadith that conform with the conditions of Bukhari and Muslim. [2] Those ahadith that conform with the conditions of Abu Dawud and Nasa’i. [3] Those ahadith that have certain discrepancies either in the sanad or matan. [4] Those weak hadith that some fuqaha have relied on.

3. Imam Tirmidhi accepts a hadith which is narrated with the word “a’n” provided both the narrators are contemporaries. 4. After mentioning a weak hadith, he explains the state of its weakness. 5. A mursal hadith is accepted by Imam Tirmidhi when it is supported by a chain of narrators which is not broken.

The status of al-Jami` ut-Tirmidhi among the six authentic books of hadith. al-Jami` ut-Tirmidhi has been categorized as fifth amongst the six most authentic books of hadith. According to the most preferred opinion, Bukhari enjoys the highest status, followed by Muslim, Abu Dawood, Nasai, Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah respectively. Haji Khalifa in al-Kashf al-Dhunoon has categorised Tirmidhi in third position. Al-Dhahabi has written that Tirmidhi in actual fact should be holding the third position, but due to him bringing weak narrators like Kalbi and Masloob its status has dropped. However, looking at the manner in which he set out his book it seems that Haji Khalifa’s opinion is best.

Some of the commentaries of Tirmidhi

{1.} ‘A’ridat-ul-Ahwazi

An Arabic compilation of Qadi Abu Bakr ibn `Arabi (r) in 7 volumes.

{2} Qut-ul Mughtazi

Compiled by Jalal ad-Din Suyuti (r).

{3} Tuhfat-ul Ahwadhi

Written by Sheikh Abdur Rahmaan Mubaarakpuri in 10 volumes. He is very critical against the Ahnaaf.

The Terminology of Imam Tirmidhi

The classification of hadith was firmly established by Ali ibn Madini (r) and later by his student Imam Bukhari (r). However Imam Tirmidhi was the first Imam to base his book on these classifications.

Imam Tirmidhi classifies most of the Ahadith and mentions its reliability. Altogether Imam Tirmidhi uses nine different terms.

1.) sahih: That hadith wherein each reporter must be trustworthy, he must have the power of retention and the sanad of the hadith must go back to Nabi (sallallahu alyhi wasallam) without any interruption, it must agree with those of other reliable reporters and there should be no hidden defect in the matan or the sanad. N.B. Imam Tirmidhi does not consider it a prerequisite that a sahih Hadith must have several chains of narrators.

2.) hasan: That hadith which does not contain a reporter accused of lying, it is not shaaz and the hadith has been reported through more than one sanad.

3.) da`eef: Such a hadith wherein the narrators are not trustworthy, or they don’t posses the ability of retaining, or there is a break in the chain of narrators, or the hadith is shaaz or mu’alall.

4.) gharib: According to Imam Tirmidhi a hadith is classified gharib for one of the following reasons..

(a) it is narrated from one chain only.

(b) there is some addition in the text.

(c) it is narrated through various chains of transmitters but having within one of its chains an addition in the sanad.

5.) hasan gharib: These two can be combined. i.e. hasan refers to the uprighteousness of the narrators whilst gharib implies that he is alone in transmitting the hadith.

6.) sahih gharib: This term implies that the hadith is authentic but there is only one sanad.

7.) hasan sahih gharib: This hadith is hasan since it has several chains of transmitters, it is sahih as the chains are all authentic and it is gharib in the words that Imam Tirmidhi narrated.

8.) hasan sahih: This term has caused much confusion amongst the Muhadditheen since hasan is lower in rank than sahih. While sahih indicates to the excellent retention power of a narrator, hasan indicates to a deficiency in this regard hence it seems that both are opposites and is not possible to reconcile. The mutaqaddimeen have given many explanations to this :

[1] Ibn Hajar (r) has mentioned that the word “aw” is omitted hence the hadith will be either hasan or sahih. [2] Ibn Salah is of the opinion that when a hadith is reported with two sanads, one should be considered as hasan and the other as sahih. [3] Ibn Kathir says that Imam Tirmidhi has made up a new term which implies the hadith to be higher than hasan but lower than sahih. [4] Ibn Daqiq ul `Eid is of this opinion that sahih and hasan are not opposites. Rather they belong to the same category. However hasan will be considered as inferior to sahih hence they both can be combined. This opinion has been given most preference by the Muhadditheen.

CONCLUSION

By the third century A.H. a number of collections on hadith were compiled. Imam Tirmidhi was one of those scholars who contributed greatly towards this field of hadith. In this modern age the world at large is deeply indebted to Imam Tirmidhi for his compilation of hadith. May Allah swt make it possible for all of us to benefit tremendously from this priceless collection of hadith.

عربي

t.b.d.

Books

t.b.d.

Burial Place

Muhammad ibn `Isa at-Tirmidhi was born during the reign of the Abbasid caliph al-Ma’mun. His year of birth has been reported as 209 AH (824/825).

Imam al-TIrmidhi died on Monday night, 13 Rajab 279 AH (Sunday night, 8 October 892) in Bugh. He is buried on the outskirts of Sherobod, a 60 kilometers north of Termez in Uzbekistan. [wiki]

Bio: Mawlay Idris II – The Founder of Fas

Bio: Mawlay Idris II - The Founder of Fas

Moulay Idris II – Founder of the City of Fas

سيدنا ومولانا إدريس الأزهر  
b. 157 H. – d. 213 H. in Fas

(more…)

Bio: Qadi ´Iyad

Bio: Qadi ´Iyad

Qadi ´Iyad

القاضي عياض بن موسى بن عياض اليحصبي
b. 476 – d. 544 H. in Marrakesh (1083 – 1149 CE)
may Allah be pleased with him

English

From dar-sirr
Among the great Moroccan influential advocates of the cult of the Holy Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) is the Patron Saint of Marrakech Sidi al-Qadi Abul Fadl Iyyad ibn Musa al-Yahsubi al-Sabti al-Maghribi (d. 544/1129), the premier Hadith scholar of the late Almoravid period and qadi al-jama’a of the cities of Granada and Sabta (“current occupied Ceuta, may Allah turn it to Dar al-Islam). A famous adage, of whom it was said, “Were it not for Iyyad Morocco would not have been mentioned,” the Qadi’s most famous work, Kitab Shifa bita’rif huquq al-Mustapha (The Antidote in knowing the rights of the Chosen Prophet), is a tradition based treatise that promotes the veneration of the Chieftain of the Universe, the Reason of Existence, the Seal of Prophethood and Messengership, Sidna Mohammed ibn Abdellah (peace and blessing be upon him) as the universal archetype of humanity. Al-Qadi Iyyad portrays the Holy Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) as a mortal man who was blessed with superhuman qualities. Although he acknowledges that the Holy Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) had human limitations, he restricts these to the Prophet’s outward or bodily aspects alone. With respect to his inner qualities, the Prophet had more in common with the divine than with other of his species. This is proven of Qadi Iyyad by the Prophet’s enjoyment of divine protection and his freedom from major sins and weaknesses. For al-Qadi Iyyad, Holy Prophet’s al-qudwa al-‘hasana (beautiful example) is a paradigm for religious and nonreligious behaviour alike. Thus the Prophet’s actions exemplifies the best of human undertakings: “the best manner of living, the most efficacious teaching, the most useful knowledge, and the finest of personal attributes”. Since many of these qualities pertain to the prophet’s inborn nature and cannot be duplicated by other human beings, al-Qadi Iyyad urges his readers to instead immolate Sidna Mohammed’s acquired virtues, such as his generosity, forebearness, bravery, good fellowship, moral standards, justice, asceticism, and God-consciousness.

عربي

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From shamela

عياض بن موسى بن عياض بن عمرون اليحصبي السبتي، أبو الفضل: عالم المغرب وإمام أهل الحديث في وقته.
كان من أعلم الناس بكلام العرب وأنسابهم وأيامهم. ولي قضاء سبتة، ومولده فيها، ثم قضاء غرناطة.
وتوفي بمراكش مسموما، قيل: سمه يهودي.

وجمع المقري سيرته وأخباره في كتاب «أزهار الرياض في أخبار القاضي عياض – ط» ثلاثة مجلدات من أربعة و «الإعلام بحدود قواعد الإسلام – ط» و «شرح حديث أم زرع – خ» جزء لطيف، في خزانة الرباط (1857 كتاني) والظاهرية بدمشق.


Books

Books on shamela
من تصانيفه
• «الشفا بتعريف حقوق المصطفى – ط»
• و «الغنية – خ» في ذكر مشيخته،
• و «ترتيب المدارك وتقريب المسالك في معرفة أعلام مذهب الإمام مالك – ط» أربعة أجزاء وخامس للفهارس،
• و «شرح صحيح مسلم – خ» [ثم طُبع]  
• و «مشارق الأنوار – ط» مجلدان، في الحديث،
• و «الإلماع إلى معرفة أصول الرواية وتقييد السماع – ط» في مصطلح الحديث وكتاب في «التاريخ».

كتب المصنف بالموقع

  1. الشفا بتعريف حقوق المصطفى – وحاشية الشمني
  2. الإلماع إلى معرفة أصول الرواية وتقييد السماع
  3. مشارق الأنوار على صحاح الآثار
  4. التنبيهات المستنبطة على الكتب المدونة والمختلطة
  5. الشفا بتعريف حقوق المصطفى – محذوف الأسانيد
  6. الغنية في شيوخ القاضي عياض
  7. ترتيب المدارك وتقريب المسالك
  8. إكمال المعلم بفوائد مسلم

Burial Place

Marrakesh

More

Bio: Sh. Abd al-‘Aziz al-Dabbagh

The Knowledge of Shaykh Abdul Aziz Dabbagh |  Sh. Hamza Yusuf

Sayyidi Shaykh Abd al-‘Aziz al-Dabbagh al-Hasani

الشيخ مولانا عبد العزيز الدباغ
b 1095 – d. 1131 H. (1718 CE) in Fas

(more…)

Bio: Sh. Abul Mawahib al-Shadhili | الشيخ أبو المواهب الشاذلي

Bio: Sh. Abul Mawahib al-Shadhili | الشيخ أبو المواهب الشاذلي

Sh. Abul Mawahib al-Shadhili

الشيخ أبو عبد الله محمد أبو المواهب التونسي الشاذلي الوفائي
d. 881 H. (? after 850) in Cairo

(more…)

Bio: Sh. Ahmad ibn Ajiba

Bio: Sh. Ahmad ibn  Ajiba

Sayyidi Shaykh Ahmad ibn Ajiba al-Hasani

سيدي الشيخ أحمد ابن عجيبة الحسني
d. 1224 H. (1809 CE) East of Tetuan

(more…)

Bio: Sh. Ibrahim al-Desuqi al-Husayni

Bio: Sh. Ibrahim al-Desuqi al-Husayni

Shaykh Ibrahim al-Desuqi al-Husayni

الشيخ سيدي إبراهيم الدسوقي
b – d. 675 H. (… CE) in Tanta
From the companions of Imam Abul Hasan al-Shadhili
may Allah be pleased with them

(more…)

Bio: Sh. Izz al-Din ibn ‘Abd al-Salam | سيدي عز الدين بن عبد السلام

Bio: Sh. Izz al-Din ibn 'Abd al-Salam | سيدي عز الدين بن عبد السلام

Sh. Izz al-Din ibn 'Abd al-Salam

الشيخ عز الدين بن عبد السلام
b. in Damascus 577 H. – d. 660 H. in Cairo, Egypt
radiya Allah anhu

(more…)

Bio: Sh. Muhammad ibn Habib al-Buzidi

Bio: Sh. Muhammad ibn Habib al-Buzidi

Sayyidi Shaykh Muhammad Ibn al-Habib Al-Buzidi

الشيخ محمد بن حبيب البوزيدي, سيدي محمد بن الحبيب بن عبد الله بن أحمد
b. 1239 – d. 1327 H. in Mustaghanim, Algeria (1824-1909 CE)

.


 

English

t.b.d.
 

عربي

Article on wiki, see also

محمد بن حبيب البوزيديهو سيدي محمد بن الحبيب بن عبد الله بن أحمد بن زيدان بن الصغير بن الجيلالي بن عبّو بن عبد الله بن أحمد بن أمحمد بن عبد الرحمن بن علي بن عبد المالك بن إبراهيم بن عامر بن عثمان بن إسحاق بن علي بن سيدي بوزيد الغوث (دفين آفلو وإليه ينسب لقب العائلة البوزيدية) بن علي بن المهدي بن سفيان بن يسّار بن موسى بن عيسى بن محمد بن موسى بن سليمان بن موسى بن محمد بن عيسى بن إدريس الأصغر بن إدريس الأكبر بن عبد الله الكامل بن الحسن المثنى بن سيدنا الحسن السبط بن سيدنا علي بن أبي طالب وسيدتنا فاطمة الزهراء بنت سيدنا النبي محمد رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم.

 

Photos

t.b.d.
 

Bio: Sh. Muhammad ibn Hasan ibn Hamza Zhafir al-Madani

Bio: Sh. Muhammad ibn Hasan ibn Hamza Zhafir al-Madani

Shaykh Muhammad ibn Hasan ibn Hamza Zhafir al-Madani

الشيخ محمد بن حسن ظافر بن حمزة ظافر
b. in al-Madina al-Munawwara – d. 1262 H. in Misrata (Libya)
qaddasa Allah sirrahu

He took the noble Shadhili Tariqa from Sayyidi Shaykh ‘Arabi al-Dirqawi al-Hasani.
He passed the path on to Sayyidi Shaykh Muhammad ibn Mas‘ud al-Fasi
May Allah be pleased with all of them

From Al-Futuhat

From: Tabaqat al-Shadhiliyya al-Kubra by al-Hasan al-Kuhan

His biography is found in the Futuhat1 of Sayyidi Sheikh Muhammad ibn Mas´ud al-Fasi, where he says:

I took the Shadhili tariqa from my Master and Teacher, who reared murids by himma and hal and brought them to the stage of realization by particular stages of progression, the Pole of the Circle, the Channel of provisions (al-Maddad al-Ghauth), the Unique Uniter (al-Jami´ al-Fard),the Sheikh, my Master Muhammad ibn Hamza al-Zhafir al-Madani – may his great secret be sanctified – year 1242 H., after the passing of his teacher [Sheikh Muhammad ´Arabi al-Darqawi d. 1239 H.] and his return from the Marokko to Tripoli. Then Allah joined me with him, and I took from his essential lights and his impelling knowledge – that is I took from the lights that poured down on him from the Presence of the Impellor (al-Jabbar) – for about eighteen years, and Allah made me benefit therefrom.

He – may Allah be pleased with him – was bringing forth saints in his court yard, as the earth brings forth plants when rain pours down on it. His character was the character of the Prophets, and his state was  that of the most elect of the elect of the saints and the pure. He – may Allah be pleased with him – was a Qutb, from whose lights the Qutbs are provided, and from whose oceans the noblest take provisions. Whoever looked at him was enriched, whoever knew him would not desire anyone else. He had wonderful states and strange secrets. He strove in the science of interactions (mu´amalat) until he reached the highest level, and he served the saints – until the most elect of the elect from amongst the saints and the pure ones served him. He traveled along this path for some twenty-five years in the far Maghrib (Morocco), until he reached the shores of ´ Ain Hamiyya, while serving by his own hands the Sheikhs and the righteous ones, while seeking the the settlement of Layla – until he found her people in Ha’it Layla, which is the name of a place where our Master Sheikh al-´Arabi [al-Darqawi] resided.

He – may his secret be sanctified – passed away in 1262 H. [*] and was buried in his zawiya. His maqam there is visited from by travellers from all places.

Allah, makes us benefit from him, and gather us under his flag. Amin.


(*) In the edition of Dar al-Bayruti of 2000, it is written 1242, however the year was 1262 as stated in al-Futuhat al-Rabbaniyya. /bmk

Türkçe

Seyyiduna Muhammed bin Hasan bin Hamza Zafir el-Medeni
Muhammed el-Fâsî Efendimiz (Allah Teâlâ ondan razı olsun), (tarikatı) şeyhi, büyük kutub, meşhur önder, Muhammed bin Hamza Zâfir el-Medenî Efendimizden (Allah Teâlâ ondan razı olsun) almıştır. Nitekim “Fütühât”ında ondan bahsetmiştir ve şöyle demiştir:

Şâziliyye tarikatını; H.1242 senesinde, hocasının (Şeyh Muhammed ‘Arabi al-Dirqawi v.1239) vefatından ve Mağrip’ten Batı Trablus’a dönüşünden sonra efendim, üstadım, müridleri himmeti ve hali ile terbiye eden, onları farklı ilerleyiş mertebeleriyle tahkik makamına ulaştıran, dâirenin kutbu (bir tasavvufi terim: Adn Cennetin’de, Hakkı görmek üzere insanların bir araya gelip toplanmış halde bulunuşuna verilen isim), medet ve yardım kanalı, Efendim Şeyh Muhammed b. Hamza Zâfir el-Medenî’den (Allah Teala aziz ruhunu takdis etsin) aldım. Allah Teala beni onunla buluşturdu ve ona has nurlarından ve ceberuta dair marifetlerini öğrendim. Böylece Cebbar olanın huzurunda onun ruhunun üzerine dolup taşan bu nurlardan takriben on sekiz sene iktibas etmiş oldum ve Allah Teala beni onunla faydalandırdı.

Allah ondan razı olsun, üzerine yağmur yağdığında toprağın yeşillikler bitirmesi gibi etrafında Allah dostları biterdi. Ahlakı enbiyanın ahlakıydı ve evliya ve esfiyadan hâs olanlara özgü halleri vardı. Sırları takdis edilsin kutup idi. Kutup zatlara uzanan nurları ve soylu kişilere ulaşan okyanusları vardı. Kim ona bakarsa o kişiyi zengin ederdi. Kim onu tanırsa ondan başkasını istemezdi. Ve harikulade hallere ve acayip sırlara sahipti. Yüksek makamlara ulaşana kadar muamelât ilminde gayret gösterdi. Evliyanın ve esfiyanın en seçilmiş olanlar ona hizmet edene kadar evliyaya hizmet etti. Bu tarik üzere, yaklaşık 25 sene ‘Ayn Hamiye sahillerine varana kadar Uzak Mağrip topraklarında dolaştı, Şeyhlere ve salih kimselere bizzat kendisi hizmet ederek ve Leylâ’nın yerini arayarak. Ta ki “Hâitu Leyla’da (Leyla’nın Duvarında)” onun ehlini bulana kadar. Hâitu Leyla, Efendimiz Şeyh el-Arabi’nin ebedi istirahat ettiği yer için (kullanılan) mekanın adıdır.

Sırrı takdis edilsin, H.1262* senesinde vefat etti. Ve Mısrata’daki zaviyesine defnedildi. Makamı Mısrata’tadır. Makamı her yerden ziyaretçi alır. Ey Allah’ım bizi onunla faydalanmayı nasip et ve bizi onun sancağı altında haşret. Amin.

(*) Dar al-Bayruti’nin 2000 yılına ait nüshasında yıl 1242 olarak belirtilmiştir, ancak Futuhat-ı Rabbaniyye’de 1262 olarak belirtilmiştir. /bmk

Referans: Tabakat el-Şaziliyye el-Kubra, El-Hasan el-Kuhin

عربي

Bio note:
للشيخ محمد حسن ظافر المدني (1864م) ولد بالمدينة المنورة، ثم جاء إلى المغرب وقابل الشيخ العربي الدرقاوي وصار أحد أتباعه ثم عاد إلى المدينة خليفةً عنه، ثم استوطن مصراتة ودفن بها، وترجع طريقته إلى الطريقة الشاذلية

للشيخ محمد حسن ظافر المدني (1864م) ولد بالمدينة المنورة، ثم جاء إلى المغرب وقابل الشيخ العربي الدرقاوي وصار أحد أتباعه ثم عاد إلى المدينة خليفةً عنه، ثم استوطن مصراتة ودفن بها، وترجع طريقته إلى الطريقة الشاذلية

Notes on turuq:

_ الإمام العارف بالله سيدي محمد بن حمزة ظافر المدني (ت . 1262 ) وعنه تفرعت الطرق التالية :
الدرقاوية المدنية واشهرت بالحجاز وليبيا
والدرقاوية اليشرطية واشتهرت ببلاد الشام وفلسطين و رودوس وتركيا وكان من أتباعها السلطان العظيم عبد الحميد خــان الثاني رحمه الله
و الدرقاوية الفاسية واشتهرت بالحجاز ومصر وسيرلانكا .

His sons

Sayyiduna Shaykh Muhammad ibn Hasan ibn Hamza Zhafir had three sons, who are buried in Istanbul
  • Shaykh Muhammad Zhafir (d. 1321 H. / 1903 CE) who was his khalifa in the Shadhili Path
  • Shaykh Hamza Zhafir (d. 1904 CE)
  • Shaykh Bashir Zhafir (d. 1909 CE)
  • Refs

    Damas Cultural Society © 2017
    Damas Cultural Society © 2007

    See seaprate entry on his son
    Sayyidi Shaykh Muhammad Zhafir
    b. 1244 in Misrata – d. 1321 H. in Istanbul (1829 – 1903 CE)

    Map

    Bio: Sh. Muhammad Zhafir (the son)

    Bio: Sh. Muhammad Zhafir (the son)

    Shaykh Muhammad Zhafir (the son)

    الشيخ محمد بن حمزة ظافر المدني
    b. 1244 in Tarablus, Misrata (Libya) – d. 1321 H. in Istanbul (1829 – 1903 CE)
    qaddasa Allah sirrahu

    (more…)

    Bio: Sh. Yaqut al-`Arshi

    Bio: Sh. Yaqut al-`Arshi

    Sayyidi Sh. Yaqut al-`Arshi

    الشيخ سيدي ياقوت العرشي
    b 627 – d. 707 H. (1307 CE) in Alexandria – qaddasa Allah sirrahu
    Teacher of Ibn `Ata Allah al-Sakandari after Sheikh Abul `Abbas al-Mursi

    .


     

    English

    1. From Al-Sha`rani: Al-Tabaqat al-Kubra (see below)
    2. From Kuhin: Tabaqat al-Shadhiliyya (see below)



    1. From Imam al-Sha`rani’s Al-Tabaqat al-Kubra
    Transl. by bmk / Damas Cultral Society © 2008 – view original page

    Sheikh Yaqut al-`Arshi– may Allah ta’ala be pleased with him – was the imam of the spiritual sciences, a worshipper and ascetic, and one of the greatest of those who took from Sheikh Abul`Abbas al-Mursi (radia Allah `anhu). The day he was born, in the lands of Habasha, Sheikh Abul`Abbas was informed of it, and he made a `asida for him. It was then summer time in Alexandria, and people said to him: “But `asida is only for winter time.” He answered: “This `asida is for your brother Yaqut al- `Arshi, who is born in the land of Habasha, and will come to you.” And so it happended.

    Yaqut al-`Arshi was the one who interceded for Sheikh Shams al-Din ibn al-Lubban (who disavowed Sheikh Ahmad al-Badawi, so that all his good deeds and rank were nullfied). Sheikh Shams al-Din had sought intersession from all the awlia, but Sheikh Ahmad al-Badawi did not accept it from anyone. Yaqut al-`Arshi then travelled from Alexandria to Tanta, and asked Sheikh Ahmad al-Badawi to change his opinion about Sheikh Shams al-Din, so that his rank may be returned to him, and Sheikh Ahmad al-Badawi complied to his request. – Later, Sheikh Yaqut al-`Arshi gave his daughter in marriage to Shams al-Din ibn al-Lubban, who made it his will , when he died, to be buried under her feet, out of respect for her father Sheikh Yaqut al-Arshi.

    He was called al-`Arshi, because his heart was constantly under the Throne of Allah – only his body was on the earth. It has also been said that it is because he heard the adhan from the Angels carrying the Throne of Allah.

    He interceded even for the animals. Once, when he was sitting in the circle of the fuqara, a dove came and sat on his shoulder, and said some secret words in his ear. Then he said: “Bismi Allah, we will send one of the fuqara with you.” The dove said: “Noone except you will satsify my need.” So he rode his mule from Alexandira to Misr al-`Atiqa (Cairo) and entered the Mosque of `Amr, saying: “Let me meet the Muadhdhin”. The Muadhdhin was sent for, and Sheikh Yaqut said to him: “This dove came to Alexandria and told me that you kill its young ones every time she gives birth to them in the Minaret.” The Muadhdhin said: “Yes, that is true. I have killed them several times.” Sheikh Yaqut said: “Don’t do it again.” The Muadhdhin said: “I repent to Allah ta`ala.” After that Sheikh returned to Alexandria – may Allah ta’ala be pleased with him.

    His virtues and glorious deeds are many and well known among the Shadhilis i Egypt and elsewhere. He passed away in Alexandria year 707 H. – may Allah ta’ala be well pleased with him.


    Sayyidi Yaqut al-´Arshi (d. 707/1307)
    2. From Kuhin: Tabaqat al-Shadhiliyya
    Translated by Ahmad Ali al-Adani as “Biographies of Prominent Shadhilis”

    He is Abu al-Durr b. ‘Abdullah al-Habashi [1]. He was a virtuous shaykh who commanded awe and reverence. An imam of gnosis, he was a devout worshipper and ascetic. He is counted among the most illustrious disciples of Shaykh Abu’l-‘Abbas al-Mursi. On the day of his birth in Abyssinia, Shaykh Abu’l-‘Abbas was informed of it. It was a summer day in Alexandria and he prepared ‘asida [a pasty thick gruel made from wheat flour and clarified butter for the newborn]. When told that ‘asida was only prepared in winter, he retorted, ‘This is the ‘asida of your brother Yaqut, who is born in Abyssinia, and will come to you.’ And so it happened.

    He was from those who interceded on behalf of Shaykh Shams al-Din b. al-Lubban, when the latter disavowed Sidi Ahmad al-Badawi, resulting in his own knowledge and spiritual state being taken away. Shaykh-Shams al-Din b. al-Lubban had sought the intercession of all other saints.149

    He was called al-‘Arshi because his heart was constantly under the Throne [Arsh], only his body being on the earth. It is also said that he would hear the adhan from the angels carrying the Throne.

    He even interceded on behalf of animals. One day, when he was sitting in a circle of dervishes, a dove came and sat on his shoulder, and then whispered some secret into his ear. He said: `Bismi Allah, we will send one of the devotees with you.’ The dove told him: ‘Only you will satsify my need.’ So he mounted his mule and journeyed from Alexandira to old Cairo and entered the Mosque of ‘Amr, saying: ‘Let me meet the caller to prayer [muadhdhin].’ The muadhdhin was sent for, and the shaykh said to him: ‘This dove told me in Alexandria that you kill its chicks whenever she gives birth to them in the minaret.’ The muadhdhin said: ‘Yes, this is true. I have killed them on several occasions.’ The shaykh said: ‘Don’t do it again.’ The muadhdhin said: ‘I repent to Allah Most High.’ After this, the shaykh returned to Alexandria, may Allah Most High be pleased with him.

    He has a legion of virtues that are well-known among members of the Shadhili Path in Egypt and elsewhere. He died in Alexandria on 18 Jumada II AH 707. He was eighty years old. His shrine in Alexandria — may Allah have mercy on him — is a site of pilgrimage for adults and children seeking spiritual graces. May Allah benefit us through him.

    Footnotes:
    [1] See his biography in Tabaqat al-Shadhiliyyat al-Kubra by Muhyi al-Din al-Tu`mi (p. 222).

    عربي

    1. From Imam al-Sha’rani: Al-Tabaqat al-Kubra (PDF) – View | Download
    2. From Kuhin: Tabaqat al-Shadhiliyya: View book | Download | Chapter [25] (see below)
    [25] سيدي ياقوت العرشي([1])
    (627- 707)

    أبو الدُّرّ بن عبد الله الحبشي كان شيخًا صالحًا، ذا هيبةٍ ووقار، إمامًا في المعارف عابدًا زاهدًا، وهو من أجل من أخذ عن الشيخ أبي العباس المُرسي رضى الله عنه.

    وأخبر به سيدي أبو العباس رضى الله عنه يوم ولدَ ببلاد الحبشة، وصنعَ له عصيدةً([2]) أيام الصيف في الإسكندرية، فقيل: إن العصيدةَ لا تكون إلا في أيام الشتاء. فقال: هذه عصيدةُ أخيكم ياقوت، ولد ببلاد الحبشة، سوف يأتيكم. فكان الأمر كما قال.
    وهو الذي شفع في الشيخ شمس الدين بن اللبان، لما أنكرَ على سيدي أحمد البدوي رضى الله عنه وسلبَ علمَه وحاله، بعد أن تَوسَّلَ بجميع الأولياء.

    وسُمِّي العرشي لأنَّ قلبَه كان لم يزل تحت العرش، وما في الأرض إلا جسده، وقيل لأنَّه كان يسمعُ أذانَ حملة العرش.

    وكان رضى الله عنه يشفعُ حتَّى في الحيوانات، وجاءته مرةً يمامةٌ([3])، فجلست على كتفه وهو جالس في حلقة الفقراء، وأسرَّتُ إليه شيئًا في أُذنه، فقال: بسم الله، ونرسل معك أحدًا من الفقراء. فقالت: ما يكفيني إلا أنت. فركب بغلةً من الإسكندرية، وسافر إلى مصر العتيقة، ودخل إلى جامع عمرو، فقال: اجمعوني على فلان المؤذن، فأرسلوا وراءه، فجاء، فقال: هذه اليمامة أخبرتني بالإسكندرية أنَّك تذبح فراخها كلَّما تُفرّخ في المنارة. فقال: صدقت، قد ذبحتُهم مرارًا. فقال: لا تعدْ. فقال: تبتُ إلى الله تعالى ورجع الأستاذ إلى الإسكندرية، رضي الله تعالى عنه.

    ومناقبه رضى الله عنه كثيرة مشهورة بين الطائفة الشاذلية بمصر وغيرها.

    توفي رضى الله عنه بالإسكندرية ثامن عشر جمادى الآخرة سنة سبع مئة وسبع عن ثمانين عامًا، ومقامه بالإسكندرية رحمه الله كعبةُ الزُّوار، تقصده الناس كبيرُهم وصغيرهم للزيارة والتبرُّك، نفعنا الله به.
    ([1]) الشيخ ياقوت العرشي المقيم بالإسكندرية، أبو الدر بن عبد الله الحبشي، إمامًا في المعارف، عابدًا، زاهدًا ولد سنة 627هـ بالحبشة. وتوفي بالإسكندرية سنة 707هـ [«طبقات الشاذلية الكبرى» ص222].
    ([2]) العصيدةُ: دقيق يخلط بالسمن ثم يطبخ.
    ([3]) اليمامةُ: جنسٌ من الطير من الفصيلة الحمامية ورتبة الحماميات.

    Photos

    maqam
    Mosque of Sheikh Yaqut al-´Arshi in Alexandria

    Map

    Interceding

    Interceding for the doves (PDF)
     
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    Bio: `Abd Allah b. Ja`far b. Abi Talib

    Bio: `Abd Allah b. Ja`far b. Abi Talib

    `Abd Allah b. Ja`far b. Abi Talib “al-Tayyar”

    “عبد الله بن جعفر بن أبي طالب “الطيار
    d. ~100 H. in Damascus
    radiya Allah anhu

    He is the son of Sayyiduna Ja`far b. Abi Talib, and the newphew of Sayyiduna `Ali ibn Abi Talib, as well as his son-in-law: he married Sayyida Zainab bint Ali b. Abi Talib. When sayyiduna`Ali established his caliphate in Kufa, he and his family went to join him there. Sayyida Zainab bore him four boys named `Ali, Mohammad (martyred on the lands of Karbala), `Aun (martyred on the lands of Kerbala) and `Abbas, and two girls.

    He has a maqam in Bab al-Saghir by the side of Sayyidina Bilal

    English

    t.b.d.
     

    عربي

    t.b.d.
     

    Refs

    References:
    bmk ziarat 2006
    ISC

    Damas Cultural Society © 2007

    Bio: `Isa b. `Abd al-Qadir l-Jilani | عيسى بن عبد القادر الجيلاني

    Bio: `Isa b. `Abd al-Qadir l-Jilani | عيسى بن عبد القادر الجيلاني

    Sh. `Isa b. `Abd al-Qadir l-Jilani

    الشيخ عيسى بن عبد القادر الجيلاني
    d.573 H. in Cairo
    may Allah preserve his secret

    After his father’s death, Shaikh ‘Isa left Baghdad and lived for a time in Syria. Then he moved to Egypt, where he stayed until the time of his death. He used to preach from the pulpit, and he was well received by the people. As in Damascus, he also gave lectures about his father.

    English

    Sayyidina ‘Isa ibn Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani
    From: Shaikh Muhammad Ibn Yahya at-Tadifi: Qala’id al-Jawahir;
    transl. by Muhtar Holland as “Necklaces of Gems” (al-Baz Publishing 1998), p.176-185. See mazaratmisr.org

    Shaikh ‘Isa studied Islamic jurisprudence under his father, from whom he also received instruction in other important subjects. He also attended the classes of Abu ’l-Hasan ibn Darami, as well as those of other leading scholars. He became a teacher, a lecturer, a preacher, and an expert legal consultant. He composed a number of literary works, including the book entitled Jawahir al-Asrar wa Lata’if al-Anwar [Jewels of the Mysteries and Subtle Aspects of the Lights], on the science of Sufism.

    He moved [from Baghdad] to Egypt, where he lectured and delivered sermons. More than a few inhabitants of that country acquired their training from him, including Abu Turab Rabi‘a ibn al-Hasan al-Hadrami as-Sana‘i, Musafir ibn Ya‘mar al-Misri, Hamid ibn Ahmad al-Irtaji, Muhammad al-Faqih al-Muhaddith, and ‘Abd al-Khaliq ibn Salih al-Qurashi al-Umawi al-Misri.

    As reported by Ibn an-Najjar, in his Ta’rikh [History]: “After his father’s death, Shaikh ‘Isa left Baghdad and lived for a time in Syria. While in Damascus, he attended the classes held by ‘Ali ibn Mahdi ibn al-Mufraj al-Hilali. That was in the year [A.H.] 562. He also gave talks about his father.

    “Then he moved to Egypt, where he stayed until the time of his death. He used to preach from the pulpit, and he was well received by the people. As in Damascus, he also gave lectures about his father. His sayings have been related by Ahmad ibn Maisara ibn Ahmad al-Hallal al-Hanbali.” (Here ends the quotation from Ibn an-Najjar.)

    It was al-Mundhiri who said: “Shaikh ‘Isa moved to Egypt, where he gave lectures and delivered sermons. It was in that country that he died.”

    Ibn an-Najjar has told us: “On the tombstone of ‘Isa, the son of Shaikh ‘Abd al-Qadir al-Jili, in the graveyard [qarafa] [below the Muqattam hills] near Cairo, I read the inscription: ‘He died on the 12th of Ramadan, in the year [A.H.] 573.’ Here is a sample of his poetry (may Allah bestow His mercy upon him):

    Convey my salutation to a land that dearly loved me, and tell them that the stranger is filled with ardent longing.
    If they ask you how I am, after leaving them behind, be sure to say: ‘He is burning in the fires of separation.
    For he has no companion to bring him near to you, nor can he find a way to make the long journey home.’
    Life is always hard for a stranger, in any foreign land, and who befriends the stranger, in countries not his own?

    عربي

    Books

    His sayings have been related by Ahmad ibn Maisara ibn Ahmad al-Hallal al-Hanbali.

    Damascus

    t.b.d.

    Cairo

    Book online | Ibn ‘Ata Allah: Taj al-‘Arus

    Book online | Ibn 'Ata Allah: Taj al-'Arus

    TAJ AL-'ARUS

    Refinement of the Souls
    By Ibn 'Ata Allah al-Sakandari
    تاج العروس الحاوي لتهذيب النفوس للإمام أخمد أبن عطاء الله السكندري

    Arabic: PDF | Beautiful Manuscript
    English: Transl. by Amjad mahmood PDF (archive.com) | Excerpt
    (more…)

    Book | Abu Talib al-Makki : Qut al-Qulub

    Book |  Abu Talib al-Makki : Qut al-Qulub

    Qut al-Qulub - Nourishment of the Heart

    By Abu Talib al-Makki

    أبو طالب المكي : قوت القاوبب

    Quut Quluub

    Dar al-Turath (40 MB)
    The Nourishment of the hearts - article
    (more…)

    Book | ‘Aqida Tahawiyya – العقيدة الطحاوية

    Book | 'Aqida Tahawiyya - العقيدة الطحاوية

    ´Aqida Tahawiyya

    The doctrine of Ahl al-Sunnah - Text and Commentaries
    By Imam Abu Ja`far al-Tahawi (d. 321 H.)
    العقيدة الطحاوية

    (more…)

    Book | Akhdari: Al-Sullam – السلم للأخضري

    Book | Akhdari: Al-Sullam - السلم للأخضري

    Akhtari: Sullam

    Didactic poem on Mantiq - The Science of Logic
    By Al-Akhdari
    السلم المنورق في علم المنطق للأخضري

    (more…)